Stages of Change ModelStage in transtheoretical Incorporating othermodel of change Patient stage explanatory/treatment modelsPrecontemplation Not thinking about change Locus of Control May be resigned Health Belief Model Feeling of no control Motivational interviewing Denial: does not believe it applies to self Believes consequences are not seriousContemplation Weighing benefits and costs of Health Belief Model behavior, proposed change Motivational interviewingPreparation Experimenting with small Cognitive-behavioral therapy changesAction Taking a definitive action to Cognitive-behavioral therapy change 12-Step programMaintenance Maintaining new behavior over Cognitive-behavioral therapy time 12-Step programRelapse Experiencing normal part of Motivational interviewing process of change 12-Step program Usually feels demoralizedInformation from Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Norcross JC. In search of how people change. AmPsychol 1992;47:1102-4, and Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing: preparing people tochange addictive behavior. New York: Guilford, 1991:191-202.
Youth PQA Pyramid of Program Quality engagement (IV-R) Youth have opportunities to reflect (IV-Q) Youth have opportunities to make choices based on interests (IV-P) Youth have opportunities to set goals and make plans (III-O) Youth have opportunities to partner with adults (III-N) Youth have opportunities to act as interaction group facilitators and mentors (III-M) Youth have opportunities to participate in small groups (IIII-L) Youth have opportunities to develop a sense of belonging supportive (II-K) Staff youth youth-centered approaches to reframe conflictenvironment (II-J) Staff support youth with encouragement (II-I) Staff support youth in building new skills (II-H) Activities support active engagement (II-G) Session flow is planned, presented, and paced for youth (II-F) Staff provides a welcoming atmosphere (I-E) Healthy food and drinks are provided (I-D) Program space and furniture accommodate activities (I-C) Appropriate emergency procedures and supplies are present (I-B) The physical environment is safe and free of health hazards (I-A) Psychological and emotional safety are promoted safe environmentHigh/Scope Educational Research Foundation • 734.485.2000 • Email: email@example.com • Web: youth.highscope.org
Effective Mentoring Notes extracted from Mentoring for Resiliency edited by Nan Henderson, Bonnie Benard, and Nancy Sharp-Light (2000).The Resiliency Wheel: Providing Caring & Support Teaching Life Skills Setting Clear & Consistent Boundaries Providing Opportunities for Meaningful Participation Setting and Communicating High ExpectationsCore to Successful Programs: caring, supportive, and empowering relationships are the mostimportant factors in moving youth from stressed to success. Resilience research points out overand over that transformational power exists not in programmatic approaches per se, but at thedeeper willingness to share power.Enlarge repertoire of problem solving skills and social skills within a context of an organized andpredictable environment that combines warmth and caring with a clearly defined structure andthe setting of explicit limits.Mentor Definition: The mentor is the resiliency catalyst responsible for ensuring that the processof building global self-esteem is realized. This process includes providing opportunities fordeveloping competencies in domains of perceived value and providing the approval for successesand support for failures in developing these competencies. Domains include: scholasticcompetence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct,job competence, romantic appeal, and close friendships.Characteristics of Effective One-to-One Mentoring Relationships Intensity and consistent time. Mentor believes that he/she there to meet the developmental needs of the youth. Reliable (showing up), trusting, caring, respectful, and reciprocal relationship. Concentrate on becoming friends and not telling young people what to do. Expand the scope of their efforts only as the relationship strengthens. Relationship enjoyable and fun to both partners. “There” for the young person, listening, nonjudgmental, looks for interests and strengths, and incorporates the youth in decision-making process. Not a prescriptive relationship: adult volunteers believe their primary purpose is guiding the youth toward the values, attitudes, and behaviors the adult deemed positive. Youth-centered approach: asking the youth what he/she needs and wants and then offering help as a shared activity, as well as the strengths-focus, sensitivity, and empathy. You have to become not so concerned about making a difference. The adult takes the responsibility for keeping the relationship alive. Pay attention especially for the youth’s needs for fun. Young men want sporting equipment and program to be interactive and activity oriented. Hold visions of proteges that they could not imagine for themselves. Crucial environmental protective factors: connection, competence, and contribution.
