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cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/   Angie BainStephanie Hood
   Protozoan   Phylum: Apicomplexa   Class: Sporozoasida   Order: Eucoccidiida   Family Cryptosporiidae   Genus: Cri...
   Recognized in mice in 1907   Reported in humans in 1976       Immunocompetent child       Immunosuppressed adult  ...
   Cryptosporidium is a    spore producing parasite    found in the intestine of    infected people and    animals.   Cr...
   Infection     Ingesting food or drinks      contaminated with fecal      material     Swallowing recreational      w...
   Buries into intestinal    lining of the gut       Goes through Life Cycle   Alters osmotic pressure       Diarrhea...
   Symptoms (2 to 10 days after    infection and can last up to    30 days)     Diarrhea     Stomach cramps            ...
   White Blood Cells    Phagocytize Parasites     Segmented neutrophils     Macrophages     Lymphocytes     Eosinophi...
   CD4+ T cells       Early infection   CD8+ T cells       Elimination   CD154 and CD40       Stimulate nitric oxide...
   IgM   IgG   IgA   X-linked    immunodefiencey       Mutations in CD154        gene       Defected IgM cannot   al...
   Specimen Source       Multiple Stool Specimens   Diagnostic Techniques       Wet Mount       Modified Acid Fast St...
   Visualization of Oocysts       4 to 6 µm   Bight-Field Microscopy   Differential Interference    contrast (DIC)   ...
   Visualization of Oocytes       Light pink to dark red       Can also visualize sporozoites Relatively High Sensitiv...
   Fluorescence microscope   “Gold Standard”       High sensitivity and        specificity   Does not provide    archi...
   Safranin stain     Oocysts stain a bright red      orange     Not widely used because      oocysts may not stain pro...
   Detects isolated antigens    from a patients sample    using antibodies that are    tagged with a color    changing en...
   Separates DNA    fragments based on    size   435 bp   High Sensitivity and    Specificity                          ...
   Detects isolated antigens    from sample using    antibodies. A positive test    is indicated by a colored    bar.    ...
   Nitazoxanide   Paromomycin   Azithroycin   Individuals with    AIDS       anti-retroviral therapy                 ...
   Ashton-Rickardt, P.G. A license to remember. Nat. Immunol.    5, 1097-1098 (2004).   Beach, M.J. And Johnston, S. P. ...
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Cryptosporidium presentation

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MLS Student presentation on Cryptosporidium

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Transcript of "Cryptosporidium presentation"

