The Social Dimensions of Climate Change Learning Module    Youth and Climate Change - UNICEF, 9 September 2009     -Carina...
LEARNING MODULEIntroduction to the World Bank Social Development Department The Social Development Department at the World...
LEARNING MODULEThe Social Dimensions of Climate Change at the World Bank ๏   Social justice as over-arching theme ๏   Gove...
LEARNING MODULEGOALS and STRUCTURE                      To LEARN:       To LEAD:                      We must         We n...
Why study the social dimensions of climate change?                     Analysis and diagnostics - reshapes climate change ...
Our goals for today: Learn and Lead                                              Learn:                                   ...
Climate Change 101 the IPCC conclusions                                                Unequivocal                        ...
Climate Change 101 how the world warms              Orbital Variations             Takes thousands of years to register   ...
Climate Change 101 human contributions                                                          Power                     ...
Climate Change 101 responsibility Only 17 countries account for 1% or more of            Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2),  ...
Climate Change 101 climate related disasters                                                    Some 262 million people we...
What are the social dimensions of climate change?              Climate change may be the defining social justice issue of o...
IPCC projected natural impacts Temperature rises, extreme weather events, changes in hydrological cycles, sea level rise, ...
Vulnerability according to the IPCC: Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change a...
An additional stress on an already stressed system         We are taking things out 20% faster than we can put them back i...
Exposure - the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to     which a system is subjected, such as:...
An additional sensitivity on an already sensitive system         30,000 children under the age of five die every day from h...
An additional sensitivity on an already sensitive system         70% of the people who live in extreme poverty, are women ...
Sensitivity - Intersecting inequalities - produce different experiences of climate      change impacts, such as:          ...
Adaptation - “Refers to changes in processes, practices, or structures to moderate or  offset potential damages or to take...
ResilienceResilience occurs where adaptive capacity isstrong, inequalities are addressed, and exposureminimized. It reflect...
Equity  Vulnerable and marginalized communities are typically least responsible for the cause and  least able to deal with...
Critical in shaping global policy architecture and responses; instruments and application at the            local level; a...
Case Study 1: The Maldivesthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
Case Study 2: Boliviathe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
Case study analysisQuestion 1:            Each student in the group takes five minutes to read one case study              ...
Are you vulnerable too?Question 2:            Think about your own vulnerability to climate change. How vulnerable        ...
Where are we now?                                            Lead (1) - Shaping policy                                    ...
Kyoto                                       Missed opportunities and failed promises                                      ...
Climate policy building blocks๏ Mitigation๏ Reduced Emissions from  Deforestation and Degradation  (REDD)๏ Adaptation๏ Tec...
Mitigation             ๏ Sources             ๏ Sinks / Reservoirs             ๏ Sequestration             ๏ Substitutesthe...
Renewable Energy: Co-benefits๏ GHG Reductions๏ Economic returns for those who innovate๏ Employment and local development๏ I...
Biofuels: Negative Social Impacts๏ Questionable GHG reductions potential๏ Deforestation๏ Land acquisition and displacement...
REDD Agenda             ISSUES / ETHICS            Reducing Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation๏ Deforestation is...
Adaptation    ๏ Planned versus      autonomous adaptation    ๏ First Generation    ๏ Second Generation    ๏ Third Generati...
What Adaptation Strategy?            Case 1: Engineering - protecting the land or the person?๏ Protects vital infrastructu...
What Adaptation Strategy?           Case 2: Health policy - hard or soft adaptation?๏ Health impacts critical to understan...
Technology๏ Research and innovation๏ Investment and political will๏ Development and deployment๏ Access and supporting stru...
Finance                                       ๏ How much is required?                                       ๏ New and addi...
Potential Sources of Climate Finance:                                Equitable, efficient and effective?                   ...
Global:UNFCC, Kyoto, Bali RoadmapRegional:EU and other initiativesNational:Policies at the state levelLocal / Sub-national...
What can you do?                                                 Lead (2) - The Four Cs:                                  ...
Question 3:                         What can you do?                                      What practical steps can you tak...
Climate change - what path shall we take?the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
Possible Effects of Climate Change Policy:CO-BENEFITS                                     NEGATIVE SOCIAL IMPACTS   EQUITY...
Governance                            improved policies, processes and outcomes  “The great tragedy of sustainable develop...
www.worldbank.org/sdccthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
www.1010uk.orgthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
Its your worldIts your responsibilityIts your time to LEAD! the social dimensions of climate change learning module climat...
