Chapter 29 Europe and America 1700 - 1800 Rococo,  The Enlightenment, Neoclassicism
Napoleonic Europe 1800-1815
The US in 1800
<ul><li>Profound changes politically and culturally in Europe and America </li></ul><ul><li>The spread of the luxurious an...
Rococo:  The French Taste <ul><li>Examine the luxurious artistic expressions of  salon culture  which culminated in the st...
Figure 29-2  GERMAIN BOFFRAND, Salon de la Princesse, with painting by CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE and sculpture by J. B. LEMOI...
Figure 29-3  FRANÇOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace park, Munich, Germany, early 18th...
Figure 29-5  ANTOINE WATTEAU, L’Indifférent, ca. 1716. Oil on canvas, approx. 10” x 7”. Louvre, Paris.
HYACINTHE RIGAUD, Louis XIV, 1701. Oil on canvas, approx. 9’ 2” x 6’ 3”. Louvre, Paris. Baroque
Figure 29-6  ANTOINE WATTEAU, Return from Cythera, 1717–1719. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 3” x 6’ 4”. Louvre, Paris.
 
Three Studies of a Lady with a Hat c. 1715 Chalk on paper, 210 x 313 mm Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
Rubens, Garden of Love c. 1633 Oil on canvas, 198 x 283 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
Giorgione, Pastoral Symphony
Gilles 1718-20 Oil on canvas, 184,5 x 149,5 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
Figure 29-7  FRANÇOIS BOUCHER, Cupid a Captive, 1754. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ 6” x 2’ 10”. The Wallace Collection, Londo...
Rubens, Allegory of War, Flemish, Baroque
Figure 29-1  JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD, The Swing, 1766. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 11” x 2’ 8”. The Wallace Collection, London.
Scientific Art of the Enlightenment <ul><li>The motivation of the Enlightenment and the interest in science and the natura...
WILLIAM HUNTER, Child in Womb, drawing from dissection of a woman who died in the ninth month of pregnancy, from Anatomy o...
 
Figure 29-10  JOSEPH WRIGHT OF DERBY, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery (in which a lamp is put in place of the...
Figure 29-11  ABRAHAM DARBY III and THOMAS F. PRITCHARD, iron bridge at Coalbrookdale, England (first cast-iron bridge ove...
The Taste for the  Natural <ul><li>The philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in contrast to Voltaire, his interest in the ‘...
Figure 29-13  JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE, The Village Bride, 1761. Oil on canvas, 3’ x 3’ 10 1/2”. Louvre, Paris.
Figure 29-12  JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIMÉON CHARDIN, Grace at Table, 1740. Oil on canvas, 1’ 7” x 1’ 3”. Louvre, Paris.  The  Natur...
Chardin, The Ray 1728 Oil on canvas, 114 x 146 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
Figure 29-14  ÉLISABETH LOUISE VIGÉE-LEBRUN, Self-Portrait, 1790. Oil on canvas, 8’ 4” x 6’ 9”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Flo...
ÉLISABETH LOUISE VIGÉE-LEBRUN, Self-Portrait,
Figure 29-15  WILLIAM HOGARTH, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, ca. 1745. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 4” x 3’.  htt...
Terms and Conditions
The Tête à Tête
The Inspection
The Toilette
The Bagnio
The Lady's Death
The English  Grand Manner  Portrait <ul><li>The English  Grand Manner  portrait as an expression of the  natural taste  in...
Figure 29-16  THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1787. Oil on canvas, approx. 7’ 2 5/8” x 5’ 5/8”. Natio...
THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH , Mrs Sarah Siddons 1785 Oil on canvas, 126 x 99,5 cm National Gallery, London
Figure 29-17  SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS, Lord Heathfield, 1787. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 8” x 3’ 9”. National Gallery, London.
Sir Joshua Reynolds Portrait of Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse,  exhibited 1784.
 
Figure 29-18  BENJAMIN WEST, The Death of General Wolfe, 1771. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ x 7’ National Gallery of Canada, ...
 
Figure 29-19  JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, Portrait of Paul Revere, ca. 1768–1770. Oil on canvas, 2’ 11 1/8” x 2’ 4”. Museum of ...
John Singleton Copley Watson and the Shark , 1778,, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
 
Figure 29-20  ANTONIO CANALETTO, Riva  degli  Schiavoni, Venice, ca. 1740. Oil on canvas. The Toledo Museum of Art Italian...
Neoclassicism (Revival of Classicism) <ul><li>The discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii create an interest in classical art...
Fig, 29-21 Robert Adam, Etruscan Room, Osterley Park House, Middlesex, England, begun 1761. Victoria and Albert Museum in ...
Figure 29-22  ANGELICA KAUFFMANN, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures, or Mother of the Gracchi, ca. 1785. O...
Figure 29-23  JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas, approx. 11’ x 14’. Louvre, Paris.
 
