Desired outcome is to share thoughts and perceptions of what a coach does and what problems coaches face.
This definition reflects the fundamental goal of coaching for implementation: to build capacity. First, coaching does NOT necessarily have to be completed by one person. Coaching can be provided by a number of different individuals depending upon individuals’ specializations, skill-sets, as well as the particulars of the context of activities. Second, the leadership team must hold certain essential skills sets in order to effectively coordinate and support coaching activities. These essential skills also reflect (or are embedded within) the new definition/model of Leadership.
4 Functions in a conceptual-basedhierarchical relationship: Problem-Solving Facilitation Skills + Content Knowledge help to inform and support skill development of leadership team members. In turn, the leadership team develops a plan of action for implementing and works to incorporate it into their school improvement efforts annually. PD would be one major mechanism for ensuring sustainability of what works and introducing more complex or needed improvements over time regarding staff knowledge and skills to increase efficiency and effectiveness of data-based decision making as well as instructional planning and evaluating of student success.Primary responsibility for guiding and monitoring implementation and sustainability over time would be expected to fall on the leadership team. Problem-Solving Facilitation skills and content knowledge among Leadership Team members would be expected to build over time through support of a coach or collective supports among members of the team as a foundation for empowering the leadership team to then provide guidance and support to all staff towards full implementation. PD for staff and lead team would be considered a core mechanism for ensuring an evolving examination of effectivess towards sustainability of what works over time.
When we are speaking of the role of the coach, and we mention facilitation, we do not necessarily mean the facilitation of meetings. We are addressing the concept of facilitating the learning and discussion of new ideas and implementation, which may sometimes lead to conflict or disagreements.
Again, facilitator in this case means facilitating conversations about implementation.
Recommended PD: Crucial Conversations, Facilitative LeadershipRecommended Reading: 5 Dysfunctions of a Team, The Influencer
Establish and articulate a clear vision with a sense of urgency for change, maintain focus and deliver a consistent message of implementation over time Message not always developed collaborativelyNeed for change/innovation must be perceived as immediately necessaryMust be communicated frequently
Decision-makers are most likely the administrators. If the administrators are not able to be present, then there should be a process in place for making decisions in his or her absence, OR a process for debriefing and review after the meeting with the facilitator and the administrator.
Engage in expert problem solvingIdentify the correct barriers and goals efficiently and effectivelyEngage in good problem analysis with an understanding that there are many typical barriers to attaining school goals.Know that there are several identified strategies for removing barriers and achieving the vision and apply appropriate strategies based upon school-specific needsEvaluate the effectiveness of implemented strategiesRetrain/ more training of teachers/staff/administrationUse mentorsStaff reinforcementEmpirical data of the schoolStaff from one’s own school will visit other schools having difficultyProvide teacher/staff incentives
The number one goal of in-school coaches is to be completely fluent in the framework and philosophies of PBIS at all levels.The second goal is to be able to effectively use that fluency to build capacity at the school level.
If you think about it, this is PBIS for Coaches. The first bullet describes a process that is similar to defining expectations.The second bullet is similar to teaching and coaching expectationsThe third and fourth bullets are similar to rewarding students when they meet those expectations.The final bullets are similar to using data to make decisions and responding to problems.
If this happens at your school, what will you do?
Include plans for training new team members----especially when there is administrator turnover.
Focus conversation---make sure all parties understand the desired outcome and the confidentialitySee and explore the current state---make sure the person being coached is understoodBridge to desired outcomes---the person being coached is given opportunity to describe ideal situationForm clear commitment and action plan---include dates and people responsibleMonitor for results and accountability---establish times to check in to monitor progress
Data analyst on team must have the skills, knowledge and time to facilitate the data analysis from start to finish. The coach is responsible for helping that person get the skills he or she needs.
