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Problem solving in specific settings (2)
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Problem solving in specific settings (2)


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  • Key Points:Example of percent reduction:“Reduce cafeteria disruptions by 75% & maintain for remainder of school yearExample of absolute reduction: “Reduce cafeteria disruptions to an average of no more than 2 per month & maintain for remainder of school year.” (Absolute means the number of)Example of Satisfaction Level: “All school personnel assigned to cafeteria between 11:30 AM and 12:00 PM will rate the level of disruptions to be ‘acceptable’ or better; rating maintained during monthly reviews conducted throughout remainder of school year.”
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    • 2. PBIS in Specific Setting: Steps forSuccess 1. Identify expectations. 2. Assess the physical characteristics. 3. Establish routines and procedures. 4. Create teaching strategies based on desired replacement behavior. 5. Ensure support systems for these settings. 6. Use data to identify problems and design solutions.
    • 3. 3
    • 4. Is there a problem? Typically, the largest number of problem behaviors happen in the classrooms, as that is where students spend the most amount of time. What areas of an elementary school would be the next most problematic? What areas of a secondary school?
    • 5. 5 Sample School: Location
    • 6. Sample School: Example Based on the data, the PBIS team noticed that there were a high number of office referrals for incidents occurring on the bus. The team dug deeper into the data. They looked at the following:  Time of day  Problem behavior  Students involved  Others involved  Administrator decision
    • 7. Is there a problem? Step 1: Select and define problem behaviors.  List all problem behaviors and determine the behavior to target.  Operationally define the behavior:  Measurable  Observable  Objective
    • 8. Is there a problem?Step 2: Collect Data To determine the function, you must collect data about target behavior. Data should be collected in a reasonable time frame Data can be collected through:  indirect methods  direct observation tools
    • 9. Sample School: ExampleThe PBIS team found the following: Most ODRs on the bus were happening in the afternoon. There were a wide variety of problem behaviors on the bus, but a large number of ODRs for aggression. The incidents of aggression came from a small group of students on one bus. The same group of students were involved each time. The students were suspended from the bus
    • 10. 10
    • 11. What is our hypothesis?Step 3: Form a hypothesis about the problembehavior. Use data to answer the “w” questions:  Who is doing the problem behavior?  When is the problem behavior happening?  How is the problem behavior happening?  What adults are present when the problem behavior happens? Refine broad category into a specific hypothesis statement. The goal of the hypothesis is to generate a precise problem statement.
    • 12. Sample School Example:Precise Problem StatementTotal of 12 ODRs for aggression on the bus in the last month; this number is more than last year and shows an increasing trend for this year; these incidents are occurring on the blue bus in the afternoon, and the same students are involved each time.
    • 13. 13
    • 14. Creating Effective Interventions:Guidelines Connect directly to hypothesis by applying interventions that are logically related to function. Focus on adult and environmental roles. Identify proactive strategies that prevent, rather than suppress, undesirable behaviors. Provide strategies to teach desired skills. Teach replacement behaviors that serve a similar function. Plan to help student generalize new behaviors to all settings.
    • 15. Discuss and Select a Solution: Creating a Goal15  Prior to designing solution strategies, a clear goal needs to be set that can be evaluated using data.  Goals can be measured in the following ways:  Percent reduction  Absolute reduction  Satisfaction level  The best practice is to use more than one measure of evaluation.
    • 16. Sample School: Goal Example Decrease number of ODRs for aggression on the blue bus by 75% by the end of the quarter. Decrease number of ODRs on all buses by half by the end of the school year.
    • 17. Discuss and Select Solutions:17 Design Prevent:  How can we modify the context in which the behavior occurs?  Can we remove or alter the triggers for problem behavior? Teach:  Do we need to define the expected behaviors more clearly?  Can we teach a replacement behavior that meets the same need?  Do we need to provide additional demonstration and/or practice of the desired behaviors? Respond:  In what ways can we immediately prompt the correct behavior?  Does our system frequently reward the desired behavior ?  Can we extinguish problems by withholding reinforcement of the problem behavior?  Can we develop meaningful consequences to correct the problem behavior that provide a learning or practice component of the desired behavior?  How will we effectively respond to behaviors that compromise safety while ensuring the student’s dignity is maintained?
    • 18. Discuss and Select Solutions: TIPS Worksheet18
    • 19. Sample School: SolutionsExamplesPrevent•Assign seats on the blue bus-separating the identified students•Adjust route as much as possible to ensure shortest length ofrideTeach•Reteach bus expectations to all students who ride the buses•Provide social skills instruction to students with incidents ofaggression•Provide each bus driver with a copy of SWE and PBIS on theBus pamphletRespond•Provide each bus driver with PAWS tickets to distribute•Set up bus competition-bus with the most PAWS tickets gets topick from a menu of prizes (popcicles, ice cream, etc.)
    • 20. 21
    • 21. Creating EffectiveInterventions: Implementation An effective plan includes :  tools for assessing progress  data collection schedule  defined steps to goal  roles and responsibilities  plan for reinforcement  methods for ensuring fidelity
    • 22. Sample School:Action Plan ExampleTotal of 12 1. Assign seats 1. AP Smith 1. 11/16/2009 on the blue bus DecreaseODRs for 2. Transportati 2. By end of 2. Adjust route asaggression on on director November number of much asthe bus in the possible 3. Principal 3. 11/16/2009 ODRs forlast month; this 3. Reteach bus and AP and 4. By end ofnumber is more expectations to bus drivers November aggression on all studentsthan last year who ride the 4. Counselor 5. 11/16/2009 the blue bus byand shows an buses 5. Jane R. 6. 11/16/2009increasing trend 4. Provide social 6. Erica N. 7. By end of 75% by the endfor this year; skills instruction 7. Jenny H. November to students with of the quarter.these incidents incidents ofare occurring on aggressionthe blue bus in 5. Provide each Decreasethe afternoon, bus driver with a copy of SWE number ofand the same and PBIS onstudents are the Bus ODRs on allinvolved each pamphlettime. 6. Provide each buses by half by bus driver with PAWS tickets the end of the 7. Set up bus competition- school year. display in cafe
    • 23. 24
    • 24. Creating Effective Interventions:EvaluationSteps for Evaluation 1. Determine if behavior has improved. 2. If yes, choose one of the following options:  Modify criteria for mastery  Choose another behavior to address  End individualized plan 3. If not, choose one of the following options:  Evaluate fidelity of implementation  Re-evaluation function  Find ways to adjust the plan
    • 25. Creating Effective Interventions: Generalization Practice plan in all applicable settings. Include a variety of adults whendeveloping the plan. Continue implementing plan for asufficient amount of time. Encourage use of replacement behaviorand all acceptable alternatives.