NEW INSIGHTS FOR ENERGY FROM SOCIAL RESEARCH
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NEW INSIGHTS FOR ENERGY FROM SOCIAL RESEARCH

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Presentation BEHAVE PROGRAM, 2007. ...

Presentation BEHAVE PROGRAM, 2007.

Cristina Balari, External Advice Expert /Researcher to the European programme BEHAVE – Evaluation of Energy Behavioural Change Programmes (Intelligent Energy for Europe, EUROPEAN COMISSION).

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NEW INSIGHTS FOR ENERGY FROM SOCIAL RESEARCH NEW INSIGHTS FOR ENERGY FROM SOCIAL RESEARCH Presentation Transcript

  • BEHAVE – Evaluation of Energy-Related Behaviour Change Programmes & ProjectsNEW INSIGHTS FOR ENERGY FROM SOCIAL RESEARCH CRISTINA BALARI URANGA Madrid, 16 de abril de 2007
  • NEW INSIGHTS FOR ENERGY FROM SOCIAL RESEARCHIntroduction: Energy as social issueA new approach: Towards a Sociology of EnergyMain theories about social origins ofenvironmental problemsNew insights: the Lifestyles Social PracticesModel and the Social Practices of DomesticConsumption of ElectricitySome facts: the Energy Eurobarometer
  • INTRODUCTION Energy is a Social issue1. Importance of energy from a technical standing point2. Environmental problems3. Domestic consumption and the need to energy saving View slide
  • A NEW APPROACH:TOWARDS A SOCIOLOGY OF ENERGY Environmental problems are multidimensional and require multidisciplinary approaches The extraction, conversion, delivery, use and consumption of energy is as much a social and economic activity as a technical one Energy research in most countries is dominated by engineering and the natural sciences, and holds only a marginal position within the Social Sciences View slide
  • SOCIAL SCIENCE APPROACHES TO ENERGY ISSUESEconomics has paid much greater attention toenergy issues than other social sciences. Thecurrent energy research agenda is dominated byeconomic questions.Energy occupies a far more marginal position withinthe other social sciences.The relevant activities developed in the other socialsciences can be grouped into four disciplinary areas:political science, international relations, socialpsychology and sociology.
  • THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE The Sociological perspective could be applied to energy research topics as household energy efficiency and domestic energy saving. However, this kind of research is clearly insufficient in relationship with the magnitude of the social dimension of energy problems. This is despite the potential that appears to be offered by other established traditions within Sociology, including: Sociology of consumption: which emphasises the importance of meaning, identity and symbolism in consumption practices; Environmental sociology: which includes research on environmental knowledge’ and the role of consumers and social movements in achieving sustainability; and Sociology of science and technology: which explores the social shaping of individual technologies and has the potential to extend this perspective to the evolution of larger technical systems.
  • WHAT ENERGY SOCIOLOGISTS DO? To define the object of study for the Sociology of Energy To position of the Sociology of Energy within the academic field in relation to the environmental sciences in relation to general social theory To characterize the social roots of environmental problems with the help of Sociology
  • OBJECT OF STUDY FOR ENERGY SOCIOLOGY Governmental Governmental Organizations Organizations Different EnvironmentalSociety & Energy Problems Third Sector Third Sector Organizations Organizations
  • POSITION IN THE ACADEMIC FIELD Environmental sciences - Interdisciplinary character - ‘normative’ orientation: help solving problems Energy Sociology in between General Sociology/ Social sciences - Focus on issues of perception - Focus on issues of consumption
  • THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ENERGY SOCIAL RESEARCHFor including the social dimension of energy,complementing the traditional criteria essentially technicaland economicFor its dimensions both theoretical and empiricalFor its analysis of energy social perception and citizens-consumer environmental awareness.For its analysis of social practices in relationship with theenergy and its consumption.
