Master Naturalist - Botany (4/10/14)

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My presentation for the botany session for the Southern Illinois Master Naturalist program on April 10, 2014.

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Master Naturalist - Botany (4/10/14)

  1. 1. Southern Illinois Master Naturalist Botany Instructor: Chris Benda Camel Rock at Garden of the Gods Wilderness
  2. 2. Christopher David Benda – Visiting Plant Ecologist, Illinois Natural History Survey Degognia Canyon – Jackson County
  3. 3. Photo credit – Randy Nyboer Statewide Project 5 Regional Ecologists
  4. 4. Illinois Native Plant Society Southern Chapter www.facebook.com/southernillinoisplants Technical Expert Consultant
  5. 5. The Flora of Southern Illinois PLB 451 – Plant Biology Dept. Southern Illinois University
  6. 6. Binomial Nomenclature “The beginning of wisdom is to call things by their rightful names.” Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animalia Cordata Reptilia Testudines Emydidae Emydoidea E. blandingii
  7. 7. Wildflower Quiz
  8. 8. Wildflower Quiz Answers 1. Dwarf Larkspur (Delphinium tricorne) 2.Marsh Mallow (Hibiscus lasiocarpos) 3.Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana) 4.Indian Pink (Spigelia marilandica) 5. Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) 6.Wild Potato Vine (Ipomaea pandurata) 7. St. Andrew’s Cross (Ascyrum multicaule) 8.Purple Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) 9.Starry Campion (Silene stellata) 10.Winged Monkeyflower (Mimulus alatus)
  9. 9. Plant Taxonomy •Non-Vascular •Early Plants (spores) •Archaeplastida (algae) •Bryophyta (mosses) •Marchantiophyta (liverworts) •Anthocerophyta (hornworts) •Vascular •Seedless plants •Pteridophyta (Ferns) •Equisetaceae (Horsetail) •Isoetaceae (Quillwort) •Lycopodiaceae (Clubmoss) •Marsileaceae (Water-Clover) •Selaginellaceae (Spikemoss) •Seed Plants •Gymnosperms (Conifers/Evergreens) •Juniperus, Pinus, Taxodium, Taxus •Angiosperms (Flowering Plants) •Monocots (Orchids, Lilies, Irises, Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, aquatic plants) •Dicots (most other flowering plants)
  10. 10. Gymnosperms Vs. Angiosperms
  11. 11. • 1. Gymnosperms (“Naked Seeds”): plants that don’t produce a protective fruit around the seed. • Ex: all the conifers-pines, cedar, spruce, and cypress.
  12. 12. • 2. Angiosperms (“Hidden Seeds”): flowering plants, seed is encased in a protective fruit. • This is the dominant group of plants on Earth today. • * Fruit- anything formed from the enlarged plant ovary.
  13. 13. Basic Plant Reproduction, Structure, and Terminology
  14. 14. Plants Monocot Vs. Dicot
  15. 15. One cotyledon in seed
  16. 16. Leaf veins form a parallel pattern
  17. 17. Flower parts in threes and multiples of three, irregular (nonsymmetrical)
  18. 18. Two cotyledons in seed
  19. 19. Leaf veins form a net pattern
  20. 20. Flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples
  21. 21. Seed MonocotsEudicots One cotyledon in seed FlowerRoot Root xylem and phloem in a ring Vascular bundles scattered in stem Leaf veins form aparallel pattern Flower parts in threes and multiples of three Flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples Leaf veins form anet pattern Vascular bundles in a distinct ring Root phloem between arms of xylemTwo cotyledons in seed Stem Leaf Monocot vs. Dicot
  22. 22. Flowers Perfect Vs. Imperfect
  23. 23. Two Types of Flowers: • 1. Perfect (Complete): flowers containing BOTH male (stamen) and female (pistil) sexual parts. • Automatically monoecious
  24. 24. • The male part is termed the Stamen which consists of the anther and filament. • The female part is the Pistil, which consists of the stigma, style and ovary.
  25. 25. • 2. Imperfect (Imcomplete): Flowers containing the reproductive parts of only one sex. • These imperfect flowers may be on the same plant (monoecious), • or on separate plants (dioecious).
  26. 26. Imperfect flowers Staminate Vs. Pistillate
  27. 27. Monoecious (one house) Vs. Dioecious (two houses)
  28. 28. Obligate (requires specific conditions for survival) Vs. Facultative (requires general conditions for survival)
  29. 29. Symbiosis Can Be One Of Two Conditions: • 1. Obligatory: one organism cannot live without the other. • 2. Facultative: can live symbiotically but can survive without one another.
