Functional Behavior Assessments to developBehavior Intervention PlansTIER 3 1
TIER 3Remember…This step involves other staff and personnelas needed (parents, teachers, counselors,social workers, administrators, and/or nurse) 2
Components of Tier 3 Problem Solving• Team initiates process based on the student’s data• Team implements BIP based on FBA• Progress monitoring data is collected to determine if behavior goal is met• Team evaluates implementation of Tier 3 supports
Who is appropriate for Tertiary/Tier 3 Interventions?• Specific chronic social, emotional, and behavioral challenges needing tertiary supports can be defined as: – More than 5 absences in a 30 day period – 3 or more counseling referrals in a 30 day period – 6 or more office discipline referrals – Failure to respond to Tier 2 interventions/supports• Discuss with your team possible data decision rules for your school.
Suggestions for the Process… Initial Meeting (15 minutes)PSM Team Take and review referral Form Behavior Team Provide support to BT as needed Assessment (with staff assistance)Behavior Conduct simple FBA (30 minutes) Team Conduct full FBA if needed (90 min.) Prepare to report findings Second Meeting (60 minutes) Behavior Discuss assessment findings Design BIP Team Implement BIP Third Meeting (30-60 minutes) Progress Monitor BIP Behavior Modify BIP as necessary Team Support and Follow through Follow progress on identified student Provide support as neededPSM Team Monitor Implementation of Tier 3
Possible Strategies/InterventionsKeep in mind, student should have gone through secondary/tier 2 interventions prior to tertiary/tier 3 interventions are determined.• Functional Behavior Assessments – Behavior Intervention Plan 6
FB(A) – What is it? Functional Behavior AssessmentThe process of determining the cause(function) of behaviors that interfere withlearning.The FBA uses data that could include:interviews (student, teacher, parent), directobservations, and a review of student recordsto develop a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP).
Who ??? Participates in the FBA/BIP process?• Any individual with knowledge of and an interest in the student’s success can participate in the FBA/BIP process.• This includes, but is not limited to, Teachers Administration Counselors Parents Student Psychologist Community members Other agency personnel
How?? FBA -Planning Meeting• PSM team will hold a planning meeting.• Team members should come prepared to discuss 3 main topics: 1. Student Strengths 2. Target behavior 3. Situational events
Target BehaviorMust answer 3 fundamental ?s1. What is the child doing?2. When/under what conditions is the child demonstrating the behavior?3. How often is the child demonstrating this behavior? (frequency)(ex. Johnny yells and curses when given an assignment that requires him to read independently on 2 out of 4 assignments.)
Activity…For the following examples,come up with some questions that may help to refine the target behavior…• Trish is so aggressive.• Stella doesn’t pay attention.• Chance is always bothering others.• Maggie’s lab projects are a mess.• Carlos is so disruptive.• Timmy is lazy.
Teacher concern Target BehaviorTrish is aggressive. Trish hits other students during recess when she does not get her Way, 3 out of 5 days.Carlos is disruptive. Carlos makes irrelevant and inappropriate comments during class discussion 75% of the time.Jan is hyperactive. Jan blurts out answers without raising her hand during whole group instruction, 3-5 times during a 60 minute class period. the behavior -> when/under what conditions -> how often The Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 1998
Situational EventsThese are immediate and time bound events, such as recent divorce, new student in class, changes in the family dynamics, or student relocation to a new school.In some cases these events can be identified and discussed so that interventions can be put in place immediately. If effective, there may be no need to move forward with the FBA/BIP process.