The Three Horatii Brothers 1785 Black chalk, wash and white highlights,  580 x 450 mm Musée Bonnat, Bayonne
 
 
 
David, The Death of Socrates 1787 Oil on canvas, 130 x 196 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Figure 29-24  JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, The Death of Marat, 1793. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ 3” x 4’ 1”. Musées Royaux des Beaux...
 
 
Figure 33-55  PIET MONDRIAN, Composition in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930. Oil on canvas, 2’ 4 5/8” x 1’ 9 1/4”. Private Col...
 
David, Madame Récamier 1800 Oil on canvas, 173 x 244 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
Neoclassical Art and Architecture  Early 18 th  century <ul><li>Understand classical elements of art and architecture, Pal...
Figure 29-25  JACQUES-GERMAIN SOUFFLOT, the Panthéon (Sainte-Geneviève), Paris, France, 1755–1792.
 
Figure 28-27  RICHARD BOYLE (earl of Burlington) and WILLIAM KENT, Chiswick House, near London, England, begun 1725. Briti...
Figure 22-56  ANDREA PALLADIO, Villa Rotonda (formerly Villa Capra), near Vicenza, Italy, ca. 1566–1570.
 
 
Figure 28-27  Alternate View Principal Facade with entrance gate © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
 
 
Figure 28-31  THOMAS JEFFERSON, Monticello, Charlottesville, United States, 1770–1806. Monticello The Neoclassical in the ...
 
 
 
 
The University of Virginia Monticello
Figure 28-32  Drawing of view of Washington, 1852, showing BENJAMIN LATROBE’S Capitol (1803–1807) and MAJOR L’ENFANT’S pla...
<ul><li>Rococo </li></ul><ul><li>aristocratic style, delicate, soft, moody, themes of love and seduction </li></ul><ul><li...
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Rococo and Neoclassicism