Thank you for your attentionCarina Bachofen - cbachofen@worldbank.orgEdward Cameron - ecameron@worldbank.org  the social d...
Unicef Training September New York September 2009
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Unicef Training September New York September 2009

  1. 1. The Social Dimensions of Climate Change Learning Module Youth and Climate Change - UNICEF, 9 September 2009 -Carina Bachofen and Edward CameronSocial Development Department, The World Bank
  2. 2. LEARNING MODULEIntroduction to the World Bank Social Development Department The Social Development Department at the World Bank aims to empower poor and marginalized women and men through a process of transforming institutions for greater inclusion, cohesion and accountability. ๏ Social Policy Analysis ๏ Local Governance and Community Driven Development ๏ Conflict Crime and Violence ๏ Indigenous Peoples and Involuntary Resettlement
  3. 3. LEARNING MODULEThe Social Dimensions of Climate Change at the World Bank ๏ Social justice as over-arching theme ๏ Governance and social accountability in climate action ๏ Equity, rights, and livelihood security in CC mitigation & adaptation ๏ Learning module and micro-documentary contest ๏ Rights, forests and climate change ๏ Local institutions, area-based development & CC ๏ Emerging work on IPs, gender, conflict, and urban Our goal: Socially inclusive, climate-resilient policies & operations in client countries
  4. 4. LEARNING MODULEGOALS and STRUCTURE To LEARN: To LEAD: We must We need to change our shape urgent understanding policy of climate responses to change climate change
  5. 5. Why study the social dimensions of climate change? Analysis and diagnostics - reshapes climate change as a human and social issue; helps to determine thresholds and targets; brings new disciplines into the debate Process - key to authoritative advocacy; providing access to processes; influencing the nature of processes; vital for building constituencies and securing agreement Outcomes - critical in shaping global policy architecture and responses; instruments and application at the local level Social justice - addresses inequalities; reduces vulnerabilities; builds resiliencethe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  6. 6. Our goals for today: Learn and Lead Learn: Climate change 101 Climate change and peoplethe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  7. 7. Climate Change 101 the IPCC conclusions Unequivocal Accelerating Human Induced (anthropogenic) 2°C is the temperature rise identified as a serious natural systems tipping point 450ppm is the CO2 equivalent in the atmosphere required 80% reductions in GHG emissions will be required by 2050the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  8. 8. Climate Change 101 how the world warms Orbital Variations Takes thousands of years to register Tectonic Activity Again too slow Volcanoes No sign of a sustained pattern of eruptions Solar Variability Solar variations produce a small effect Does not produce the rapid temperature rises of the Internal Variability past century The Warming; the Nature of the warming; and the Human induced Pace of the warming can only be explained by human induced factors.the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  9. 9. Climate Change 101 human contributions Power Transport Industry Buildings Land use Agriculture Waste Other energythe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  10. 10. Climate Change 101 responsibility Only 17 countries account for 1% or more of Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), global greenhouse gas emissions thousand metric tons of CO2Together, these 17 countries are responsible for more than 85% of global emissions 1990 2004 Sources: United Nations Statistics Division / European Environment Agency / UNFCCCthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  11. 11. Climate Change 101 climate related disasters Some 262 million people were affected by climate disasters annually from 2000 to 2004. In the OECD, one person in every fifteen hundred was affected by climate disaster (1:1500) In the developing world the number was one in nineteen (1:19) % of people affected by A risk differential of 79! climate disasters 2000 - 2004 Developing World OECDSource: UNDP Human Development Report 2007 / 2008the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  12. 12. What are the social dimensions of climate change? Climate change may be the defining social justice issue of our generation. ๏ Poverty, hunger and livelihoods ๏ Destroying settlements and infrastructure and inducing migration ๏ Impacts on human health and fatalities ๏ Exacerbating inequalities ๏ Undermining the realization of rights ๏ Conflict, crime and violencethe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  13. 13. IPCC projected natural impacts Temperature rises, extreme weather events, changes in hydrological cycles, sea level rise, threats to unique systems and biodiversity, increase in flooding and storm surges complex social responsesLoss of livelihoods; health/fatalities; food/water insecurity; migration; conflict; damage to infrastructure; decline in natural systems services; distribution of impacts equity Process and substantive outcomes for vulnerable populations human rights and other implications Adequate standard of living; minimum means of subsistence; health; food; water; self-determination; property; culture; life; education; gender, indigenous and children