How?? FBA Getting StartedIf the team feels that it is necessaryto complete the FBA/BIP processproceed with the following:• Initial meeting held to assign roles and responsibilities in conducting the FBA.• FBA notification letter
FBA/BIP Process Step 1: Step 3: Step 4: Step 2: Data Create a Review the FBA AnalysisCollection Behavior Plan Intervention Plan (BIP)
Step 1. DATA COLLECTION Observations (frequency, intensity, duration) Student, Parent, Teacher Interview (setting and function) Record Review (academic performance, discipline referrals, evaluation information)
Step 1. DATA COLLECTION Environmental ABC InventoryInterviews- Interviews- Data Collection student Parent/teacher document
Step 2. Functional Behavior Analysis (FBA) Form FBA form
How?? - FBA AnalysisMust identify the following: Strengths (ex. works well with peers, has great vocabulary skills, is a good classroom helper) Description of any Situational Events These are immediate and time bound events, such as recent divorce, new student in class, changes in the family dynamics, or student relocation to a new school.
FBA Analysis Continued… Description of Target Behavior (Must be measurable, observable, and repeatable) What is the child doing? When/under what conditions is the child doing it? How often is the child doing it? (frequency)(ex. Johnny yells and curses when given an assignment that requires him to read independently on 2 out of 4 assignments.)
FBA Analysis Continued… Frequency, Intensity, and Duration (Frequency – 3x a day, 12 x in a 45 minute period, Intensity – On a scale of 1 -5 (1 = low, 5 = high) Duration – Approximately 5 minutes, the entire block) Previous Interventions (What has been tried in the past? Seating or schedule changes, peer buddies, support during transitions)
FBA Analysis Continued… Setting Events/Precipitating FactorsSlow Triggers – (pervasive antecedents) such as medication issues, home issues, lack of social skills, academic issuesFast Triggers – (immediate triggers) what preceded the behavior such as peer interactions, new assignments/tasks, unstructured activities, noises, lights
FBA Analysis Continued… Consequences Typical responses by the school – do they reinforce the function of the behavior? How does the student respond to the consequence(s)?
What is the function /cause of acting out behavior?1. GAIN or OBTAIN – could tangible, social, sensory, or attention from adults or peers2. ESCAPE or AVOID SOMETHING – could be a task, person, situation, sensory stimulation, social interaction, attention, etc.
Completing an FBA provides a hypothesis…• When Perry is getting little attention in a large group in the classroom, he is likely to shout profanities and throw things to get peer attention. The less attention Perry has received during the day, the more likely this pattern is to occur.
Determining the function of the behavior • Watch the video about TRACY, • Look for the antecedents, triggers, consequences and specific behavior. • In your group, determine the function of the student’s behavior – 1. GAIN or OBTAIN – could tangible, social, sensory, or attention from adults or peers – 2. ESCAPE or AVOID SOMETHING – could be a task, person, situation, sensory stimulation, socialWorkbook interaction, attention, etc.pg,. 47
PracticeEric1. -Observe Eric’s behavior and as a team fill out the FBA form, including the hypothesis
Team MembersTeacher PE Teacher PrincipalParent Counselor Librarian Slide 18 -21
Link the BIP to the FBA…• You have identified the function of the behavior (gain or avoid)• Create a behavior plan that will address the function and teach the replacement behavior. This will continue to meet the student’s need to gain or avoid.