  1. 1. Chapter 29 Europe and America 1700 - 1800 Rococo, The Enlightenment, Neoclassicism
  2. 2. Napoleonic Europe 1800-1815
  3. 3. The US in 1800
  4. 4. <ul><li>Profound changes politically and culturally in Europe and America </li></ul><ul><li>The spread of the luxurious and decorative style known as Rococo.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rococo – aristocratic style, delicate, soft, moody, themes of love and seduction </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment helped to make the political changes with its emphasis on critical thinking independent from the Church. Reason, empirical evidence, and scientific questioning of established beliefs - Voltaire </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings that reflect societies interest in science – Wright of Derby </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau’s emphasis on the “natural,” feelings, and emotion – paintings of peasants, quiet mundane subject, or narratives of life stories </li></ul><ul><li>Neoclassicism and Romanticism in the early 19 th century Europe and America. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for the broad range of subject matter, from portraits and landscape to mythology and history. </li></ul><ul><li>The initial reaction by artists and the public to the new art medium known as photography </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rococo: The French Taste <ul><li>Examine the luxurious artistic expressions of salon culture which culminated in the style known as Rococo. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the completeness of the style, in decorations, accessories, paintings and sculpture, interiors, and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the extreme development of the Rococo style in Germany. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 29-2 GERMAIN BOFFRAND, Salon de la Princesse, with painting by CHARLES-JOSEPH NATOIRE and sculpture by J. B. LEMOINE, Hôtel de Soubise, Paris, France, 1737–1740.
  7. 7. Figure 29-3 FRANÇOIS DE CUVILLIÉS, Hall of Mirrors, the Amalienburg, Nymphenburg Palace park, Munich, Germany, early 18th century.
  8. 8. Figure 29-5 ANTOINE WATTEAU, L’Indifférent, ca. 1716. Oil on canvas, approx. 10” x 7”. Louvre, Paris.
  9. 9. HYACINTHE RIGAUD, Louis XIV, 1701. Oil on canvas, approx. 9’ 2” x 6’ 3”. Louvre, Paris. Baroque
  10. 10. Figure 29-6 ANTOINE WATTEAU, Return from Cythera, 1717–1719. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 3” x 6’ 4”. Louvre, Paris.
  11. 12. Three Studies of a Lady with a Hat c. 1715 Chalk on paper, 210 x 313 mm Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels
  12. 13. Rubens, Garden of Love c. 1633 Oil on canvas, 198 x 283 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
  13. 14. Giorgione, Pastoral Symphony
  14. 15. Gilles 1718-20 Oil on canvas, 184,5 x 149,5 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
  15. 16. Figure 29-7 FRANÇOIS BOUCHER, Cupid a Captive, 1754. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ 6” x 2’ 10”. The Wallace Collection, London.
  16. 17. Rubens, Allegory of War, Flemish, Baroque
  17. 18. Figure 29-1 JEAN-HONORÉ FRAGONARD, The Swing, 1766. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 11” x 2’ 8”. The Wallace Collection, London.
  18. 19. Scientific Art of the Enlightenment <ul><li>The motivation of the Enlightenment and the interest in science and the natural world and its effect on artistic expression. </li></ul><ul><li>The philosophical concepts of Voltaire as they relate to artistic expression. </li></ul><ul><li>The early applications of technology and scientific advancements to art. </li></ul><ul><li>The expression of scientific ideas in art , and art as recording observations in the natural world. </li></ul>
  19. 20. WILLIAM HUNTER, Child in Womb, drawing from dissection of a woman who died in the ninth month of pregnancy, from Anatomy of the Human Gravid Uterus, 1774.
  20. 22. Figure 29-10 JOSEPH WRIGHT OF DERBY, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery (in which a lamp is put in place of the sun), ca. 1763–1765. Oil on canvas, 4’ 10” x 6’ 8”. Derby Museums and Art Gallery, Derby, Derbyshire.
  21. 23. Figure 29-11 ABRAHAM DARBY III and THOMAS F. PRITCHARD, iron bridge at Coalbrookdale, England (first cast-iron bridge over the Severn River), 1776–1779. 100’ span.
  22. 24. The Taste for the Natural <ul><li>The philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in contrast to Voltaire, his interest in the ‘natural’ as opposed to the ‘artificial,’ and artistic expression of these ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>The different styles of the “natural” in France, England, the United States, and in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>The choices of ‘ordinary’ life, the natural world, and sentimentality as subjects in art. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Figure 29-13 JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE, The Village Bride, 1761. Oil on canvas, 3’ x 3’ 10 1/2”. Louvre, Paris.
  24. 26. Figure 29-12 JEAN-BAPTISTE-SIMÉON CHARDIN, Grace at Table, 1740. Oil on canvas, 1’ 7” x 1’ 3”. Louvre, Paris. The Natural Taste in France
  25. 27. Chardin, The Ray 1728 Oil on canvas, 114 x 146 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
  26. 28. Figure 29-14 ÉLISABETH LOUISE VIGÉE-LEBRUN, Self-Portrait, 1790. Oil on canvas, 8’ 4” x 6’ 9”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  27. 29. ÉLISABETH LOUISE VIGÉE-LEBRUN, Self-Portrait,
  28. 30. Figure 29-15 WILLIAM HOGARTH, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, ca. 1745. Oil on canvas, approx. 2’ 4” x 3’. http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/cgi-bin/WebObjects.dll/CollectionPublisher.woa/wa/work?workNumber=NG113 The Natural Taste in England
  29. 31. Terms and Conditions
  30. 32. The Tête à Tête
  31. 33. The Inspection
  32. 34. The Toilette
  33. 35. The Bagnio