  30. 30. Leaf Characteristics
  31. 31. Simple leaf, magnolia a. Simple versus compound leaves Pinnately compound leaf, black walnut Palmately compound leaf, buckeye b. Arrangement of leaves on stem Opposite leaves, maple Whorled leaves, bedstraw Alternate leaves, American beech Leaf Characteristics
  32. 32. Simple leaf, magnolia
  33. 33. Palmately compound leaf, buckeye
  34. 34. Pinnately compound leaf, black walnut
  35. 35. Alternate leaves, American beech
  36. 36. Whorled leaves, bedstraw
  37. 37. Opposite leaves, maple MADCapHorseBuck (buttonbush)
  38. 38. Handout on plant leaves
  39. 39. Plant Resources for Illinois Field Guide Books & Websites
  40. 40. Dichotomous Keys and Plant Collections
  41. 41. Erigenia link http://www.ill-inps.org/Erigenia T & E Species Link http://www.dnr.illinois.gov/ESPB/Documents/ETChecklist2011.pdf
  42. 42. Plant Taxonomy •Non-Vascular •Early Plants (spores) •Archaeplastida (algae) •Bryophyta (mosses) •Marchantiophyta (liverworts) •Anthocerophyta (hornworts) •Vascular •Seedless plants •Pteridophyta (Ferns) •Equisetaceae (Horsetail) •Isoetaceae (Quillwort) •Lycopodiaceae (Clubmoss) •Marsileaceae (Water-Clover) •Selaginellaceae (Spikemoss) •Seed Plants •Gymnosperms (Conifers/Evergreens) •Juniperus, Pinus, Taxodium, Taxus •Angiosperms (Flowering Plants) •Monocots (Orchids, Lilies, Irises, Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, aquatic plants) •Dicots (most other flowering plants)
  43. 43. Sphagnum Moss – Sphagnum compactum
  44. 44. Netted Chain Fern – Woodwardia areolata
  45. 45. Royal Fern – Osmunda spectabilis
  46. 46. Gladefern– Deparia acrostichoides
  47. 47. Mosquito Fern – Azolla mexicana
  48. 48. Shining Clubmoss – Huperzia lucidula
  49. 49. Scouring Rush – Equisetum hyemale
  50. 50. Gymnosperms Vs. Angiosperms
  51. 51. Illinois Gymnosperms • Cypressaceae – Cypress family – Juniperus – 3 species • communis (Ground Juniper, rare) • horizontalis (Trailing Juniper, rare) • virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar) – Thuja – 1 species • occidentalis (White Cedar, rare)
  52. 52. Red Cedar - Juniperus virginiana
  53. 53. Illinois Gymnosperms • Ginkgoaceae – Ginkgo family – Ginkgo – 1 species • biloba (Ginkgo)
  54. 54. Illinois Gymnosperms • Pinaceae – Pine family – Larix – 2 species • decidua* (European Larch) • laricina (Tamarack, rare) – Picea – 2 species • abies* (Norway Spruce) • mariana* (Black Spruce)
  55. 55. Illinois Gymnosperms • Pinaceae – Pine family – Pinus – 10 species • banksiana (Jack Pine) • echinata (Short-leaf Pine, rare) • nigra* (Austrian Pine) • resinosa (Red Pine, rare) • rigida* (Pitch Pine) • strobus (White Pine) • sylvestris* (Scots Pine) • taeda (Loblolly Pine) • 2 others
  56. 56. Illinois Gymnosperms • Taxaceae – Yew family – Taxus – 1 species • canadensis (Canada Yew, rare) • Taxodiaceae – Bald Cypress family – Taxodium – 1 species • distichum (Bald Cypress)
  57. 57. Big Cypress Access – Lower Cache River
  58. 58. Plant Humor Q. How can you ID a dogwood tree?
  59. 59. Plant Humor A. By its bark!
  60. 60. Gee whiz?! information If you can’t tell a joke about it, explain where the name comes from, or tell story about the plant then: WHO CARES!!!