  14. 14. Vulnerability according to the IPCC: Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation in which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its adaptive capacity (IPCC 2007a, p21)the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  15. 15. An additional stress on an already stressed system We are taking things out 20% faster than we can put them back in. 20% of fish stocks are already depleted. 1 billion people lack access to safe water, while 430 million people suffer from water stress. This will increase by five times by 2050 We have lost 20% of our forests in the past 100 years (from 5 billion hectares to 4 billion).the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  16. 16. Exposure - the character, magnitude, and rate of climate change and variation to which a system is subjected, such as: ๏ Risks to unique and threatened systems (coral) ๏ Extreme weather events (storm surges and sea swells) ๏ Reduced agricultural productivity ๏ Increased water insecurity ๏ Increased health risk ๏ Large-scale singularities ๏ Aggregate impacts (impacts worsen over time)the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  17. 17. An additional sensitivity on an already sensitive system 30,000 children under the age of five die every day from hunger and easily prevented diseases. 90% of the world’s poor depend on forests for their income 30% of the population - more than 800 million people - is malnourishedthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  18. 18. An additional sensitivity on an already sensitive system 70% of the people who live in extreme poverty, are women and girls. Two-thirds of children denied primary education are girls, and 75 per cent of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are women. More than 60% of the population live on less than $2 per day. 1.2 billion people live on less than $1 per day.the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  19. 19. Sensitivity - Intersecting inequalities - produce different experiences of climate change impacts, such as: ๏ Access to information, decision making and justice ๏ Dependence on the environment for livelihoods, food, fuel, shelter and medicine ๏ Geographical context ๏ Financial / socio-economic status ๏ Governance / political economy issues ๏ Gender, age, abilities ๏ Indigenous Peoples ๏ Cultural normsthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  20. 20. Adaptation - “Refers to changes in processes, practices, or structures to moderate or offset potential damages or to take advantage of opportunities associated with changes in climate. It involves adjustments to reduce the vulnerability of communities, regions, or activities to climatic change and variability” (IPCC 2001). Adaptive Capacity - The resources that can be mobilized to build resilience ๏ Various types of assets (social, physical, natural, financial, human, cultural capital) ๏ Technological ๏ Knowledge ๏ Governancethe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  21. 21. ResilienceResilience occurs where adaptive capacity isstrong, inequalities are addressed, and exposureminimized. It reflects the ability to deal withchange and continue to develop. Just as vulnerable communities are threatened with collapse from climate impacts, a resilient community can anticipate and plan for a sustainable future. the social dimensions of climate change learning module climate change and youth
  22. 22. Equity Vulnerable and marginalized communities are typically least responsible for the cause and least able to deal with the consequences of climate change. “These groups, by lacking a voice and influence in climate change policy making, are unlikely to account for their particular experience. This is likely to exacerbate their position of marginalization or vulnerability further” (Pollack, 2008, p17).the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  23. 23. Critical in shaping global policy architecture and responses; instruments and application at the local level; addresses inequalities; reduces vulnerabilities; builds resilience Improved outcomes, adaptive capacity and resilience Technological; knowledge; political; various types of assets (social, physical, natural, financial, human, cultural capital) Enhanced capital and resourcesImplementation of governance principles across governance scales leads to enhanced capital and resources Improved governance Key to authoritative advocacy for vulnerable populations; providing access to processes; influencing the nature of processes; vital for building constituencies and securing agreement Change analysis and diagnosis
  24. 24. Case Study 1: The Maldivesthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  25. 25. Case Study 2: Boliviathe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  26. 26. Case study analysisQuestion 1: Each student in the group takes five minutes to read one case study from The Maldives and Bolivia. When you have finished reading the case studies, present the case to your colleagues, explaining why your chosen country is vulnerable.the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  27. 27. Are you vulnerable too?Question 2: Think about your own vulnerability to climate change. How vulnerable is your home country? What vulnerabilities are present here in the United States and in New York City?the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  28. 28. Where are we now? Lead (1) - Shaping policy responses: From Kyoto to Copenhagen Climate building blocksthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  29. 29. Kyoto Missed opportunities and failed promises A new beginning in Bali Changing our perspective All roads lead to Copenhagen Beyond Copenhagenthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  30. 30. Climate policy building blocks๏ Mitigation๏ Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)๏ Adaptation๏ Technology๏ Finance the social dimensions of climate change learning module climate change and youth
