Key Points: Most people have become competent in collecting data and even publishing it, however, most people are not able to use the data to design solutions. This presentation and the problem-solving process outlined in it is designed to help problem-solving teams do good work.
Key Points:Schools are collecting discipline data in various ways and it is important that we use all of this information to effectively solve problems
This slide outlines the SWIS summary data for the 2010-11 school year.The column shaded in blue has the Median per day per 100 figure. (Example: .21 ODR per day per 100 for K-6 equals approximately 1 ODR per day per 450 students.) Please note that the Median is being used instead of Mean in the data summary. The Median is a better indicator of a typical school within each grade level grouping, however the mean has been given for reference. The Median is the 50th percentile. Next to the Median column is the 25th and 75th percentiles for each grade level grouping.
Activity: Using Data Activity
Key Points: In this section we will discuss the critical components and foundations that need to exist in a structured meeting in order to facilitate problem solving.
Basic Meeting Foundations Elements are essential no matter what type of meeting is being conducted. Teams need to know the purpose and expected outcomes of their group, they need to establish operating agreements (always start with something nice, avoid side talk, be on time, etc), and they need to establish roles and the expected responsibilities .
Decision-makers are most likely the administrators. If the administrators are not able to be present, then there should be a process in place for making decisions in his or her absent, OR a process for debriefing and review after the meeting with the facilitator and the administrator.
This is a basic version of team member information. It would be ideal to have something like this for each team in the building/district. This information is helpful when new members join the team and when a team member needs to refer to this information
We need primary people with a back up person for each role needed. It is encouraged to NOT have the administrator play a primary role for facilitator, data analyst, or minute taker. Administrators need to be flexible with what might come up and it is unpredictable when a situation causes administrator absence from a planned meeting. Since we know that this might occur, let’s avoid problems and set up the roles so that the team is not dependent on administrators being at the full meetings 100% of the time.
The facilitator has a bigger role than just chairing the team. The facilitator ensures that the meeting is organized and runs smoothly, as well as makes sure that participation is equitable. The facilitator must be able to communicate with the recorder and the time keeper. The facilitator also ensures that conflicts are addressed and dealt with diplomatically and effectively.
The minutes taker uses the Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan to capture the important items discussed and all action steps.Ideally, the minutes would be projected during the meeting so that feedback and input can be gathered from the group at large. Therefore, the minutes taker must be comfortable typing live and taking suggestions and revisions from the team.
The data analyst must have fluency in the program that is holding the data. This person must be able to manipulate the program and take feedback and input from others.
Responsibilities are organized around roles and the meeting cycle (before, during and after).
Help people understand what needs to be documented and why. If someone talks the entire meeting and there is no discussion, that is a memo, not a meeting! No need to document irrelevant anecdotes like: ‘ Jason yawned after Debbie explained her problem’, or ‘Debbie rolled her eyes and sighed when we talked about the testing schedule’
Animated slide telling a well too known story.
This slide is animated to teach the different parts of the meeting minute form each click adds the next sectionMost schools have the title at the top and write/type as the meeting progressesMake a point that we don’t need to document everything that happened (i.e., NM rolled her eyes KJ entered the room, SW continued to repeat the same issue, we took at 5 minute bathroom break)
It is so important to review action items from the last meeting at the beginning, and review action items created during the current meeting at the end.
If you have all these things in a professional team, then meetings with that team will be effective. Regular meetings and regular attendance: make meeting times/dates sacred. Schedule more meeting dates than necessary. It is far easier to cancel a meeting than to add them in later.There MUST be a facilitator who has some proficiency in that role (Facilitative Leadership is a great training) and who is not timid and afraid of politics.The time keeper MUST be 100% in his or her role and not forget to time or to alert the facilitator or the presenterThe minutes taker MUST get the minutes out to the team within a set, agreed upon time frame.