Data analyst on team must have the skills, knowledge and time to facilitate the data analysis from start to finish. The coach is responsible for helping that person get the skills he or she needs.
http://www.pbis.org/presentations/default.aspxHorner presentation June 12, 2012, Kentucky Coaches Conference, Coaching Effective Implementation (see slide 30 or so)
1. LEADERSHIP & COACHINGFOR PBIS Summer Institute, July 26-27, 2012
2. ROLE OF THE IN-SCHOOLCOACH
3. Exceptional Children Division Behavior Support & Special ProgramsPositive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
4. Participant Expectations Be Responsible • Return promptly from breaks • Be an active participant • Use electronic devices appropriately Be Respectful • Maintain cell phone etiquette • Listen attentively to others • Limit sidebars and stay on topic Be Kind • Enter discussions with an open mind • Respond appropriately to others’ ideas
5. Attention SignalPlease make note of time limits andwatch your clocks! Trainer will raise his/her hand. Finish your thought/comment. Participants will raise a hand and wait quietly.
6. Desired OutcomesBy the end of the session you will… Understand the use of effective systems, practices and data of coaching Practice using tools to assist your coaching
7. Who we are…………Regional Email AddressCoordinatorCayce Cayce.email@example.comMcCamish,Region 5Correy Watkins, Correy.firstname.lastname@example.orgRegion 3Laura Winter, Laura.email@example.comRegion 6
8. Who are you? For the next 10 minutes, we will play “In-School Coach Bingo!” Find people in the room who fit the descriptions on the activity sheet.
9. Use of the Wiki How to do this……http://ncec.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/Positiv e+Behavior+Intervention+and+Suppo rt
10. Review of PBIS Total staff commitment to managing behavior School-wide, clearly defined expectations Teaching component for behavior System to recognize and acknowledge appropriate behavior Clearly defined, effective consequences for problem behavior that exist on a continuum Plan to support students with chronic, challenging behaviors Use of data in all aspects
11. Activity 1: Definitions Read the definitions of each of the following and discuss with the people at your table: Facilitator Coach Mentor Consultant How do these definitions match up with your experiences as an in-school coach?
12. Coaching DefinitionCoaching (v.): a set of activities that provide dynamic support and facilitation to develop the capacity of school/district leadership teams to implement initiatives aligned with the school/district improvement plan in order to enhance student outcomes. Tenets include: Not necessarily a person, but a set of skills and activities There are some essential skills sets required of (Gaunt, leadership team to support & complete the the Dorman, & March, 2012) activities
13. Coaching Model Professional Development Leadership Support Problem-Solving Content Facilitation Skills Knowledge (Gaunt, et al., 2012)
14. Leadership + Coaching Leadership Characteristics Coaching Responsibilities Vision, focus, Effective interpersonal consistent message communication Focus on schools Data-based problem- solving Relationships based Content Knowledge on respect and shared responsibility Team Facilitation Support leadership Expert problem-solving Provide professional Investment in development professional Evaluate impacts development(Gaunt, et al., 2012)
15. Functions of an In-SchoolCoachRoles Components Coach Systems Mentor Practices Consultant Data Facilitator Skill Developer Problem solver
16. Social Competence and Academic Achievement OUTCOMESSupporting Supporting Staff Decision Behavior Making PRACTICES Positive Behavior Intervention Supporting & Support Student Behavior
17. SYSTEMS FOREFFECTIVE COACHING
18. Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting SupportingStaff Behavior Decision Making PRACTICES Positive Behavior Supporting Intervention Student Behavior & Support
19. Systems for EffectiveCoachingIn this section: Expectations for In-School Coaches District Level Support Integrating With Other Initiatives Networking Team Dynamics and Dysfunctions Meeting Foundations Making Decisions Problem Solving and Conflict Resolution Methods for Ongoing Learning
20. SystemsExpectations for In-School Coaches Can facilitate effective team conversations. Can provide effective consultation and technical assistance to school teams. Able to effectively communicate within and across schools. Can assist schools in establishing systems to support staff and increase sustainability of PBIS implementation efforts. Knowledgeable of local, regional, and state contacts for consultation and support.