Step 3 Create aBehavior Intervention Plan ABSS (BIP) form
Behavior Intervention Plan Must Include:Setting Event Replacement Adult/student Strategies Behavior Responsibilities Data Collection Continuum ofReinforcement & System to Consequences Review 32
Can we prevent the behavior from happening? Setting Event/Precipitating FactorsSetting Event/PrecipitatingFactors Setting Event Strategies• medication issues • Communicate about responses to medications• home issues • Collaborate with support network for the family• lack of social skills • Provide prompts for social• academic issues interactions • Tutoring or strategies to reduce• peer interactions academic struggle• new assignments/tasks • Modify peer group or interactions • Assignment planner/ steps on the• unstructured activities board• transitions • Teach a routine for the activity • Use a timer to signal transition• noises • Remove noise/distraction• lights • Use different lighting method Setting Event Strategies
Setting Events/ Precipitating Factors• Why isn’t it enough to just make modifications for setting events?• Talk with your team. Setting Event Strategies
What will we teach? Replacement Behavior1. What you want the student to do instead.2. Generally, the opposite of or incompatible with the problem behavior.3. Can be taught.4. Is specific, objective, and measurable. Replacement Behavior
What will we teach? Replacement Behavior1. Identify the learner (John will…)2. Identify the target behavior (state what the student will do)3. Identify the conditions of the intervention4. Identify criteria for acceptable performanceJohnny will ask to work with a peer or use the audio book when given an assignment that involves independent reading, 80% of the time. Replacement Behavior
Is the behavior specific and Objective (IBSO)?1. Can you count the number of times the behavior occurs in a 15 min. period, 1- hour, or 1 day? Or, can you count the number of minutes it takes for the child to perform the behavior? That is, can you tell someone the behavior occurred X number of times or X number of minutes in a day?• Your answer should be yes… Replacement Behavior
Is the behavior specific and Objective (IBSO)?2. Will a stranger know exactly what to look for when you tell him the target behavior you are planning to modify? That is, can you actually see the child performing the behavior when it occurs?• The answer should be yes… Replacement Behavior
Creating the Measureable GOAL for Replacement BehaviorConsider the following when writing a goal:• How often does the student engage in the behavior now?• What is a realistic #/% for the student to attain within the timeline for intervention?• What is reasonable in comparison to peers?• How will data be collected to measure the goal? Replacement Behavior
Measurable GoalsKey Factors to Baseline data- Realistic- Reasonable- Intervention Data-Consider How often now? For the Compared to Measure progress intervention peers? toward the goal? time?Example: Will Average now=2 Will increase by Peers in the Can be measured bystay in seat out of 10 4 within the class stay in a frequency countduring direction opportunities next 6 weeks their seat aninstruction 6 of per class average of 8 of10 opportunities 10 opportunitiesin 6 weeksNon-example: Average now= Will increase by Only 30% of Can be measured byWill turn in 20% of 80% in 3 weeks students in the a frequency count100% of assignments class havehomework submitted 100%assignments of assignmentswithin 3 weeks.Answer thesequestions for Replacementyourmeasurable Behavior
Ideas to keep things lively when teaching social skills/ replacement behaviors…• Include games• Videotape what you are doing• Ask children to share stories about prosocial behavior they see• Celebrate accomplishments• Connect activities to the children’s goals – more friends, a better academic performance, a safer school (Thornton et al., 2000) Replacement Behavior
Who is responsible? Adult & Student Responsibilities For Instruction Adult/staffResponsibilities: Student Responsibilities:• What skills will be • How will the student taught? demonstrate understanding and generalization of replacement behavior?• Who will teach the skill? • How will the student self-• Who will collect data? monitor?• How will the teacher be • How will the student actively supported with plan participate in plan implementation/ data development and implementation? collection? Adult/student Responsibilities
What happens when replacement behavior is demonstrated? Reinforcements/Rewards Tangible Privilege Sensory Social•Stickers •Homework pass •Brushing •Praise•Tokens •Access to media •Listening to music •Proximity•Pencils •Preferred activities •Tactile exposure •Physical•Armbands •Teacher helper •Swinging contact•“Bucks” •Free time -(make •Ball pit •Written or•Food is structured) •Velcro verbal feedback •Seating•Drink•Candy Reinforcement
Reinforcement/Reward Considerations• Should be selected based on the function of the behavior. – If the function is attention, what kind of reinforcement strategy would be most effective? – If the function is avoidance, what kind of reinforcement strategy would be most effective?• Review the list on the previous slide and mark which function you think might be best addressed by that reinforcement. Reinforcement
What happens when the replacement behavior is not demonstrated? Continuum of Consequences Always begin with least severe.• Warning• Does not earn point/token• Does not earn 2nd point/token & loss of reward/privilege• Time-out in classroom• Parent contact• Time-out outside of classroom (ISS or Choices)• For those students whose behavior is danger to self and others include a crisis plan or statement. Continuum of Consequences
Continuum of Consequences• What are other consequences used in your schools?• Please discuss options for consideration at your school. Continuum of Consequences
How will we know? Progress Monitoring• Point sheets• DBR – Daily Behavior Report Data Collection & System to Review
ProgressMonitoringwith Point Sheets Data Collection & System to Review
ProgressMonitorin g withthe DBR DataCollection & System to Review
Factors to Consider Related to the BIP • Classroom Management • Instructional Strategies • Environmental Modifications • Social Skills Instruction • Reinforcements the student is getting • Consequences the student is getting
Behavior Intervention Plan NOT WORKING: Possible Causes Short term vs. long term focus (there is no “quick fix”) Poor FBA Focus on stopping behavior rather than teaching new behavior Inconsistency in responding to behavior Using too much Verbal Input and not enough Visual Input Lack of DATA based decision making Not all relevant staff informed Not defining success Lack of available reinforcers and consequences Information provided by Kelly Rogers, S. Psy.S. Behavior Consultant, Delta- School Craft ISD.