A completed example…IF a person knows how to use the meeting minute form, the person should be able to pick these minutes up from Jan 7, 2010 and be able to organize previous items to update and facilitate creation of the Feb 3, 2010 agenda
Example of meeting foundation checklist items getting transferred to the meeting minutes for future tracking of completion.
A completed example…IF a person knows how to use the meeting minute form, the person should be able to pick these minutes up from Jan 7, 2010 and be able to organize previous items to update and facilitate creation of the Feb 3, 2010 agenda
If there are district coordinators or coaches who work with school teams, then this is a checklist that person can use to analyze the fidelity of the meeting.
Key Points: In this section we will learn about the problem solving process and begin to develop a problem statement
Yellow circle represents the meeting foundations (this is the context for problem-solving)
Key Points: A problem is simply when there is a difference between what we want and what is happening.The first step, is to make a decision about whether the “problem” is significant in our learning environment and if so, do we need to take action. For example, data may show that behavior incidents are being reported because students are chewing gum in class. Certain teachers clearly do not want this behavior in their classes. A team may have to decide if this is a significant problem and discuss the clarity and validity of the school expectations. They may decide that is problem is worth identifying or that it is not. If they do, the problem solving will involve figuring out how to eliminate or reduce behavior which means putting time and energy into this problem. We’ve seen teams take some time working through this step to decisions not to address or to address thoroughly or minimally with great results.
First step: Identify Problems. ;)
Key Points: After reviewing initial data, it is effective to make some broad problem statements. These statement will lead to questions that will require digging deeper in the data.Examples of broad statements:Our average Major Office DisciplineReferrals per school day per month are higher than national average for a school of our enrollment size Our average ODRs per school day per month are higher this year than for corresponding months of previous year Our average ODRs per school day per month are showing an increasing trend Faculty, parents, and students say our ODR levels are too high
Step 2: Develop Hypothesis
Key Points:Most important is the why question, and this is the one we are the worst at answering. In this situation, we are seeking a group’s function of behavior rather than individuals. Without knowing why students are engaging in the behavior, you can’t successfully develop a strategy to improve the behavior. The goal is to determine why so that you can help them learn a new behavior that meets the same need.For example, two students who visibly demonstrate the same behavior may have completely different reasons for doing soJohnny puts his head down on his desk, because he knows his teacher will come over to ask how he is doing and his mom just had twins so he is feeling neglected at home and is craving adult attentionJudy puts her head down on her desk because it is math time and she struggles with math and feels anxious that the teacher will think she is stupid so she hopes she will get sent to ISS for not doing her work and therefore miss math. Same behavior that requires two completely different strategies. We must make similar conclusions when studying groups of students or school-wide data. Our conclusions might focus on majority of students rather than ALL. Some students will need more than universals.
After identifying the problem, we must try to uncover the reason why it is happening and the context surrounding the problem.
Key Points: Example of a hypothesis developed with data, and additional information from staff:Many instances of disruption occurring in cafeteria between 11:30 AM and 12:00 PM; large majority involving 6th graders, particularly Student #10… because (a) cafeteria overcrowded at that time, (b) 6th graders have received insufficient instruction in cafeteria expectations, and (c) disruption results in attention from adults and peers
Key Points:Example of percent reduction:“Reduce cafeteria disruptions by 75% & maintain for remainder of school yearExample of absolute reduction: “Reduce cafeteria disruptions to an average of no more than 2 per month & maintain for remainder of school year.” (Absolute means the number of)Example of Satisfaction Level: “All school personnel assigned to cafeteria between 11:30 AM and 12:00 PM will rate the level of disruptions to be ‘acceptable’ or better; rating maintained during monthly reviews conducted throughout remainder of school year.”
After the problem has been identified, and solutions have been suggested, we must develop an action plan to ensure fidelity and to hold people accountable.