HIGH ANXIETYCHALLENGES FLOW OPTIMUM LEARNING BOREDOM LOW LOW HIGH SKILLS Adapted from Csikszentmihali
Understanding and Identifying Auditory, Visual and Kinesthetic Learning StylesAuditory Visual KinestheticIdentify sounds related Have a sharp, clear Develop a strong feelingto an experience picture of an experience towards an experience Do you make pictures in your headI hear you clearly, Do you feel what you are Do you have visual saying? images in your head asI want you to listen . . . you are talking and Are you in touch with listening to me?This sounds good what I am saying? Can you see what I am saying? How do you feel about this situation? How do you see the situation?How do you hear this Im getting a handle onsituation going? this material. What do you see stopping you?What do you hear that is Lets move together.stopping you? This looks good. Does what I am puttingSounds heavy. you in touch with feel Do you see what I am right? showing you? Sounds heavy.Word Selections Word Selections Word Selectionstinkling silent squeal color clear spiral showed felt body sensations feelblast screaming choking vivid notice pain touch FantasiesLectureDo you love me? Visuals complain: Kinesthetics complain: Auditories dont pay "Auditory and visualAuditories complain: attention to them people are insensitive."Kinesthetics dont listen. because they dont make eye contact.
Bike Repair Mentoring Tips No two people learn the same way. Ask each student what works best for them. People often take a step backwards before taking a big step forward. Both student and mentor have equal footing but mentors usually lead. Teach by example, even when clueless. Learning together teaches how to learn. Expect to be tested by students. Don’t take it personally. Consistency goes along way. Set boundaries as necessary. Respect boundaries. Ask permission of students. It’s okay to walk away when frustrated and return with a fresh perspective. Disrespectful language and behavior are not accepted. Make small goals, celebrate and acknowledge reaching them. Students do the work for themselves. Mentors help, participate, and guide. Expect that students don’t know how to be safe. Practice safety as a rule. When in doubt, ask for help! Ask students to show you how to solve bike repair problems. Assess the balance between student’s skills and level of challenge. Sometimes the bike chosen is too challenging to repair so pick an easier one. Never discard parts until the bike has been completely repaired and inspected. Keep dismantled parts organized in one space and in the installation order. Return all tools and parts bins to their home in the shop for others to use. Listen and watch for kids’ interests, strengths, challenges, and show interest. Learning and developing skills creates power of choice and opportunities.
Session #1: Introduction & Bike Repair Tools Bike Monkeys Community Bicycle centerIntroductions & Introductory Information Purpose of Bike Monkeys: skill building and mentoring Role of Mentors: learn alongside, monitor safety-respect-learning Creature Comforts: Bathrooms, time-away, personal space, learning style Safety (self & others), Emergency Evacuation Plan, and Injuries & First Aid Rights & Obligations: Respect, Learning, Honesty, Responsibility, Caring, and Safety Attendance requirementsClass Structure 1. Announcements & Session Goals per participant 2. Shop Chores & Tool Check 3. Bike Repair Skills Lesson 4. Individual Bike Repair Time on BRTP bikes 5. End-of-Session Duties: Tool Check, Station Clean up, Bike Space Clean-up, and Group Meeting (learnings, accomplishments, needs, and safety issues).Tool Usage: best – size – safety - use 1. Picking the “best” tool for the job: a. Cone Wrenches versus Adjustable versus Box End Wrenches: Instructional Aids – specified tools b. Cutting Cables, cutting Housing, and cutting spokes: Instructional Aids: Cable cutters, bolt cutters, Lineman Snips c. Picking the right Size tool: Instructional Aids – Match Parts Board with pre- selected tools 2. Safe tool usage – common injuries & first aid 3. Leverage Lessons: Instructional Aids - Leverage Balance & Opposing Bolts Ask about how to use a tool that you haven’t used before – Remember, if your gut tells you that you are about to do something unsafe, you are!Individual Bike Repair Time Dismantling bikes, recycling parts and storing useable partsBike Selection: preparation for Session #2 Type of cycling – type of bicycle Size – one inch rule Quality: frame – gears - brakes Condition: parts needed and mechanical skill level Demonstration of bike inspection process