21. Systems for Effective Coaching:District Level Support Coaching is most effective when supported by a school system. District leadership is key in providing funding, support for program goals, visibility of schools implementing and inclusion in other district initiatives. District level leadership team provides oversight and ensures all stakeholders are represented in development of program practices. Leadership Support
22. Systems for Effective Coaching:Integration with Other Initiatives Ensure that PBIS is part of discussions as other related initiatives are being implemented. Responsiveness to Instruction (RtI) School Improvement Planning Student Support and Special Education Common Core and Essential Standards Data Literacy Content Knowledge
23. Systems for Effective Coaching:Develop an Effective Coach Network System-wide team of coaches needs to utilize the same effective team practices asked of school teams. These include procedures for: Understanding team dynamics Guiding crucial conversations Making decisions Problem solving and conflict resolution Methods for ongoing learning Leadership Support
24. Systems of Effective Coaching:Understanding Team Dynamics Personality differences can have a major impact on team dynamics and effectiveness. Team members should be familiar with typical team challenges and discuss strategies for addressing them. Five Dysfunctions of a Team provides a framework for understanding and employing methods for improving team functioning. Problem- Solving(Lencioni, 2002) Facilitation
25. Systems for Effective Coaching:Strategies for Addressing TeamDysfunction Regularly assess team functioning through surveys. Provide opportunities to build trust. Create environments that address the needs of all personality types. Utilize meeting processes that encompass a variety of opportunities for maximum participation. Employ decision making methods that allow team members to honestly commit to proposals. Use action plan to ensure accountability. Problem- Solving(Lencioni, 2002) Facilitation
26. Systems for Effective Coaching:Meeting Foundations 1. Meeting starts and ends on time Problem-Solving 2. Consistent attendance by team members Facilitation 3. Agenda is used to guide meeting topics Skills 4. Process is in place to monitor progress of implemented solutions (review previous meeting minutes) 5. System is used for documenting decisions 6. Team members prepare for and meet responsibilities during meeting 7. Next meeting is scheduled 8. All team members (absent or present) are given minutes within 24 hours of the meeting 9. Decision makers are present when needed 10. Protocol is established for when administrator is unable to attend 11. Efforts are making a difference in the lives of children/students (Newton, Horner, Algozzine, Todd, & Algozzine, 2010)
27. Systems for Effective Coaching: Making Decisions Coaching team needs to have a framework for making decisions. Different decisions require different methods depending on the stakeholders present and the time frame. The following continuum of options for decision making allows the coaching team to ensure maximum possible participation. Problem- Solving Facilitation(Interaction Associates, 1998) Skills
28. Systems for Effective Coaching:Continuum of Decision Making Least restrictive- • Delegate without constraints most amount of • Consensus of meeting attendees input from group • Delegate with constraints during meeting • Gather input and decide Most restrictive- • Decide and announce during least amount of meeting input from group • Decide and announce after meeting(Interaction Associates, 1998)
29. Systems for Effective Coaching:Making DecisionsTools for reaching agreement Proposals followed by thumbs up/thumbs down Fist to five Disagree and commit Problem- Solving Facilitation
30. Systems for Effective Coaching:Problem Solving/Conflict Resolution Conflict is a normal part of working in teams. Productive conflict allows for voicing of different opinions without personal attacks. Problem solve using the following guidelines: Stay focused on the common goal. Check for understanding before disagreeing. Table discussions if conflict can not be resolved. Allow team members time to reflect and come back to the problem later. Problem- Solving Facilitation
31. System for Effective Coaching:Methods for Ongoing Learning Coaches need ongoing learning opportunities. Focus on improving coaching practices and school team outcomes. Team approach to learning can maximize use of new ideas. Team professional growth plans Book studies Professional development Work with your district and regional coordinators to access ongoing learning opportunities for PBIS in your region. Content Professional Knowledge Development
32. Activity 2: Systems of EffectiveCoachesFind a partner.Each pair has a scenario to read.After reading the scenario, try to resolve the conflict in the scenario.
33. PRACTICES OFEFFECTIVE COACHES
34. Social Competence and Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting SupportingStaff Behavior Decision Making PRACTICES Positive Behavior Interventio Supporting n Student Behavior and
35. Practices for Effective CoachingIn this section: Expectations for In-School Coach Practices of Effective Coaches and Fatal Flaws Building Relationships Applying Adult Learning Theory Giving Feedback Fostering Teacher Leaders Linking Teams to Other Resources Coach Learning Opportunities
36. Practices of Effective Coaches: ExpectationsExpectations for In-School Coaches Can facilitate effective team conversations. Can provide effective consultation and technical assistance to school teams. Able to effectively communicate within and across schools. Can assist schools in establishing systems to support staff and increase sustainability of PBIS implementation efforts. Knowledgeable of local, regional, and state contacts for consultation and support.(North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, n.d.)