  31. 31. Mitigation ๏ Sources ๏ Sinks / Reservoirs ๏ Sequestration ๏ Substitutesthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  32. 32. Renewable Energy: Co-benefits๏ GHG Reductions๏ Economic returns for those who innovate๏ Employment and local development๏ Increased security of supply๏ Reduced emissions of other pollutants and health benefitsthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  33. 33. Biofuels: Negative Social Impacts๏ Questionable GHG reductions potential๏ Deforestation๏ Land acquisition and displacement๏ Impact on food (production, access, prices)๏ Political instability, corruption and violencethe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  34. 34. REDD Agenda ISSUES / ETHICS Reducing Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation๏ Deforestation is responsible for at least 25%-30% of anthropogenic climate change each year๏ Forests help to slow climate change by acting as a sink / reservoir for GHG emissions๏ Assign a price for carbon to cover environmental services and create incentives for forest conservation and management๏ Effective forest governance is key to success but remains elusivethe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  35. 35. Adaptation ๏ Planned versus autonomous adaptation ๏ First Generation ๏ Second Generation ๏ Third Generation (?)the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  36. 36. What Adaptation Strategy? Case 1: Engineering - protecting the land or the person?๏ Protects vital infrastructure ๏ Deals with exposure but what about sensitivity?๏ Protects vital utilities ๏ May not target the most vulnerable๏ Coastal zone management ๏ May not address key system impacts๏ Seawalls, flood defences, etc.. (ecological and social) the social dimensions of climate change learning module climate change and youth
  37. 37. What Adaptation Strategy? Case 2: Health policy - hard or soft adaptation?๏ Health impacts critical to understanding ๏ Costly (capital and operational) social dimensions of climate change ๏ Serious resource constraints๏ Health policy directly addresses a variety of climate impacts ๏ Requires long-term vision๏ Contributes to MDGs and spurs economic development๏ Draws upon existing financial resources the social dimensions of climate change learning module climate change and youth
  38. 38. Technology๏ Research and innovation๏ Investment and political will๏ Development and deployment๏ Access and supporting structures the social dimensions of climate change learning module climate change and youth
  39. 39. Finance ๏ How much is required? ๏ New and additional? ๏ How to generate funding? ๏ How to disburse / target funding?the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  40. 40. Potential Sources of Climate Finance: Equitable, efficient and effective? Current estimates put the cost of dealing with climate change at between $4bn and $109bn per year (low end from Stern 2006 / high end from UNDP 2007) CDM and Carbon Offset Markets Auctioning of Emissions Rights Emissions Cap and Trade Tax on Financial Transactions (Tobin Tax) GHG Levy Aviation / Shipping tax General taxes and specific funds Carbon Taxes GDP Contribution (0.5% - 1% by developed countries) Baseline ODA (up to 0.7% of GNP)Source: How will the world finance climate change action? World Bank presentation to theBali Brunch, April 2009the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  41. 41. Global:UNFCC, Kyoto, Bali RoadmapRegional:EU and other initiativesNational:Policies at the state levelLocal / Sub-national:Initiatives at provincial, community and household level the social dimensions of climate change learning module climate change and youth
  42. 42. What can you do? Lead (2) - The Four Cs: Citizen Consumer Communicator Change Agentthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  43. 43. Question 3: What can you do? What practical steps can you take a s a Citizen, Consumer, Communicator and Change Agent to address climate change?the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  44. 44. Climate change - what path shall we take?the social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  45. 45. Possible Effects of Climate Change Policy:CO-BENEFITS NEGATIVE SOCIAL IMPACTS EQUITY INEQUITYRESILIENCE VULNERABILITYthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  46. 46. Governance improved policies, processes and outcomes “The great tragedy of sustainable development is that we have not invented a politics to go with the concept”. James MacNeill, former Secretary General of the Brundtland Commissionthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  47. 47. www.worldbank.org/sdccthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  48. 48. www.1010uk.orgthe social dimensions of climate change learning moduleclimate change and youth
  49. 49. Its your worldIts your responsibilityIts your time to LEAD! the social dimensions of climate change learning module climate change and youth
  50. 50. Thank you for your attentionCarina Bachofen - cbachofen@worldbank.orgEdward Cameron - ecameron@worldbank.org the social dimensions of climate change learning module climate change and youth

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