EDCI 430: METHODS & MATERIALS FOR TEACHING Language arts in the middle grades CLASS #10 /11 /12 Andrews LEA Dialect – Ch. 8:“Regional, Social, and Historical Variations” Young
Andrew Text: Guided Freewrite/Freethink What are the different speech communities to which you belong?
Andrew Text: Guided Freewrite/Freethink What are the different speech communities to which you belong? – Which of these are tied to social, regional and/or cultural origins? Race, class, socioeconomic status, and/or gender?
Framing Questions for Discussion of Language DifferencesQuestions: How do you understand the term dialect differently than you did prior to your reading? What dialect would you say that you speak? Is it a social, cultural, or regional dialect—or some combination of these? Is the dialect you currently speak different than the one you grew up speaking? What are its origins? What language attitudes (biases/prejudices) do you have (i.e., what are the things which bother you in others language/speech habits? What accents grate? What usages raise your hackles?, etc.)? Where do you think you got these language attitudes/biases?
Accent v. Dialect An accent is just one feature found within the broader concept of dialect. Accent refers only to a distinctive pronunciation, whereas dialect includes not only differences in accent, but variations in vocabulary use and grammar as well. Dialects are characterized by variations observed in 3 basic linguistic features: – Lexical or vocabulary variations – ex.: frying pan v. skillet – Phonological or accent variations – ex.: idear v. idea – Grammatical variations – ex.: y’all v. you
DIALECT… For any observable & identifiable language variety to gain status as a full- fledged dialect, it must have unique grammatical features. Dialect, then, refers to any language variety in which the speakers use a) similar pronunciations, b) similar word choices, and c) their sentences are grammatically different from other regional or social groups of speaker- writers. Dialect pronunciations are also referred to as accent. Dialect varies according to the individual user and her or his regional, social, and cultural ties. Regional dialects are tied to physical, geographical, natural barriers— location—and vary from one region of the country to another. Social dialects (sociolect) are tied to social class and socio-economic status and vary from one social class of society to another. Cultural dialects are tied to culture and ethnicity and vary accordingly.
Language Variation &Teaching Literature What is the relevance? What are the connections? Contexts? Applicable works of literature? Why is a knowledge of language variations and differences important in the context of teaching literature? How can this help?
Dialect Myths / IgnotionsAbout Standard English (adapted, Andrews, 2 nd Ed., p. 197) SE is a clearly definable set of correct pronunciations, grammatical structures, and word choices. SE is the kind of language that people should use for all occasions. ―Standard‖ means most serviceable and negotiable and therefore correct. SE is necessary for success in school and therefore employment. Conformity to certain ways of using language is vital to success. SE is the best version of English for the expression of logical and abstract thought since all the great English and American writers as well as the business community use it. Some people, such as Blacks and hillbillies, speak a version of English that is degenerate, evidenced by their sloppy pronunciation, imprecise vocabulary, and violation of many grammatical rules—all signs of inadequate language.
DEBUNKING THE MYTHS & ADDRESSING THE ISSUES THE BASIS FOR A LANGUAGE STANDARD WHO DECIDES WHAT IS STANDARD AND WHAT IS VERNACULAR? STANCES TOWARD LANGUAGE VARIATION TEACHERS’ STANCES STUDENTS’ LANGUAGE IDENTITIES CONTEXT! CONTEXT! CONTEXT! Mode of communication, Audience, Purpose, Situation! These all effect language use and language choices!