  • SOCIAL ROOTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS Environmental problems: Multi-causality has to be the rule Sociology has tools to determine the social factors and dynamics behind environmental problems. Examples of possible social causes of environmental problems include: population-growth (Ehrlich) the dominance of anthropocentric views of nature (White; Shiva) the rise of consumer-society (Bourdieu) the inherent growth-dynamic of capitalism (Mol) the globalization process (Castells, Giddens)
  • THEORIES ABOUT SOCIAL ORIGINS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS There are different theories to explain the social origins of the environmental problems, but only focus in one aspect. We can categorizing them into four main groups, based on the distinctions between cultural and structural dimensions of social systems macro- or micro- level approach to the system
  • CULTURE AND STRUCTURE AS TWO DIMENSIONS OF SOCIAL SYSTEMS Culture Structure The cultural aspect of social The structural aspect of social systems refer to the role of systems refer to the composition, norms, values, opinions in the socio-economic rules which the reproduction of the govern the reproduction of the system. system. Example: power-structure; relation Example: religion; political market-states-civil society; level of conviction; opinions on the urbanization, etc. role of tradition, etc. The neo- Marxist Theories about structural factors as social causes Classical debate between of environmental problems:WHITE- MONCRIEF in the 70’s -Theory of Treadmill of Production about the social causes of - Theory of Counter- Productivity environmental problems
  • ‘MACRO’ AND ‘MICRO’ AS TWO LEVELS OF ANALYSIS IN THE STUDY OF SOCIAL SYSTEMS Macro-level Micro-level When studying a social system When studying a social system at the macro-level, the at the micro-level, the emphasis is on the long-term emphasis is on the here and development of the system as now of everyday life (e.g. a whole. shopping for sustainable products at the food-store).Theories focused in culturaland structural factors are an - Attitude – Behaviour Modelexample (FISHBEIN & ATZJEN) - Rational choice theory: the Tragedy of the Commons of HARDIN
  • THE ATTITUDE – BEHAVIOUR (AB) MODEL (FISHBEIN & ATZJEN, 1975) LIMITATIVE (STRUCTURAL) DETERMINANTSBACKGROUNDVARIABLES ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDE ATTITUDEOF THEINDIVIDUAL (INCLUDING (ENVIRONMENTAL) (ENVIRONMENTAL) (INCLUDING A NORMATIVE A NORMATIVE BEHAVIOUR BEHAVIOUR-AGE AND-SEX AND-RELIGION A COGNITIVE A COGNITIVE-POLITICS COMPONENT) COMPONENT)- HABITAT-ETC. OPERANT BEHAVIOUR DETERMINANTS (ROUTINE-FACTORS) The Attitude – Behaviour (AB) Model, based on Van der Meer, 1981.
  • EMPIRICAL RESULTS OFTHE ACTITUDE-BEHAVIOUR MODEL The A- B Mode has been dominant for a pretty long time in the environmental social science research. 90’s: Criticism to the empirical results because the relationship between attitude and behaviour is not proved: when a high level of awareness was found, this did not predict actual environmental behaviour in a reliable way. People with the ‘right’ attitude still made the ‘wrong’ choices. The Model is ‘weak’ in analysing the broader social context in which individuals operate: is weak on structure. It is necessary to include the role of social structure in the analyses of individual behaviours.
  • NEW INSIGHTS IN ENERGY SOCIAL RESEARCH Towards an integrative model: the LIFESTYLES- SOCIAL PRACTICES MODEL of Spaargaren.- The focus is social, cultural and collective practices.- Decision-making is determined by social and cultural norms and conventions- Social scientific theories of consumption are relevant for understanding energy- The appropriate focus is changing conventions of comfort, cleanliness and convenience- Producers and consumers are implicated in the evolution of demand – technologies, infrastructures, routines and habits co-evolve.
  • THE LIFESTYLES- SOCIAL PRACTICES MODEL CITIZENS/ ..................... HUMAN ............ SOCIAL PRACTICES ........................... STRUCTURE CONSUMERS ACTION Analyses of conduct Institutional Analyses EXAMPLES Liberalization Socio- Turn on the demographic variables light ADMINISTRATION REGULATION Households appliances ENVIRONMENTAL COMPANIES AWARENESS NATURAL Green Choices RESOURCESDimensions ofenvironmentalawareness: Consumption fall: FOSSIL ENERGY1) Sensitiveness Energy Saving2) Knowledge RENEWABLE ENERGY3) Disposition4) Individual action CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION/5) Collective action Individual GENERATION OF ENERGY Consumers Associations USE MODES ACCESS DISTRIBUTION PRODUCTION MODES MODES MODES ENVIRONMENTAL INNOVATIONS IN PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION CICLESBALARI, C., Adapted from SPAARGAREN.