  34. 36. The Lady's Death
  35. 37. The English Grand Manner Portrait <ul><li>The English Grand Manner portrait as an expression of the natural taste in Rococo form. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Figure 29-16 THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1787. Oil on canvas, approx. 7’ 2 5/8” x 5’ 5/8”. National Gallery of Art, Washington (Andrew W. Mellon Collection).
  37. 39. THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH , Mrs Sarah Siddons 1785 Oil on canvas, 126 x 99,5 cm National Gallery, London
  38. 40. Figure 29-17 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS, Lord Heathfield, 1787. Oil on canvas, approx. 4’ 8” x 3’ 9”. National Gallery, London.
  39. 41. Sir Joshua Reynolds Portrait of Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, exhibited 1784.
  40. 43. Figure 29-18 BENJAMIN WEST, The Death of General Wolfe, 1771. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ x 7’ National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa (gift of the Duke of Westminster, 1918). Natural Taste in the United States
  41. 45. Figure 29-19 JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, Portrait of Paul Revere, ca. 1768–1770. Oil on canvas, 2’ 11 1/8” x 2’ 4”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (gift of Joseph W., William B., and Edward H. R. Revere).
  42. 46. John Singleton Copley Watson and the Shark , 1778,, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
  43. 48. Figure 29-20 ANTONIO CANALETTO, Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice, ca. 1740. Oil on canvas. The Toledo Museum of Art Italian Natural Taste and Tourism
  44. 49. Neoclassicism (Revival of Classicism) <ul><li>The discovery of Herculaneum and Pompeii create an interest in classical art. </li></ul><ul><li>The formal elements of classical art and their revival in 19 th century art and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Neoclassical art and architecture in France, England, and in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The adaptation of classical and mythological subject matter in Neoclassical art. </li></ul>
  45. 50. Fig, 29-21 Robert Adam, Etruscan Room, Osterley Park House, Middlesex, England, begun 1761. Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
  46. 51. Figure 29-22 ANGELICA KAUFFMANN, Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures, or Mother of the Gracchi, ca. 1785. Oil on canvas, 3’ 4” x 4’ 2”. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond (the Adolph D. and Wilkins C. Williams Fund). Neoclassical Art in France
  47. 52. Figure 29-23 JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, Oath of the Horatii, 1784. Oil on canvas, approx. 11’ x 14’. Louvre, Paris.
  48. 54. The Three Horatii Brothers 1785 Black chalk, wash and white highlights, 580 x 450 mm Musée Bonnat, Bayonne
  49. 58. David, The Death of Socrates 1787 Oil on canvas, 130 x 196 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  50. 59. Figure 29-24 JACQUES-LOUIS DAVID, The Death of Marat, 1793. Oil on canvas, approx. 5’ 3” x 4’ 1”. Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels.
  51. 62. Figure 33-55 PIET MONDRIAN, Composition in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930. Oil on canvas, 2’ 4 5/8” x 1’ 9 1/4”. Private Collection.
  52. 64. David, Madame Récamier 1800 Oil on canvas, 173 x 244 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
  53. 65. Neoclassical Art and Architecture Early 18 th century <ul><li>Understand classical elements of art and architecture, Palladian influence, and their revival in 19 th century England. </li></ul>
  54. 66. Figure 29-25 JACQUES-GERMAIN SOUFFLOT, the Panthéon (Sainte-Geneviève), Paris, France, 1755–1792.
  55. 68. Figure 28-27 RICHARD BOYLE (earl of Burlington) and WILLIAM KENT, Chiswick House, near London, England, begun 1725. British Crown Copyright.
  56. 69. Figure 22-56 ANDREA PALLADIO, Villa Rotonda (formerly Villa Capra), near Vicenza, Italy, ca. 1566–1570.
  57. 72. Figure 28-27 Alternate View Principal Facade with entrance gate © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
  58. 75. Figure 28-31 THOMAS JEFFERSON, Monticello, Charlottesville, United States, 1770–1806. Monticello The Neoclassical in the United States
  59. 80. The University of Virginia Monticello
  60. 81. Figure 28-32 Drawing of view of Washington, 1852, showing BENJAMIN LATROBE’S Capitol (1803–1807) and MAJOR L’ENFANT’S plan (created in 1791) of the city.
  61. 82. <ul><li>Rococo </li></ul><ul><li>aristocratic style, delicate, soft, moody, themes of love and seduction </li></ul><ul><li>Profound changes politically and culturally in Europe and America </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment helped to make the political changes with its emphasis on critical thinking independent from the Church. Reason, empirical evidence, and scientific questioning of established beliefs - Voltaire </li></ul><ul><li>Paintings that reflect societies interest in science – Wright of Derby </li></ul><ul><li>Rousseau’s emphasis on the “natural,” feelings, and emotion – paintings of peasants, quiet mundane subject, or narratives of life stories </li></ul><ul><li>Neoclassicism </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in antiquity – culturally, politically and artistically as an embodiment of the perfect society -- reinforces Enlightenment thought and Voltaire </li></ul><ul><li>Themes of honor, civic duty, and heroism shown in compositions that are rational, balanced, frozen in the moment; painting style is linear with an egg-shell surface, light can be used dramatically to intensify the desired feelings (compare to High Renaissance) </li></ul><ul><li>In architecture, classical themes and elements are used to promote a sense of power and authority and rational order ( compare to Early and High Renaissance, Greek, Roman) </li></ul>

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