BIP or no BIP… that is the question…• Review the sample BIP• Discuss the usefulness of this plan• What is missing???
Would youconsider thisanindividualizedplan for astudent?
Team Time• Discuss and document your plan for Tertiary levels of support.• Use the back of the BIP review to document: – Behavior team – FBA/BIP training needed – Suggestions for strategies 58
How to evaluate Tier 3 Implementation?• Evaluates all three levels of implementation• Considers Systems, Data, and Practices• Goal is 80% in each area• Use this evaluation to continue to develop and strengthen all three levels of your problem solving model.Hard copy of Implementation Inventory will be posted on the Wiki. 63
Resources for Planning• Review your data from each section of the Implementation Inventory.• Develop your Tier 2 and 3 Action Plan – Include short and long term goals – Remember to continue to address Universal Systems Workbook Pg. 60-61 64
FBA/BIP Websites: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice: www.air-dc.org/cecp/cecp.html Council for Exceptional Children: www.cec.sped.org Wrights Law www.wrightslaw.com Colorado Department of Education: www.cde.state.co.us Conner’s Rating Scales www.parinc.com/achieve Devereux Behavior Rating Scales www.devereux.org/scale.htm Behavior: You can handle them all ww.disciplinehelp.com School Behavior www.schoolbehavior.com Positive Behavior Support www.pbis.org Intervention Central www.interventioncentral.org
Texts and ReproduciblesJenson, W., Rhode, G. & Reavis, K. (1994). The Tough Kid Tool Box . Sopris West Publishers.Mahler, D. E. (2005). 204 Fold and Say Social Skills. Superduper Publishing Company.Olson, J. (2005). Go-To Guide for Social Skills. Thinking Publications.
References•Alberto, P.A. & Troutman, A.C. (2006). Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers. Upper Saddle River,New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.•Bateman & Bateman (2006). A Principal’s Guide to Special Education.•The Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 1998•Chandler, L. & Dahlquist, C. (2006). Functional Assessment: Strategies to Prevent and RemediateChallenging Behavior in School Settings.•Colorado Department of Education (2001). Functional Behavioral Assessments and BehaviorIntervention Plans: Questions and Answers.•Holahan, T. & and Hussey, B. Training for Alternative Learning Environments, Instructors Guide.•Lewis, T. Ph.D. Functional Behavioral Assessments: Moving Beyond Compliance to CreateComprehensive Positive Behavior Support Plans. University of Missouri - Columbia.•Rogers, K. & S. Psy. S., Behavior Consultants, Delta-School Craft, ISD. (Information provided forBehavior Deficits & Excesses and Functions of Behavior handouts)•Starin, S. Ph.D. Functional Behavioral Assessments: What, Why, When, Where, and Who? Wrightslaw.
Questions?• Please complete your evaluation.• Thank you! 68