Media Institutions Understand the requirements of G322 Section B You will understand your institution and be able to place your case studies within their institutional context. You will identify how your films engage with the audience. You will understand the difference between independent and mainstream cinema.
The expectations• Re-sitting an examination is difficult.• Complete all the work set in sessions and on blog (1 textual analysis, usually 1 Audience and Institution task)• I expect you to attend every session that is planned. These are: – Monday 7th Nov – Monday 14th Nov – Monday 21st Nov – Monday 28th Nov – Monday 5th Dec – Monday 12th Dec – Monday 19th Dec – optional – Tuesday 3rd Jan – Thursday 5th Jan – Monday 9th Jan – Tuesday 10th Jan The exam is Friday 13th January, 2012. 2 hrs, am.
The specificationThrough specific case studies of the centre’schoice, candidates should be prepared todemonstrate understanding of contemporaryinstitutional processes ofproduction, distribution, marketing andexchange/exhibition at a local, national orinternational level as well as British audiences’reception and consumption. There should also besome emphasis on the students’ own experiencesof being audiences of a particular medium.
The Specification 2• the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;• the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;• the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange;• the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;• the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;• the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions;• the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.
The Mark scheme• Take 2 minutes to look over the mark scheme.• Highlight the important words for achievement in Level 3 and Level 4.• What is required of you to succeed?
Links to the exam paper• the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;• the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions;• the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour. Media Institutions Understand the requirements of G322 Section B You will understand your institution and be able to place your case studies within their institutional context. You will identify how your films engage with the audience. You will understand the difference between independent and mainstream cinema.
Links to the exam paper• the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice; Media institutions • Your film companies are Media institutions. They are commercial institutions and independent institutions. Words for your glossary Commercial institutions – institutions that are large and have hige budgets. They are usually conglomerates Conglomerate – when a larger institution is made up of smaller companies that have been purchased or merged (e.g. 20th Century fox). Independent institutions – are independent of larger companies and hae smaller budgets. They do not follow tradition (.e.g traditional Hollywood).
Look at your film companies• Are they independent or commercial?• Are they a conglomerate – who are they part of or who owns them.• Is there a difference in the style of the films produced by each? What are the codes and conventions of the films produced by your companies?• Unlike a public service broadcaster which aims to be ideology free, independent and commercial companies are shaped by the context they work in. This is their institutional context. What factors do you think shape the films they produce?
Consider…• What advantages does a commercial company have that an independent one doesn’t?• A conglomerate is often vertically integrated , giving it control over production through to exhibition – how is this an advantage over smaller, independent companies? Successful media products depend as much upon marketing and distribution to a specific audience as they do upon good production practices." To what extent would you agree with this statement, within the media area you have studies?
RECEPTION THEORY• No text has one single meaning• Consumers/individual society members help to construct meaning• Expectations and experience• Complexity of response• CONTEXT OF CONSUMPTION• Creating alternative interpretations
Audience theory• Preferred reading: the reading that is received.• Oppositional reading: the opposite reading to that intended by the institution• Negotiated reading: basically accepts preferred reading but modifies it to their own position.The institutional context in which media texts are produced oftenmeans that films are aiming to encourage a particular ideology or setof beliefs and ideas. The hypodermic needle model of mediacommunication suggests that all consumers receive the media and themessage in the same way. However, we know this is not the case.What is the preferred reading of your film – what message is it tryingto give? Is this message the same for everyone?
ROLAND BARTHES• Preferred negotiated meaning: argues that meaning in text was somewhere between institution and the text – it rests with the audience.• ‘The birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the author’• Cultural context• Networks• Enigma code
NARRATIVE THEORY• Propp • Torodov – Hero • Equilibrium – Villain • Disruption – Donor • Journey – Dispatcher • Climax – False hero • Equilibrium – Helper – Princess Codes and conventions – Father Do your films satisfy the narrative shapes? If not – bet they are independent. What does this suggest about how audience choice and consumption habits differ between independent and mainstream films?
Genre• Do the films made by your companies meet a particular Genre? What does this tell you about their production practices or ideology? Genre – category; group associated by typical codes and conventions Cultural homogenisation – beliefs created b the media; consumers impressions of countries, age group etc based on the media. Hybrid/hybridity – mixing of codes and conventions associated with genre. Audience expectations – what codes and conventions the audience expects to see in the genre/from the company.
Terminology check-point• Reception theory• Genre• Hybrid• Codes and Conventions• Enigma• Preferred meaning• Oppositional meaning• Negotiated meaning• Hypodermic needle model• Narrative theory (Propp and Todorov)• Cultural homogenisation
Independent v MainstreamLink to the exam paperthe issues raised by media ownership incontemporary media practice
Mainstream• By 1920s, there were 20 Hollywood film studios.• Organised into Genres• Studio system – stars (star theory), high production values, control of directors and stars.• Vertically integrated• Large budgets• High spec technology (35mm prints – 25kg – exhibition costs are high)• 1929 – Big Five responsible for 90% of global output (Warner Bros, Paramount, RKO, MGM, 20th Century Fox)
Mainstream• Hollywood• Dreamworks SKG (newest Hollywood studio in 1994)• Stars and auteurs – Stars have become increasingly important to the strength of a film. Films that are most dependent on their stars are known as star vehicles. – Auteur theory is becoming an increasingly out-dated concepts. Auteurs were directors that had a lot of power an influence over the shape of a film, such as early Hollywood director Alfred Hitchcock. To a lesser extent, directors like Speilberg and Tarintino could still be considers Auteurs due to their distinctive style.
Star Theory• Richard Dyer (Remember this name)!• Star is a constructed image• Stars are commodities of institution• Stardom = worship = cultural practice• Hegemonic ideal• Beauty myth• Aspirational• Commercial companies can afford stars by which the film becomes instantly recogniseable and attracts an audience based on celebrity culture.• Working title formula: British film + American Star = ££££££
The challenge of conformity for Independent films Independent film makers are becoming increasingly institutionalised. They need to compete and so there is a clash between the desire to make independent films and to be successful at the box office.
Independent• Indie implies that the film will break from traditional narrative, filming practices, codes and conventions – it implies something new.Some orignal codes and conventions• Action may be in chapters• Disjointed narrative sequence/ non-linear• Narrative not resolved• Audience cannot empathise with characters• Close-ups not used• Characters/objects move outside the frame How “indie” are your independent films really?
Horizontal and Vertical Integration Vertical Exhibition integration Game based Film Website for on film Release filmHorizontalintegration ProductionMerhandising DVD release companyDIVERSIFICATION DIVERSIFICATION
Commercial v Independent?What advantages and disadvantages can you see for being horizontallyintegrated, vertically integrated or both?Synergy between companies is where they work together – this is more commonwith independent films. What advantages and disadvantages can you see here?
Terminology check-point• Studio system• Star theory• Auteur theory• Star vehicles• Big Five• Horizontal integration• Vertical integration• Production values• Hegemonic ideal