37. Practices of EffectiveCoaches Facilitates team work toward goals. Delegates effectively. Enjoys using praise and uses it often. Speaks loudly and often of team’s achievements. Strives to help employees reach their fullest potential. Continuously seeks innovative strategies to increase effectiveness of PBIS implementation.
38. Practices of Effective Coaches:Fatal Flaws Lack of delegation Inability to modify old relationships Misuse of authority Lack of commitment Inability to recognize potential Failure to motivate
39. Practices of Effective Coaches:Teams Develop team goals Set an example Expect accountability Encourage team suggestions Train employees Problem- Solving Facilitation
40. Practices of Effective Coaches:Building Relationships with Teams Relationship with team must be established and nurtured. Coaches may take different approach depending upon team. Process checks may be needed, at times, to ensure that coach is meeting needs of the team. Problem- Solving Facilitation
41. Practices of Effective Coaches:Applying Adult Learning Theory Allow teams to be self-directed. Rely on expertise and experience of team members to drive implementation. Assist team members with relating learning to their role in the school. Support team in balancing immediate implementation and planning. Connect internal motives and personal goals of team members to PBIS. (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2005) Content ProfessionalKnowledge
42. Practices of Effective Coaches: Applying Adult Learning Theory Trust is essential. Consider Four Principles of Adult Learning: Collaboration with dialogue Problem posing Action orientation Reflective practice(Knowles et al., 2005) Content Professional Knowledge Development
43. Practices of Effective Coaches:Giving Effective Feedback Provide ongoing feedback on shortcomings and successes. Present in a supportive, honest, sincere and non-accusatory manner. Make it timely. Problem- Content Solving Knowledge Facilitation
44. Practices of Effective Coaches: Building Independence Through Inquiry Facilitative Leadership authors suggest that coaches spend at least 70% of the time in inquiry mode, which…. leads to personal learning and builds problem solving skills, which………. leads to stronger integration of knowledge and increases likelihood of sustainability, which…….. leads to life-long learners who seek out new ideas and alternate perspectives. Good coaches understand the difference between hearing what is actually said and hearing what the person means.(Interaction Associates, 1998) Content Problem-Solving Knowledge Facilitation Skills
45. Practices of Effective Coaches:Fostering Teacher Leaders Goals of Positive Behavior Intervention and Support include creating sustainable change and decreasing reliance upon outside sources that ensure implementation. Leaders must emerge from within the school. Coaches should foster in-school leaders by encouraging and providing further learning in areas of strength and/or interest. Leadership Support
46. Practices of Effective Coaches: Linking Teams to Other Resources Gaining access to other resources and other PBIS schools will build capacity and independence.JPBI www.pbis.orgwww.ncpublicschools.org/posit District/regional coachivebehavior meetingsState trainings/conferences NewslettersBlogs Social mediaWebsites WikisPosters Presentations to staff Content Knowledge
47. Practices of Effective Coaches:Coach Learning Opportunities LEA/District Coach Meetings Regional Coach Meetings State Trainings (ex: Summer Institute, State Recognition Ceremony) Exceptional Children’s Conference Content ProfessionalKnowledge Development
48. Activity 3: Practices of EffectiveCoaches Find a partner. Each person has been given a “problem.” Take turns being the coach. When you are the coach, you are listening to the other person describe the problem, then you are spending 3.5 minutes asking questions about the problem before spending the last 1.5 minutes advocating a solution. Switch roles.
49. USING DATA FOREFFECTIVE COACHING
50. Social Competence and Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting SupportingStaff Behavior Decision Making PRACTICES Positive Behavior Supporting Intervention Student Behavior & Support
51. Data for Effective CoachingIn this section: Expectations for In-School Coaches Guiding Teams to Use Data Planning Implementation Developing New Strategies Evaluating Effectiveness of Strategies Tailoring Training
52. Using Data for EffectiveCoaching: Expectations for In-School Coaches Support team Data Manager as he or she: Becomes familiar with multiple types of data and their uses (e.g. ODRs, SET, Surveys, Achievement Scores, etc). Assists team in locating or summarizing data as needed for problem-solving (e.g. NCWISE, Excel Spreadsheets, etc). Can teach and support teams use of data to guide decision-making.