Session #2: Rotational Systems – Bottom Bracket Community Bicycle Center - Bike Monkeys 2/16/20111. Bicycle Selection: we will just emphasize the correct sizing and not the other selection criteria Type of cycling: type of bicycle Size: one inch rule Quality: frame – gears - brakes Condition: parts needed and mechanical skill level2. Bike Inspection: we will just emphasize the frame, fork & rims and not entire inspection list □ Show-n-tell of damaged frames □ Show-n-tell of damaged forks □ Show-n-tell of damaged rims3. Lesson A: Rotational Systems (Formal Lesson) Major and minor rotational systems: Major: Bottom Bracket, Front & Rear Hubs, Headset Minor: Jockey Wheels, Pedals, Freewheel Six Parts of every rotational system: 1. Cup 2. Bearings 3. Cones 4. Grease 5. Axle 6. Locknut4. Lesson B: Bottom Brackets (Lesson Integrated into dyad bike repair time) One Piece Bottom Bracket Overhaul & Adjustment Three Piece Bottom Bracket Overhaul & Adjustment Sealed Bottom Brackets Left-Hand and Right-Hand Thread Lesson (possibly) Bottom Bracket Tools & associated parts matching activity (possibly) Guess what’s wrong with this bottom bracket part activity (possibly)5. Remove, Clean, Install, and Adjust Bottom Bracket and associated parts Tools: pedal wrench, crank puller, hook spanner, lock ring spanner, fixed cup remover, bottom bracket press, pin spanner, and socket wrench Keeping parts together in proper order on a red rag Save all old parts until bike system repair is completed Demonstration Parts: One-piece bottom brackets Three-piece bottom brackets Bottom bracket tools Right and left hand threaded parts Rotational Systems: adjusted too loose and too tight Worn and pitted parts: cups, spindles, and bearings
Session #3: Rotational Systems – Front & Rear Hubs Bike Monkeys Community Bicycle CenterCheck-in Question: Six parts of every Rotational System Any questions about Bottom Brackets from session #2? Plan for session #3 - HubsReview Rotational Systems: activity matching similar parts from three rotational systems Six Parts of every rotational system: 1. Cups 2. Bearings 3. Cones 4. Grease 5. Axle 6. LocknutActivity (Alternate): "Bike in a Box" Purpose: learn the names of the various parts and systems of a bikeLesson: Hubs □ Front hub disassembly and re-assembly show-n-tell □ Rear hub disassembly and re-assembly show-n-tell □ Worn hub parts show-n-tellDemonstration Parts: Front hub Rear hub with freewheel Rear hub with cassette Specialty tools: cone wrenches, freewheel & cassette removal tools and free hub removal wrench Hubs: adjusted too loose and too tight Worn and pitted parts: cups, cones, axles, and bearings
Session #4: Rotational Systems – Rear Hubs & Headsets Bike Monkeys Community Bicycle CenterCheck-in Questions: 1. Two parts of every bike that are left hand threaded? 2. What side of the bike do you remove hub locknut and cone? 3. How do you tell the difference between a freewheel and a cassette? Any questions about Front and Rear Hubs from session #3? Plan for session #4 - Complete Rear Hub Overhaul and Overhaul HeadsetsReview Rotational Systems: Activity matching six common parts from three rotational systems: Bottom bracket - hubs - headsetsLesson: Headsets □ Headset disassembly, inspection, re-assembly, and adjustment show-n-tell □ Bent forks show-n-tell: Paint blistering, cup/cone offset, and blades twisted □ Loosening stem quill bolt: loosed and hammer tap not remove □ Common mistakes: missing keyed washer, fork backwards, and stem removalDemonstration Parts: Headsets Fork mounted in head tube cut our of bike frame Bent forks within headsets and bent headset shells Work and pitted races and cupsDemonstration Tools: Headsets □ Hook spanner (lockring wrench) □ Headset wrenches (32mm) □ Slide hammer □ Headset press □ Channel-lock pliers □ Crown race remover □ Headset cup removerEnd of Session Routine: 1. Clean individual space 2. Clean group shop space 3. Circle up: safety issues & question of the night
