Session 20 kittenah jordan cca health


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Osama Kittenah at CBA5 discussed the climate change adaptation policy innovations to address health risks associated with water scarcity and climate change that are being led by the Ministry of Health in Jordan. Project supported by WHO-UNDP-GEF.

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Session 20 kittenah jordan cca health

  1. 1. 5 th International Conference on Community Based Adaptation to Climate change 2011 24-31 March 2011 Dhaka, Bangladesh Water Scarcity and health protection from climate change in Jordan Dr. Osama Kittaneh, Royal Jordanian Ministry of Health Joy Guillemot, WHO-Geneva
  2. 2. Water Scarcity is a health risk, made worse by Climate Change in Jordan <ul><li>Jordan is ranked among the ten poorest countries in the world in water availability. </li></ul><ul><li>Total available water is projected to fall by 60% in the next 15 years from 150 m 3 /capita/year in 2003 to 90 by 2025. </li></ul><ul><li>To respond to climate threatened water scarcity, Ministry of Water and Irrigation has a new Water Strategy to conserve water and seek alternative supplies, including planned increased use of domestic waste water. </li></ul><ul><li>Major investments in wastewater treatment facilities is producing increased supplies of high quality effluent , a viable source for meeting non-potable water demands. Treated wastewater can provide an additional 200 MCM/yr by 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of treated wastewater actively discouraged due to concern for public health, the environment and agricultural export markets. Currently wastewater can only be legally used for watering trees and grass, but is needed by farmers for food production </li></ul>PROBLEM: 90% of treated effluent in Jordan currently re-used illegally in agriculture without sa fety standards . Higher diarrheal disease rates are observed in areas with wastewater. By 20 20 re claimed water use is expected to increase by 150% from 80 (2010) to 200 MCM year .
  3. 3. 50% Water is scarce & demand is increasing R ene wable water (GW/SW): 780MCM Non-renewable: 140MCM Reclaimed: 80 MCM Total avg annual availability: 1000MCM Reclaimed water is 8% of available water. It makes policy sense to better use this available resource
  4. 4. Wastewater reuse will ease water scarcity, but introduce new health risks <ul><li>Health Risk: Wastewater can increase farmer and resident exposure to microbial contaminants without safe practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Health concerns: </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrheal diseases from contaminated food and water </li></ul><ul><li>Skin and eye diseases related to hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive measures to address water scarcity, must be closely coordinated to not be &quot;maladaptive&quot; and increase workload for health sector. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ministry of Health of Jordan leading two Strategic National Climate Change Initiatives <ul><li>Pilot Project: Adaptation to Climate Change to Protect Human Health </li></ul><ul><li>Focus: Implement wastewater management system </li></ul>Multi-Sectoral National Policy Health Sector Focus: National Vulnerabiltity & Adaptation Assessment National Health Sector Strategy Wastewater & Drinking Water Guidelines MDG-FUND
  6. 6. Project 1: Achievement of MDGs in Jordan are compromised by crippling water scarcity and vulnerable to climate change <ul><li>Objective: promoting stainable environment for health improvement, and poverty reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>UNDP, WHO, FAO Ministry Agriculture, WAJ, Health </li></ul><ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained access to improved water supply sources despite increased water scarcity induced by climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened capacity for health protection and food security to climate change under water scarcity conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>National Vulnerability and Health Adaptation Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>National Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>National Drinking Water quality management system </li></ul>Free Template from MDG-F Project March 2009-2012 Multi-Sectoral Top-down Strategic Approach
  7. 7. Project 2: Build Institutional Capacity to Protect Human Health from Climate Change & Adaptation decisions in other sectors <ul><li>Project 2 Objective: </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to the need for water and food safety standards that safeguard public health from diarrheal diseases associated with use of reclaimed water. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve regulatory and institutional frameworks related to wastewater reuse, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop and implement health protection measures for safe wastewater reuse, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve monitoring and surveillance systems of wastewater reuse activities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop mechanisms for effective dissemination of information on health risk </li></ul></ul>Free Template from
  8. 8. Stakeholder levels for implementation of National drinking and wastewater quality standards and management system <ul><li>National Government agencies MoH, WAJ, WI, FDA, MoA, private water producers </li></ul><ul><li>Role : Establish standards, regulations & management, vertical and horizontal coordination, risk communication </li></ul>District Government regulatory agencies Role: Monitor water & food quality, communicate risks Community Residents, farmers associations, market Role: Consumers, reclaimed water users, exposed citizens, participate in monitoring and quality assurance Feedback Regulate
  9. 9. Community Based Aspects to ensuring Wastewater safety <ul><li>Responding to farmer need for water by reducing illegal use, increasing safe use </li></ul><ul><li>Community Awareness of risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Media partnership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication of safety measures to increase cultural acceptance of new practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Safety Certification &quot;health-labelling&quot; and marketing campaign about safe food. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agreement of use and regulations with farmer groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmer contracts and safe use certification </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Lessons & Opportunities for Scaling up <ul><li>Need adequate human resources with right skills to anticipate, recognize and respond to environmental health challenges introduced by wastewater reuse and water scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Clear understanding of baseline epidemiological and environmental risk conditions: surveys, studies and research that identify health risks associated with reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Use of media is important for community awareness of wastewater safety </li></ul><ul><li>Active buy-in from communities and farmers is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Strong coordination and joint workplans among relevant agencies critical </li></ul><ul><li>Need active enforcement of existing regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive identification and mapping of districts and communities vulnerable to climate change helpful for targetting needs </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>Free Template from