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Italy is located in Southern Europe on the long, boot-shaped Italian Peninsula, inclouding Sicily and Sardinia. It has borders with: France, Austria, Slovenia and Switzerland. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within the Italinan Peninsula.
Italian painting is trditionally characterized by a warmth of colour and light and a preoccupation with religious figures and motifs. Notable artist include Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinchi, Donatello, Fra Angelico, Tintoretto, Caravaggio, Bernini, Titian and Raphael.
Petrarch,(whose best-known vehicle of expression , the sonnet, was in vented in Italy). And the Florentine Poet Dante Alighieri, who established the basis of the modern Italian language and wrote the Divine Comedy.
Leonardo da Vinci, made several contributions to a Variety of fields including art, biology and technology.
Galileo Galilei was a physicist, mathematician, and astronomer who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism.
The physicist Enrico Fermi, a Noble prize laureate, was the leader of the team that built the first nuclear reactor.
The astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini, who made many important discoveries about the Solar System.
The physicist Alessandro Volta, inventor of the electric battery .
Guglielmo Marconi, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics for the invention of radio.
From folk music to classical, music has always played an important role in Italian culture. Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy, as well as many of the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphony, concerto and sonata.
Italy's most famous composers include:
The Renaissance composers Palestrina and Monteverdi.
The Baroque composers Alessandro Scarlatti, Corelli and Vivaldi.
The Classical composers Paganini and Rossini.
The Romantic composers Verdi and Puccini.
La Scala opera house in Milan is also renowned as one of the best in the world.