Session #5: Wheels & Fixing Flats Bike Monkeys - Community Bicycle CenterCheck-in o Questions: o Any questions about any of the three rotational systems? o Plan for session #5: Flat fixing, wheel tru check and miscellaneous repairsLesson: Wheels & Fixing Flats o Examining rim: wear, bumps, lateral tru, and vertical true o Examining tires and tubes: types of flats o Commonmistakes: Not adjusting hub first, not seating bead in rim, forgetting axle safety washer and underinflating tubeDemonstration Toors: Rims, Tires & Tubes D Tire iron types D Patch Kits o Bead seating tool o Rim dent fixing toolDemonstration Parts: Rims, Tires & Tubes D Damaged & worn rims a Worn & damaged tires D Flat tubes & Presta/Schrader valuesMiscellaneous Repairs: o Seat & Seat Post: caliper use, post measurement & seat clamp orientation & angle o Reflectors: Front, Rear and Wheel o Chain: wear measurements, cleaning and lubricationEnd of Session Routine: 1. Clean individual space 2. Clean group shop space 3. Circle up: safety issues & question of the night 4. Announcement: Skating & Bikes on Ice Benefit
Session #6: Braking System Bike Monkeys Community Bicycle CenterCheck-in Questions: Any questions about Wheels, Fixing Flats and Chains from session #5? Plan for session #6 - Braking System overhaulLesson: Braking Systems □ Parts of the Braking System and Overhaul Process □ Tricks of the Trade: 1. Using rubber band to set tow-in 2. Setting brake pads first then installing cable Common Mistakes: 1. Balancing spring tension 2. Pads not centered on rim (hanging off or rubbing on tire) 3. Brake pads not toed-in (to prevent squeaky brakes) 4. Brake pads down or dried out 5. Missing parts (especially where they come in contact with the frame) 6. Missing cable cap 7. Used derailleur housing, not brake housing (derailleur housing is more rigid) 8. Spring tension not balanced (one pad rubbing on rim) 9. Cutting cable too short 10. Cable yoke sleeve on cantilever brakes not touching left brake arm 11. Brake pad not flat - rim wear line protrusionDemonstration Parts: Braking Systems Types: Cantilever, Linear pull and Disc Brake pad types and worn brake pads Brake versus gear cable housing Worn, frayed and rusted brake cablesDemonstration Tools: Braking Systems Third and fourth had tools Cable cutters with crimper Brake wrenches: 10mm Allen (hex) wrenches: 5mm Small flat edge screwdriver Linemans pliers Homemade awl (spoke or cost hanger)End of Session Routine: 1. Clean individual space 2. Clean group shop space 3. Circle up: safety issues & question of the night
Toe-in: The Old Elastic Around the Break Pad TrickHere is a little trick that we tried out and found to be a lot easier than using a piece of cardboard whentoeing in the brake pads...You will need:1. Brake pad2. Elastic3. Allen or socket wrenchStep 1: Ensure that your current break pad is okay to use-- it is not to worn and it is the correct breakpad for the particular bike that you are working with.Step 2: Wrap the rear 1/4 of your break pad with an elastic (see image)Step 3: Set break pad in designated break armStep 4: Press break pad against rim ensuring that the pad is aligned flush to the rim.Step 5: Tighten break pad in place and remove elastic.If the installation is done correctly your brake pads will be properly toed in (see image)
Session #7: Front & Rear Derailleurs Bike Monkeys Community Bicycle CenterCheck-in Questions: Any questions about Brake Systems session #6? Plan for session #7 - Derailleur systems overhaul and homemade toolsLesson: Derailleur Systems □ Parts of the Derailleur System and Overhaul Process □ Tricks of the Trade: 1. Set limit screws before installing cables 2. Put shifters in slack cable position then snug cable and secure pinch bolt 3. Flat head screwdriver doesnt strip limit screw heads as easily as Phillips screwdriver 4. Set barrel adjuster midway before installing cable 5. Check for bent rear derailleur hanger 6. Check for broken real derailleur jockey wheels and secure bolts Common Mistakes: Limit screws not set Frayed/corroded cable Sharp bends in cable housing Cable cap missing Used brake housing rather than derailleur Barrel adjuster all the way out or not installed Not adjusting barrel adjuster for intermediate gears on freewheel/cassette Plastic washer missing between "grip" shifter and handlebar grips Loosing small rapid fire shifter cover screws Some Grip Shifters do not need to be taken apart to change cablesDemonstration Parts: Derailleur Systems Types: Friction Shifters, Grip Shifters, and Rapid Fire Shifters Gear (compression less) versus brake cable housing (index shifting) Worn, frayed and rusted brake cablesDemonstration Tools: Derailleur Systems Cable Cutters with crimper Wrenches: 10mm and 9 mm Allen (hex) wrenches: 5mm Small flat edge screwdriver Small Phillips head screwdriver Linemans pliers Homemade awl (spoke or coat hanger)Filler Activity: Making Homemade Tools 1. Chain whip 2. Fifth hand tool (chain holder) 3. AwlEnd of Session Routine:
1. Clean individual space2. Clean group shop space
Bicycle Repair Checklist Common Unnoticed Issues Frame & Fork 1. Bent derailleur hanger drop-out Bottom Bracket, Cranks, & Pedals 1. Bearing play 2. Loose or missing lockring 3. Crankarms not securely fastened 4. Bent chainrings 5. Pedals not securely fastened Front Hub 1. Locknut missing 2. Locknut not tightened against cone 3. Bearing play Rear Hub 1. Locknut missing 2. Locknut not tightened against cone 3. Bearing play Freewheel or Cassette Headset 1. Lockring not securely fastened 2. Bearing play Front Rim & Tire 1. Valve stem not perpendicular to rim 2. Tire underinflated 3. Tire bead not seated into rim 4. Wheel not centered in frame 5. Quick release levers closed backwards 6. Safety catch washers missing 7. Valve cap missing Rear Rim & Tire 1. Valve stem not perpendicular to rim 2. Tire underinflated 3. Tire bead not seated into rim 4. Wheel not centered in frame 5. Quick release levers closed backwards 6. Missing cable cap 7. Valve cap missing Front Brakes 1. Spring tension between brake arms not balanced 2. Pads not centered on rim 3. Brake pads not toed-in to prevent squealing 4. Brake pads worn into un-flat pattern 5. Missing concave and convex parts 6. Missing cable cap 7. Must use brake housing not gear housing Rear Brakes 1. Spring tension between brake arms not balance 2. Pads not centered on rim 3. Brake pads not toed-in to prevent squealing 4. Brake pads worn into un-flat pattern
5. Missing concave and convex parts 6. Must use brake housing not gear housing Chain 1. Not cleaned 2. Not lubricated 3. Too much lubrication 4. Links too tight Front Derailleur & Cable 1. Limit screws not set properly 2. Cable needs replacement 3. Bends in cable housing 4. Cable cap missing 5. Must use gear housing when applicable 6. Must use gear ferrules when applicable Rear Derailleur & Cable 1. Limit screws not set properly 2. Cable needs replacement 3. Bends in cable housing 4. Cable cap missing 5. Must use gear housing when applicable 6. Must use gear ferrules when applicable 7. Not setting barrel adjuster for proper chain shifting Handlebars, Stem, Grips, & Levers 1. Bar end plugs missing 2. Stem not sufficiently secured 3. Stem higher than safety marks 4. Levers not secured 5. Levers not positioned correctly Seat & Seat Post 1. Seat post not cleaned and greased 2. Seat post higher than safety marks Reflectors 1. Wheel reflectors not opposite valve stem 2. Wheel reflectors not positioned close to rim 3. Front & Rear reflectors not positioned correctly
Behavior Management Plan Community Bicycle CenterBehavioral Guiding Principles: Right to be Respected Right to be Safe Right to Learn Obligation to be Caring Obligation to be Honest Obligation to be Responsible Every person involved in the Community Bicycle Center will be guided by these rights and obligations. All behavior management decisions will be based on these rights and obligations. The CBC believes in focusing on the behaviors that we want to live by rather than developing rules based on behaviors we do not want to see, hear, or experience. Focusing on what we want will extinguish what we do not want. We teach respectful, safe, and learning behaviors within the context of mentor-protégé relationships and the bike shop environment. Aspects of the Right to be Respected: Calling in if you will be absent or late. “Listening to understand” others thoughts and ideas. Admitting your mistakes. They are necessary for learning. Thanking others for helping you. Asking permission before interrupting a conversation. Using only the spaces, tools, and parts we have been granted permission to use. Remaining aware of each person’s physical space and work space. Aspects of the Right to be Safe: Asking and learning how to use tools safely. Wearing safety gear appropriate for the job. Telling each other when you notice something unsafe. Keeping your work area clean and organized. Taking a break when you are feeling frustrated or angry. Letting a mentor know when you are hurt or injured. Aspects of the Right to Learn: Keeping your mind and body healthy – eat food, drink water, get sleep. Learning what teaching style best addresses your learning style. Letting others learn for themselves unless they ask for help. Challenging yourself to figure out problems before asking for help.