  61. 61. Latin Pronunciation Pronounce every letter except diphthongs Echinacea, Tradescantia, Opuntia humifusa, Ambrosia artemisiifolia “ch” is a “k” sound Polystichum, Heuchera If a word has two syllables, the accent always goes with the next to the last (called the penult); e.g., Àcer. If a word has three or more syllables, the accent always goes either with the next to the last (penult) or the third from the last (called the antepenult). Synandra hispidula, Onoclea sensibilis, Liriodendron tulipifera phyllum – rhizophyllum, Podophyllum, triphyllum ae Pellaea atropurpurea, Arisaema au Daucus carota Eu Teucrium, Leucanthemum Oe (phoebe), Platanthera peramoena, Ipomoea Ui Equisetum “oi” is not a diphthong! Pleopeltis polypodioides Pronounce when ending with “e” Silene, canadense, sessile, hyemale Latinized last names (one or two i’s) Dodecatheon frenchii, Emydoidea blandingii Most trees have been feminized! Quercus rubra, Fagus grandifolia, Ulmus americana
  62. 62. BREAK
  63. 63. Common Plant Families Angiosperms Dicots & Monocots
  64. 64. Apiaceae (Carrot family)
  65. 65. Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed family)
  66. 66. Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed family)
  67. 67. Mead’s Milkweed – Asclepias meadii
  68. 68. Asteraceae (Composite family)
  69. 69. Prairie Dock - Silphium terebinthinaceum
  70. 70. Blazing Stars – Liatris scabra & aspera
  71. 71. False Dandelion - Krigia biflora
  72. 72. Boraginaceae (Borage family)
  73. 73. Boraginaceae (Borage family)
  74. 74. Marbleseed – Onosmodium molle var. hispidissimum
  75. 75. Brassicaceae (Mustard family)
  76. 76. Cactaceae (Cactus family)
  77. 77. Campanulaceae (Bellflower family)
  78. 78. Campanulaceae (Bellflower family)
  79. 79. Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family)
  80. 80. Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle family)
  81. 81. Caryophyllaceae (Pink family)
  82. 82. Fire Pink – Silene virginica
  83. 83. Convolvulaceae (Morning-glory family)
  84. 84. Crassulaceae (Stonecrop family)
  85. 85. Wild Orpine - Sedum telephioides
  86. 86. Cucurbitaceae (Gourd family)
  87. 87. Cuscutaceae (Dodder family)
  88. 88. Ericaceae (Heath family)
  89. 89. Wild Azalea - Rhododendron prinophyllum
  90. 90. Farkleberry – Vaccinium arboreum
  91. 91. Lowbush Blueberry - Vaccinium pallidum
  92. 92. Euphorbiaceae (Spurge family)
  93. 93. Fabaceae (Pea family)
  94. 94. Pencil Flower - Stylosanthes biflora
  95. 95. Caesalpiniaceae (Caesalpinia family)
  96. 96. Redbud - Cercis canadensis
  97. 97. Gentianaceae (Gentian family)
  98. 98. Lamiaceae (Mint family)
  99. 99. Hypericaceae (St. Johnswort family)
  100. 100. Lythraceae (Loosestrife family)
  101. 101. Malvaceae (Mallow family)
  102. 102. Onagraceae (Evening-primrose family)
  103. 103. Onagraceae (Evening-primrose family)
  104. 104. Orobanchaceae (Broomrape family)
  105. 105. Polemoniaceae (Phlox family)
  106. 106. Polygonaceae (Smartweed family)
  107. 107. Virginia Knotweed - Antenoron virginianum
  108. 108. Portalacaceae (Purslane family)
  109. 109. Primulaceae (Primrose family)
  110. 110. Ranunculaceae (Buttercup family)
  111. 111. Ranunculaceae (Buttercup family)
  112. 112. Rosaceae (Rose family)
  113. 113. Carolina Rose - Rosa carolina
  114. 114. Rubiaceae (Madder family)
  115. 115. Rubiaceae (Madder family)
  116. 116. Buttonbush – Cephalanthus occidentalis
  117. 117. Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon family)
  118. 118. Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon family)
  119. 119. Skullcaps – Scutellaria sp.
  120. 120. Valerianaceae (Valerian family)
  121. 121. Violaceae (Violet family)
  122. 122. Violaceae (Violet family)
  123. 123. Araceae (Arum family)
  124. 124. Araceae (Arum family)
  125. 125. Commelinaceae (Dayflower family)
  126. 126. Cyperaceae (Sedge family)
  127. 127. Iridaceae (Iris family)
  128. 128. Blue-eyed Grass – Sisrhynchium albidum
  129. 129. Juncaceae (Rush family)
  130. 130. Liliaceae (Lily family)
  131. 131. Orchidaceae (Orchid family)
  132. 132. Orchidaceae (Orchid family)
  133. 133. Adam & Eve Orchid – Aplectrum hyemale Cranefly Orchid -Tipularia discolor
  134. 134. Twayblade Orchid – Liparis lilifolia
  135. 135. Crested Coralroot Orchid– Hexalectris spicata
  136. 136. Poaceae (Grass family)
  137. 137. Rapid Color Guide
  138. 138. Rapid Color Guide
  139. 139. Wildflowers of Southern Illinois
  140. 140. 100 Best Nature Photos http://www.flickr.com/photos/100801363@N03/
  141. 141. Classification Exercise Flora of Southern Illinois name the group number in the dichotomous key you would go to for each of these species
  142. 142. Chris Benda botanizer@gmail.com www.facebook.com/illinoisbotanizer

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