Key Points: If any of you have ever had the behavior basics training or any behavior mod classes, you have heard of studying antecedent, behavior, and consequences when observing behavior. (ABC). This study of behavior has led us to 3 ways to manage human behavior. Prevent the problem or address antecedents, teach and practice desired behavior, and finally respond to behavior in a manner that supports desired behavior and does not support undesired (addressing consequences that occur following behavior). Ideally, we want to address all 3 of these areas when creating plans. Key to a plans success is that action steps and plans are utilized and implemented as stated in plans. And then, finally, patience. It takes time for behavior that has been working to meet a function to change. We recommend a month of implementing before evaluating effectiveness.Make sure individuals involved get training and coaching to accomplish the tasks they are assigned.
This may seem overly simple, and it is. This is a quick, easy way to assess fidelity of implementation of the plan. Many times, initiatives fail or seem to be ineffective through no fault of the initiative or the strategy. Usually, this failure is due to the adults in the plan not doing their job. This is a good way to get a pulse on the perception of fidelity of the shareholders.
Key Points: After implementing plan/interventions for a period of time, it is important to evaluate effectiveness of interventions. This slide demonstrate what to do if the goal is met and if it is not met.If goal is met, you may want to increase criterion, choose another problem to move on to, or end plan.If not, you first want to ensure that interventions were used as prescribed. Next, did he get the hypothesis correct. (Is function or cause accurate?) Then, adjust plan based on answers.
Use the providedexample form to help you with this activity
1USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMS In-School Coach Training Summer Institute 2012
Exceptional Children Division Behavior Support & Special Programs2 Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
Desired Outcomes3 The goal of this training is to help schools move beyond simple collection of discipline data to using the collected data to solve problems.
Rationale4 Data should be used regularly to problem solve because it… provides an objective viewpoint of the current state. Increases efficiency by making needed action items clear. provides information about effectiveness of practices so modifications can be made in a timely manner. ensures that strategies and interventions are
5USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSData Sources
Data Sources6 Discipline data is collected in many ways: Office referrals In and out of school suspensions Classroom management systems Behavior contracts
Data Sources: Office Referral7 Information Office referrals are the most commonly used discipline data source. Regardless of the collection method, it is important to gather enough information to determine patterns and design effective solutions. Ensuring accurate collection of data is an important component of the PBIS team’s role.
Data Sources: Other Data To12 Consider Time of day Probable motivation Administrator decision ODR rate compared to national average Others involved
SWIS summary 2010-11 (Majors Only)4,634 schools; 2,394,591 students; 1,802,178 ODRs Grade Number of Mean Mean Median 25th 75th Range Schools Enrollmen ODRs per ODRs per Percentile Percentile t per 100 stud/ 100 per ODR/100/ ODR/100/ school school day school day school day school day K-6 2979 456 .32 (.41) .21 .11 .39 6-9 889 626 .65 (.81) .46 .25 .79 9-12 390 818 .85 (.86) .62 .34 1.07 PreK-8 254 438 .49 (.49) .32 .18 .65 PreK-12 50 455 1.1 (3.0) .37 .18 .71
Data Sources: Questions to15 Consider Is our database accurate and reliable? Are we capturing information about behavior in classrooms? What modifications does our system need (if any)? What training does our staff need regarding tracking and accessing data? How can we ensure our teachers are utilizing the data in an interactive manner to design effective solutions to problem behavior on a regular basis?
16USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSMeeting Foundations
Meeting Foundations: Elements17 Team purpose Defined agreements about processes Established roles and responsibilities Electronic meeting minutes
Meeting Foundations: Overview18 1. Meeting starts and ends on time 2. Consistent attendance by team members 3. Agenda is used to guide meeting topics 4. Process is in place to monitor progress of implemented solutions (review previous meeting minutes) 5. System is used for documenting decisions 6. Team members prepare for and meet responsibilities during meeting 7. Next meeting is scheduled 8. All team members (absent or present) are given minutes within 24 hours of the meeting 9. Decision makers are present when needed 10. Protocol is established for when administrator is unable to attend 11. Efforts are making a difference in the lives of children/students
1. Inform facilitator of attendance issues before meeting 2. Avoid side talk 3. Remind each other to stay focused 4. Start and end on time 5. Be an active participant19
Meeting Foundations: Roles20 Core roles Can one person serve Facilitator multiple roles? Minute taker Are there other roles Data analyst needed? EX: communication Communication coordinator coordinator, timekeeper Time keeper Administrator Active team member Backup for each role
Meeting Foundations: Roles21 Facilitator: Secures date, time, and location for meetings Manages room set-up (projector, chairs, smartboard, etc.) Guides team members in the meeting Ensures participation by all members, using facilitative techniques Works with the time keeper and the minutes taker to guarantee agenda is followed and time is honored Acts as liaison between team and administration
Meeting Foundations: Roles22 Minutes Taker: Arranges for back-up minutes taker, if absent Manages the Meeting Minutes and Problem- Solving Action Plan Captures the discussions and decisions made by the team in a concise, accurate method Is comfortable reviewing, evaluating and revising items with the team Sends minutes of meeting to team members within established time limit Ensures minutes/action plan is posted and/or shared with appropriate staff members
Meeting Foundations: Roles23 Data Analyst: Competent using technology Has access to necessary data Able to perform cursory analysis of data to identify possible problems Comfortable mining data live in meeting Capable of creating custom reports and graphs as team digs deeper in the data
Meeting Foundations: Minutes26 Documentation Review Meeting minutes Logistics date An effective process check time Baseline for current meeting location roles Visual tracking of focus topics during and after meetings Agenda Prevents side conversations today’s items Prevents repetition next week’s items Encourages completion of Discussion items, decisions tasks made, tasks and timelines assigned Problem statements, solutions/decisions/tasks, responsible people, timelines assigned, and an evaluation plan
Meeting Foundations:27 Environment Problem A key to collective problem solving is to provide a visual context that allows everyone to follow and contribute. Use Data Consider using one form to guide the activities of the meeting and using a projector so that all team members view the content and participate. Out of Solution Time
Langley Elementary PBIS Team Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan Form Today’s Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst:Next Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst: Team Members (bold are present today) Where on this form would Today’s Agenda Items Next Meeting Agenda Items you place: 01. 1. 02. 2. 03. 1. Planning for PTA Administrative/General Information and Issues meeting Information for Team, or Issue for Team to Discussion/Decision/Task (if applicable) Who? By When? Address 2. Too many students in the “intensive support” for literacy 3. Schedule for hallway Problem-Solving Action Plan monitoring for next Implementation and Evaluation Precise Problem Statement, based on review of Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, month Goal, Timeline, data Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Who? By When? Decision Rule, & Updates (What, When, Where, Who, Why) Safety) 4. There have been five fights on playground in last month 5. Next meeting report on Our Rating Evaluation of Team Meeting (Mark your ratings with an lunch-roomNo Yes So-So status “X”) 1. Was today’s meeting a good use of our time? 2. In general, did we do a good job of tracking whether we’re completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings?28 3. In general, have we done a good job of actually completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings? 4. In general, are the completed tasks having the desired effects on student behavior?
Meeting Foundations: Recording Relevance29 Minors-what would we like to do about communicating the minors with families? There is inconsistency among staff, not all teachersIssue:the minors as a teaching returning minor use families are not signing and tool in the same way. Is incident reports this a problem? What should be do? Information for Team, or Issue for Team Discussion/Decision/Task (if applicable) Who? By When? Possible hypotheses: multiple students in household to Address Discussion: Minor incident reports bringingRe-examineincidentbeing used to home?and minor the process reports document parent gets communicate about minor incidents team 2-15-10 team upset with student & students not giving form to meeting Perhaps we create a little blurb that goes out to families that Take proposal to staff Team 2-15-10 staff parents to sign? teachers will use when sending them home. Sending them home meeting creates a Decision: re-examine the process being usedwith problematic situation, can be an issue to communication with families. Perhaps we need to just say to document and communicate about minor incidents staff a general reminder about what is going on with the minors for families of multiple students or friends, etc. We will wait until next year to re-train staff and discuss how to use WHOAS and how to communicate them with parents.