Progressive Behavior Management PlanLevel 1: Reminder (a.k.a. warning) of specific right (a.k.a. rule) violated and the expectedbehavior.Level 2: Second Reminder of specific right violated, the expected behavior, and Level Three.Level 3: Time Away (a.k.a. Time Out) – Purpose of Time Away is for child to be removed fromstimulation, calm down, and regroup to successfully re-integrate into the group. Time Awayoccurs in a specified location for five minutes. Child returns to the group after processing/reflectionsession with program Director or Lead Mentor. Time Away Form or structure must be completedwith child which includes three questions: What happened as if we replayed a video tape of theevents before and during the specific right violation? What was the issue for you that contributed toyour right violation? What do you need to do to return to working in the shop to in a safe,respectful, and learning manner? Remind and describe to them the Level Four consequences.Level 4: Removal (a.k.a. suspended) from the session – The child is taken with the ProgramDirector or Lead Mentor to the office. Parents/Guardian is called to pick up the child. A meeting isscheduled with the child to develop a behavioral contract prior to returning to the program foranother session. The behavioral contact outlines the specific behaviors expected, methods ofsucceeding, and consequences for the initial violation.Level 5: Terminated from the program – This step occurs if the behavioral contract is not satisfied.The child can re-apply for a future program. The Absolute, 100% No’s ♦ No Smoking ♦ No Drugs/Alcohol ♦ No Hitting – No Violence – No Abusive Anger – No Threats ♦ No Knives – No Weapons ♦ No StealingAny child that engages in any of the Absolute, 100% No’s proceeds immediately to Level 4 or 5 on the Progressive Behavior Management Plan.
Lost Tool Replacement Policy Community Bicycle Center At the start of each Earn-a-Bike class, the mentor instructors and students checkto see that all the tools are in place on each mechanics bench. At the end of each class,this check is repeated. If any tool has disappeared during a class, the mentor instructorsand students all split the cost of replacing the tool. This system encourages all of us totake responsibility for the care and organization of our bicycle repair tools and deterspermanent borrowing (a.k.a. theft). You should be aware that by joining this class, youare entering into a group and individual responsibility for these specialty bicycle tools.There is the possibility of some additional expense to you if tools are lost while yourgroup is using them. If a tool is missing at the end of a class tool check the cost of the tool and eachperson’s financial responsibility will be determined. Each group member must contributehis/her share of the replacement cost at this time or before participating in the next class.The range in cost to each member will typically range between one and three dollarsdepending on the tool lost and the number of class members. Previous Earn-a-Bikeparticipants brainstormed the following ideas to help individual group members that donot have easy access to money to pay for their share of the replacement cost: 1) collectand redeem bottles and cans; 2) borrow money from the shop tools spare changecollection box; 3) perform work chores for someone in your neighborhood; 4) fix a biketo sell; or 5) volunteer at the Earn-a-Bike shop.I, __________________________________ (participant) have read, understand, andagree to the Earn-a-Bike Lost Tool Replacement Policy.____________________________________ ______________________________ Participant Date____________________________________ ______________________________ Signature Parent/Guardian Date