53. Using Data for Effective Coaching:Guiding Teams to Use Data Coaches need to help teams create simple and easy ways to collect, summarize and use behavioral data. Goal is to create systems where data is easily entered and accessed by all staff. Climate needs to be safe in order for teams to look at data in a non-judgmental way. Creating a safe climate may require ongoing conversations with administrators, teams and school staff.
54. Using Data for Effective Coaching:Guiding Teams to Use Data Data becomes more useful when it is used to answer key questions. Coaches teach teams to formulate questions and then model how to use data to generate answers. Teams should teach all teachers to follow the same process in problem solving teams, in classrooms and for individual students.
55. Using Data for Effective Coaching:Guiding Teams to Use Data Key questions fall into three categories: Planning implementation Developing new strategies Evaluating effectiveness of strategies
56. Using Data for Effective Coaching:Guiding Teams to Use Data Key questions for planning implementation: What are our biggest areas of concern? What are our goals as a school? What is the vision we have for the school? Whatis currently working that we want to keep doing? Leadership Support
57. Using Data for Effective Coaching:Guiding Teams to Use Data Data sources for planning implementation: PBIS Self Assessment Survey Implementation Inventory School-wide Evaluation Tool Climate survey Discipline data Formative and summative academic assessments Leadership Support Attendance data
58. Using Data for Effective Coaching:Guiding Teams to Use Data Key questions for developing new strategies: Canwe create a specific statement as to the problem we are trying to solve? Can we make a hypothesis as to the reason for the problem? What research based strategies best fit the problem? Problem- Solving Facilitation
59. Using Data for Effective Coaching:Guiding Teams to Use Data Data sources for developing new strategies: Office referral data Classroom level behavioral data Problem- Solving Facilitation
60. Using Data for Effective Coaching:Guiding Teams to Use Data Key questions for evaluating effectiveness: Did we do what we said we were going to do? Doesthe data analyst have the skills, knowledge and time to facilitate the process? Do we have evidence that we met (or are meeting) our goals? Leadership Support
61. Using Data for Effective Coaching:Guiding Teams to Use Data Data sources for evaluating effectiveness: PBIS Self Assessment Survey Implementation Inventory Climate surveys Discipline data SET Leadership Support
62. Using Data for Effective Coaching: Tailoring Training/Coaching Needs Coaches need to use data in the same manner in which we have guided our teams Key questions coaches need to be asking: Are we providing the best quality training that meets the needs of participants? Are teams meeting their goals for implementation? (Lewis-Palmer, Barrett, & Lewis, 2004)my support and guidance? Are teams satisfied with Content Professional Are teams becoming increasingly independent over Knowledge time?
63. Using Data for Effective Coaching: Tailoring Training/Coaching Needs Data Sources for tailoring training/coaching needs: Training Evaluations Coach surveys Team action plans School level outcome data Frequency of meetings/training at the school level Coach self-assessment (Lewis-Palmer et al., 2004) Content Professional Knowledge
64. Activity 4: Data for EffectiveCoaching Using the graphs, create a plan for professional development for the staff and a plan for teaching expectations for the students.
66. Social Competence and Academic Achievement OUTCOMESSupporting Supporting Staff Decision Behavior Making PRACTICES Positive Behavior Intervention Supporting & Support Student Behavior
67. Outcomes of EffectiveCoaching Improvement in overall fidelity of PBIS implementation Improved PBIS fluency Abilityto apply and adapt PBIS concepts/skills to novel problems Able to quickly identify and correct if off-course Improved ability to problem-solve Improved sustainability (Horner, 2012)
68. Activity 5: Effective CoachingAction Plan Complete the Coach Self-Assessment. Thinking about the expectations for in-school coaches around data, systems, and practices, what are your next steps as a coach? Write a couple of action plan steps about additional training or support needed from your LEA Coordinator or Regional Coordinator.