Problem-Solving Action Plan Implementation and Evaluation Precise Problem Statement, based on review of data Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, Goal, Timeline, (What, When, Where, Who, Why) Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Who? By When? Decision Rule, & Updates Safety) October : We have way too many ODRs and we Last month’s example: We are above the national 3BB talked about the 3CICO system are students are starting students who Cico team Cico team 11/16/2009 11/16/2009 CICO Team check-in every average of ODR’swith aggression/fighting with have a problem and we have a problem and Older students teach primary students about starting CICO system. AT is skeptical LL analyze January PBS two weeks to see if students aggression/fightingplayground during the playground disrespect on the and disrespect on K,1,2 morning basketball game rules TP saw the program parent involvement. – contingent on D.C. LL analyze referral data meeting are meeting 80% of their duringlunch recess and lunch recess with 4 and K,1,2 morning coming to school on time involvement at the work fine without parent NN/MMdata referral 11/16/09 goal. students. Reteach playground expectations and asked if previous school. AA walked in Decrease of playground another student could be on CICO. JJ asked if referrals by 25% by January the supervisors were moving around, he had PBS meeting. CICO team seen them talking together in the middle of will report the playground once last week. Decrease of playground We should plan to reteach playground referrals by K-2 students and expectations .Older students could teach D.C. defiance/disruption primary students basketball game rules – referrals contingent on D.C. coming to school on time This month’s precise problem statement: We have -Reteaching game and playground rules -MM will ask MA three high fliers, K-2 and a 6th grader on the -Reinforce proper lining up if she can playground, at 10:00 and 11:45/12:00 -Reinforce exiting and entering building reinforce/teach 46/69 number of total major and minor referrals on playground rules the playground30
Meeting Foundations:31 Structure/Flow 1. Attendance, roles for meeting 2. Next meeting date 3. Review agenda for meeting 4. Review/status update of previous meeting minutes 5. Review data and use problem solving model to prompt the development of a comprehension action plan 6. Reports needed for next meeting 7. Team assessment of meeting
Identify Problem Evaluate and Develop revise Hypothesi action s plan Develop Discuss and and implemen select t action solutions plan33
Any tasks assigned get copied to the meeting minutes of the next meeting as a follow up item Meeting Agenda Item: Meeting Foundations Tasks: What, by whom, by when34 7/13/2012 Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine K., 2010
38USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSProblem Solving Process
Problem Solving Process: Using39 Data In the previous section, you looked at data that gave an overall view of patterns in a school, but didn’t provide enough data to move forward. Collecting data is pointless if it is not used by all staff members to solve both school-wide and classroom problems. The ultimate goal is to improve the school experience for students, staff and families. Data should help us clearly identify problems and lead us to specific possible solutions. We need to move past “admiring the problem.”
Problem Solving Process: Using40 Data In order to solve problems successfully, schools need to use a specific process to define precise problems and design solutions. The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) model was created for PBIS teams. PBIS teams should use the TIPS model for school-wide data, grade level, and for individual students. All staff members need to have access to the data and be taught how to use the information to solve everyday challenges. *The TIPS model can easily be used for academic or corporate problems as well.
Problem Solving Process:42 Definitions Problem: Difference exists between expected/desired student behavior and current student behavior. Problem identification: Difference is discovered and significance is determined. Problem solving: A plan is created to reduce or eliminate difference.
43USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSIdentify Problems
Identify Problems: Broad Problem45 Statements Typically, schools use behavioral data to define broad problems. Broad problem statements do not give enough information to design effective solutions. The purpose of broad problems statements is to elicit questions that can be answered with data to better define the problem.
48USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSDevelop Hypothesis
Develop Hypothesis: Determine Cause of Problem49 Determining the cause, or uncovering why a behavior is occurring, is essential to developing interventions. The goal is to help students learn to appropriately meet their needs. When collecting data, it is important for staff to make their best, most informed guesses about why students are engaging in problem behaviors.
Develop a Hypothesis: Things to51 Consider A hypothesis is an explanation for what the data and your experience tell you. Data can only give part of the picture. Staff with the most direct experience with the problem need to add their insight to accurately define cause. An accurate hypothesis is crucial to designing solutions that will be effective.
Develop a Hypothesis: Identify a PreciseProblem52 Creating strategies without knowing the precise problem leads to inefficient solutions and wasted time. In order to ensure precise problem statements, go back to the data to answer the following: What is the problem? How often is it happening? Where is it happening? Who is engaged in the behavior? When is the problem most likely to occur?
Activity: Identifying Precise53 Problem Statement Which partial statement is more precise? Which statement is a complete Precise Problem Statement? Too many ODRs 15 instances of disrespect 24 ODRs between 1:00 and 1:30 Too many ODRs in the afternoon Too many ODRs outside the classroom 6 ODRs on the playground 25% of students have at least 2 ODRs Many students have ODRs Total of 12 ODRs for aggression on the Too many ODRs on the playground in the last month; this playground number is more than last year and shows an increasing trend for this year; these incidents are occurring during the first recess, and there are different students involved each time.
54USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSDiscuss and Select Solutions
Discuss and Select a Solution: Creating a Goal56 Prior to designing solution strategies, a clear goal needs to be set that can be evaluated using data. Goals can be measured in the following ways: Percent reduction Absolute reduction Satisfaction level The best practice is to use more than one measure of evaluation.
Discuss and Select Solutions:57 Design Prevent: • How can we modify the context in which the behavior occurs? • Can we remove or alter the triggers for problem behavior? Teach: • Do we need to define the expected behaviors more clearly? • Can we teach a replacement behavior that meets the same need? • Do we need to provide additional demonstration and/or practice of the desired behaviors? Respond: • In what ways can we immediately prompt the correct behavior? • Does our system frequently reward the desired behavior ? • Can we extinguish problems by withholding reinforcement of the problem behavior? • Can we develop meaningful consequences to correct the problem behavior that provide a learning or practice component of the desired behavior? • How will we effectively respond to behaviors that compromise safety while ensuring the student’s dignity is maintained?
Discuss and Select Solutions: TIPS Worksheet58
59USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSDevelop Action Plan
Develop and Implement Action Plan:61 Design The most effective plans utilize multiple strategies that affect all causes of the problem- prevent/teach/respond (prompt, reward, correction, extinction, safety). To ensure fidelity of implementation, specific tasks need to be assigned to individuals with a timeline for checking back. Change takes time, so implement the plan for at least one month before evaluating.
Develop and Implement Action Plan: AfterCreation62 Once strategies are selected, specific tasks need to be delegated and tracked using an action plan. Action plans should drive the creation of future meeting agendas as well as generate clear action steps at the end of each meeting. Effective action plans are: Used regularly Frequently reviewed and updated Accessible to all staff Made of specific, manageable action steps with clear timelines Developed using data from staff and teams
Develop and Implement Action Plan: Ensuring Fidelity63 Use weekly 1-5 survey from teachers to assess implementation of plan. Are we doing the plan? 1 ….. 2 …..3 ….. 4 ….. 5 No Yes Fidelity Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine 7/13/2012 K., 2010
64USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSEvaluate and Revise Action Plan
Evaluate and Revise Action66 Plan Use data to answer the following: Has the goal been met? If yes, choose one of the following options: 1. Increase goal for the same problem. 2. Choose another problem to address. 3. End use of the plan. If no, choose one of the following options: 1. Evaluate fidelity of implementation. 2. Consider the accuracy of the hypothesis. 3. Alter the timeline. 4. Find ways to adjust the solutions.