  • MAIN CONCEPTS OF THE MODELSOCIAL PRACTICES & LIFESTYLELEVELS OF COMFORT, CLEANLINESS &CONVENIENCEENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESCONSUMER BEHAVIOURCOLLECTIVE SOCIO- MATERIAL SYSTEM OFPROVISIONSOCIAL STRUCTURE
  • A PROPOSAL MODEL: SOCIAL PRACTICES OF DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRICITY CITICENS CONSUMERS ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS LEVELS OF COMFORT, CLEANLINESS CONVENIENCE ENVIRONMENT LIFESTYLES CONSUMERS ASOCIATIONS ASOCIATIONS SOCIAL PRACTICES USE AND CONSUMPTION OF DOMESTIC ELECTRICITY TRADE UNIONS PROFESIONAL ASOCIATIONS DIRECT ENERGY INDIRECT ENERGY GOVERNMENT & PRIVATE SECTOR PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION - FIRMS -BALARI, C., 2005
  • MODEL ADVANTAGES TO FORMULATE PUBLIC POLICIESSocial Practices Model is considered the mostappropriate model to study environment and toformulate policies due to:It is centred in concrete and common aptitudesinstead of individual ones.It studies the possible joint initiatives for specificgroups to reduced the negative effects forenvironment of their daily activities.The process of reducing the environmental impact incertain areas of social life is a result of wellinformed and capable agents, which takeadvantage of the possibilities in sight, in a context ofa specific provision system.
  • WHICH ARE THE CHALLENGES OFTHE ENERGY SOCIAL RESEARCH? To build new theoretical models for appliedanalysis To make visible the energy for the citizens-consumersTo determine the social practices of energyconsumption and energy saving To contribute to the formulation of publicpolicies of energy saving and its evaluation
  • SOME FACTS FROM THE 2002 ENERGY EUROBAROMETER…“ENERGY: ISSUES, OPTIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES. SCIENCE AND SOCIETY” 15 MEMBER STATES February- April 2002.
  • SPANISH & EUROPEAN OPINION ABOUT ENERGY ISSUESNada, estoy interesado, pero realmente no deseo ser informado sobre asuntos específicos 6 (ESPONTÁNEO) 4 6 Nada, no estoy interesado y no deseo ser informado (ESPONTÁNEO) 9 13 Cómo ahorrar energía en el trabajo 13 Perspectivas de nuevas opciones energéticas, tales como células de 27 combustible,hidrógeno, fusión nuclear, etc. 14 Las actividades de la Unión Europea en investigación energética y desarrollo 23 15 Seguridad de las centrales nucleares y de los residuos radioactivos 36 26 Conocer cuáles son las alternativas existentes a la gasolina y al diesel en los vehículos 39 29 42 Cómo utilizar fuentes de energía renovables en el hogar 44 53 60 Cómo ahorrar energía en el hogar 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ESPAÑA UE
  • INFORMATION SOURCES ABOUT ENERGY 6Agencias de la energía o autoridades locales 1 6 Ninguna (ESPONTÁNEO) 13 2 Otros (ESPONTÁNEOS) 3 11Compañías eléctricas, energéticas y de gas 3 9 Revistas científicas 5 10 Internet 8 27 Radio 25 47 Periódicos y revistas generales 27 80 Televisión 72 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 ESPAÑA UE
  • INDIVIDUAL ACTIONS TO SAVE ENERGY: PRESENT AND FUTURE 13 1. Reducir la calefacción y/o el aire acondicionado 32 152. Reducir la iluminación y/o el uso de las aplicaciones eléctricas domésticas 41 10 3. Aislar mi casa (paredes, ventanas, etc.) 15 4. Llevar adelante iniciativas de ahorro energético en el trabajo 6 4 5 5. Reducir los viajes 5 7 6. Reducir el combustible usado en mi coche 10 9 10 7. Comprar un coche que utilice menos 10 8. Usar más el transporte público 19 15 9. Nada 23 10. Nada, porque no siento la necesidad de hacer cualquier cosa 4 3 6 11. Nada, porque carezco de la información y los incentivos necesarios 6 12. Otros 2 1 31 13. No contesta 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 ¿Qué ha hecho usted o está haciendo para ahorrar energía? ¿Y qué se propone usted comenzar a hacer?
  • EUROPEAN ENERGY SAVING INDEX Dinamarca 7,68Luxemburgo 7,53 7,28 Suecia 6,67 Alemania 6,57 Holanda 6,41 Austria Finlandia 6,12 Bélgica 6,07 5,77 FranciaEU TOTAL 5,71 Italia 5,42Reino Unido 5,09 Grecia 4,73 4,54 ESPAÑA Irlanda 3,97 Portugal 3,66 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • SOME FACTS FROM THE LAST ENERGY POLICY EUROBAROMETER…ATTITUDES ON ISSUES RELATED TO EU ENERGY POLICY 27 MEMBER STATES February 2007.