  1. 1. cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/ Angie BainStephanie Hood
  2. 2.  Protozoan Phylum: Apicomplexa Class: Sporozoasida Order: Eucoccidiida Family Cryptosporiidae Genus: Criptosporidium waterfilterreview.com Species: parvum, muris, meleagridis, felis, etc.
  3. 3.  Recognized in mice in 1907 Reported in humans in 1976  Immunocompetent child  Immunosuppressed adult Recognized globally in 1980s and 1990s www.nap.edu  AIDS patients Ernest Edward Tyzzer  Outbreak among veterinary students
  4. 4.  Cryptosporidium is a spore producing parasite found in the intestine of infected people and animals. Cryptosporidium spp. is landesbioscience.com the most common cause of Cryptosporidiosis.
  5. 5.  Infection  Ingesting food or drinks contaminated with fecal material  Swallowing recreational water contaminated with secretsofsoa.com Cryptosporidium  Not washing hands  Sexual practices leading to oral exposure with fecal material victorystore.com
  6. 6.  Buries into intestinal lining of the gut  Goes through Life Cycle Alters osmotic pressure  Diarrhea Atrophy of intestinal villi  Alters uptake of fluids, electrolytes, and nutrients  Malabsorption syndrome CDC DPDx Library
  7. 7.  Symptoms (2 to 10 days after infection and can last up to 30 days)  Diarrhea  Stomach cramps treehugger.com  Dehydration  Nausea  Vomiting  Fever  Weight loss  Sometimes no symptoms are seen bathroomscalereview.com
  8. 8.  White Blood Cells Phagocytize Parasites  Segmented neutrophils  Macrophages  Lymphocytes  Eosinophils labmed.hallym.ac.kr
  9. 9.  CD4+ T cells  Early infection CD8+ T cells  Elimination CD154 and CD40  Stimulate nitric oxide  IFN-γ, IL-12  T cell response  Apoptosis Other Cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL- 4, IL-10, IL-15, etc. Patients with AIDS  Decreased CD4+ count Ashton-Rickardt, 2004
  10. 10.  IgM IgG IgA X-linked immunodefiencey  Mutations in CD154 gene  Defected IgM cannot allerresponz.com mount immune response
  11. 11.  Specimen Source  Multiple Stool Specimens Diagnostic Techniques  Wet Mount  Modified Acid Fast Stain  Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Assay Detection Methods  Safranin Stain  Trichrome Stain  Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) savethecanyoncall.com  Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)  Rapid Immunochromatographic cartridge Assays
  12. 12.  Visualization of Oocysts  4 to 6 µm Bight-Field Microscopy Differential Interference contrast (DIC) High Sensitivity and CDC DPDx Library Specificity Wet Mount Slide
  13. 13.  Visualization of Oocytes  Light pink to dark red  Can also visualize sporozoites Relatively High Sensitivity and Specificity Irregular Staining CDC DPDx Library  cause “ghost” oocysts Modified Acid Fast Stain
  14. 14.  Fluorescence microscope “Gold Standard”  High sensitivity and specificity Does not provide archievable stained slide Requires special equipment CDC DPDx Library Fluorescent Stain Auramine Rhodamine
  15. 15.  Safranin stain  Oocysts stain a bright red orange  Not widely used because oocysts may not stain properly Trichrome Stain CDC DPDx Library Safranin Stain  Oocysts may appear unstained Lowest sensitivity and specificity among all tests Can detect Oocysts, but Cryptosporidium should be confirmed by diagnostic CDC DPDx Library techniques Trichrome Stain
  16. 16.  Detects isolated antigens from a patients sample using antibodies that are tagged with a color changing enzyme. Relatively high Sensitivity and Specificity Does not involve microscopy techlab.com Screens large numbers of specimens
  17. 17.  Separates DNA fragments based on size 435 bp High Sensitivity and Specificity CDC DPDx Library
  18. 18.  Detects isolated antigens from sample using antibodies. A positive test is indicated by a colored bar. Variable Sensitivity and alibaba.com Specificity Some Assays Have Been Recalled
  19. 19.  Nitazoxanide Paromomycin Azithroycin Individuals with AIDS  anti-retroviral therapy generecsmed.com
  20. 20.  Ashton-Rickardt, P.G. A license to remember. Nat. Immunol. 5, 1097-1098 (2004). Beach, M.J. And Johnston, S. P. Manufacturers recall of rapid cartridge assay kits on the basis of false-positive Cryptosporidium antigen tests — Colorado. MMWR. 53, 198-199 (2004). CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/crypto/. Accessed September 22, 2011 Dillingham, R. A., Aldo, A. A., and Guerrant, R. L. Cryptosporidiosis: epidemiology and impact. Microb. Infect. 4, 1059-1066 (2002). Mahon, C.R., Lehman, D.C., and Manuselis, G. Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. 4th Ed. Elsevier (2011) Riggs, M. W. Recent Advances in cryptosporidiosis: the immune response. Microb. Infect. 4, 1067-1080 (2002). Stevens, C.D. Clinical Immunology & Serology: A Laboratory Perspective. 3rd Ed. F.A. Davis Company (2010). Tzipori, S. and Honorine, W. Cryptosporidiosis: biology, pathogenesis and disease. Microb. Infect. 4, 1047-1058 (2002).
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