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  • Module 3 of 3. Each is 2 days (12 contact hours) in length, for a total of 36 contact hours. Materials Needed: Workbooks Expectations to Post Poster/flip chart paper Masking tape Markers Post-it notes Music (CD’s & CD Player or speakers for computer) Tickets/Incentives Extra pens/pencils Child-shaped cutouts for “ripping kids” activity Buzzers, bells, or other signaling device for PBIS Champion Game Prizes for winning team of PBIS Champions Game Materials for “CHANGE” activity Optional items Candy “ fidgets” for tables (slinkys, playdough, squeeze balls, etc)
  • Training & Technical assistance sponsored by NC DPI, EC Division
  • Participant Expectations and Rules To set the stage and model what we want to teach, we have developed a list of expectations and rules for the participants. These expectations and rules will help the institute run more smoothly. Explain the Positive Feedback System you will use throughout the training. Trainers have multiple systems for reinforcement. Decide which will be the best fit for you – remember that we want to model what we are instructing. Some options: Divide the institute participants in half to form Team A and Team B (teams may select more clever names). Each team will have a container where tickets earned will be placed when the trainer recognizes that participants are following the rules and expectations. The team with the most tickets will earn reinforcers (chocolate, longer breaks, etc). Individual (or school team) lottery tickets with drawings for door prizes. School teams work to earn points that are collected over the course of several trainings (best if short span of time).
  • Attention Signal: used at all PBIS functions in NC These are the directions for the signal that will be used to gain audience attention throughout the training. Show the slide. Practice by asking everyone to turn to their neighbor and say, “good morning” and tell them how happy you are to be here today. After about 15 seconds, raise your hand and say, “Attention here.” Time how long it takes all participants to get quiet. Give a ticket to the team or individual who responded to the attention signal first.
  • Institute Objectives These objectives apply to module 3 of the PBIS Training.
  • Module Three Outcomes We will be giving teams a lot of time to work the next two days. Teams should review data management and small group strategies. Remind the teams that we are well aware that everyone is not at the same place in the process and that is OK! That is expected. Because all the teams are working at their own pace, it is difficult for us to give them a definite list of outcomes, so these outcomes are “general.” The concluding activity tomorrow will be the development of a long-range (3-5 year) action plan
  • Please complete the crossword puzzle activity to review Universal and Secondary Implementation. The answers are located in the Supplemental Resources Section when it is time to review.
  • PBIS Module 3 is NOT FBA training. This process is teacher-led in order to provide comprehensive tertiary supports in the whole school for individual students struggling with behavioral challenges.
  • We know that effective schools seek to provide support at multiple levels so that all students, no matter their individual needs, can be successful. So how do we accomplish this task? We have historically looked to specific practices, programs or people to meet the needs of our students. This means that we might need multiple things to meet the multiple needs of our students. Instead, we should be focusing on a process that can be used by any school, no matter what the needs of their individual students. By adopting a problem-solving approach, (CLICK) schools can effectively conduct needs assessments and build in the layers of support that meet their students’ academic and behavior needs. Here in NC, schools are using PBIS as the problem-solving framework that allows them to construct the prevention and intervention needed to address behavior and social skill deficits. You can see some examples of the interventions here. Schools will also need a plan for creating a systematic approach to academic intervention (many schools in NC are implementing Responsiveness to Instruction for this purpose).
  • Let’s take a closer look at constructing a continuum of support (Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Sugai etal., 2000; Walker et al., 1996): (CLICK) Primary prevention focuses on preventing the development of new cases of problem behaviors by focusing on all students and staff, across all settings. We expect that primary/school-wide/universal implementation will result in about 80% of students gaining the necessary behavioral and social skills necessary to be successful in school. (CLICK) Secondary prevention focuses on reducing the number of existing cases of problem behaviors by establishing efficient and rapid responses to problem behavior. Secondary prevention is only implemented after the successful implementation of S-W PBS and should result in an additional 15% of students learning necessary skills. (CLICK) Tertiary prevention focuses on reducing the intensity and/or complexity of existing cases of problem behaviors that are resistant to primary and secondary prevention efforts. Once SW and Secondary efforts are in place, tertiary prevention & intervention focuses on the remaining 2-5% of the population continuing to show skill deficits. When all three levels have been successfully implemented (a 3-5 year process) the school will have created a comprehensive system of behavioral support.
  • Primary prevention focuses on preventing the development of new cases of problem behaviors by focusing on all students and staff, across all settings. We expect that primary/school-wide/universal implementation will result in about 80% of students gaining the necessary behavioral and social skills necessary to be successful in school. Batsche, G.M. (August, 2010). We know what RtI is, now what do we do with it? Critical elements for successful implementation. Presented at the Response to Intervention (RtI) Summer 2010 Institute: Building a Context for Excellence, Macomb ISD, Clinton Township, MI. Retrieved from http://www.misd.net/rti/6A%20‑Batsche%20Critical%20Elements%20for%20Success%20keynote.pdf
  • Secondary prevention focuses on reducing the number of existing cases of problem behaviors by establishing efficient and rapid responses to problem behavior. Secondary prevention is only implemented after the successful implementation of S-W PBIS and should result in an additional 15% of students learning necessary skills. Batsche, G.M. (August, 2010). We know what RtI is, now what do we do with it? Critical elements for successful implementation. Presented at the Response to Intervention (RtI) Summer 2010 Institute: Building a Context for Excellence, Macomb ISD, Clinton Township, MI. Retrieved from http://www.misd.net/rti/6A%20‑Batsche%20Critical%20Elements%20for%20Success%20keynote.pdf
  • Tertiary prevention focuses on reducing the intensity and/or complexity of existing cases of problem behaviors that are resistant to primary and secondary prevention efforts. Once SW and Secondary efforts are in place, tertiary prevention & intervention focuses on the remaining 2-5% of the population continuing to show skill deficits. Batsche, G.M. (August, 2010). We know what RtI is, now what do we do with it? Critical elements for successful implementation. Presented at the Response to Intervention (RtI) Summer 2010 Institute: Building a Context for Excellence, Macomb ISD, Clinton Township, MI. Retrieved from http://www.misd.net/rti/6A%20‑Batsche%20Critical%20Elements%20for%20Success%20keynote.pdf
  • NOTICE GREEN IS FOR “ALL” When we talk about a continuum of supports, we should not be referring to students as “red zone” or “yellow zone” students. We should be mindful that every student has unique strengths and challenges. When we use the pyramid to refer to behaviors that require intervention, we can see that students might have many behaviors that do not require intervention, some behaviors that might require some interventions, and a few behaviors that require intensive support and intervention. We must remember to label behavior, not people.
  • Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Graphic This graphic describes the interplay between the four key elements of PBIS. Each element supports the other: Outcomes : academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families, & educators Practices : interventions and strategies that are evidence-based Data : information that is used to indentify status, need for change, and effects of interventions Systems : support that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of PBIS systems consider multiple points of support: individual, classroom, school-wide, district, community, state (From SWPBIS Implementers Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai, et al, 2005) Teams can get a copy of the blueprint at www.pbis.org.) TRAINER COULD BRING A HARD COPY OF THIS TO SHOW. Supporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behavior. Emphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness and gained desired outcomes, we must address each element. Research validated practices, interventions, strategies, curriculum, etc. to achieve goals and outcomes. Data are used to guide which Practices should be selected and/or adapted to achieve goals/outcomes. The selection and use of evidenced-based practices Are given priority. Systems change – considerations that support the effective and efficient selection and implementation of practices by school personnel (e.g., teachers, school psychologist, administrators.) These…. (new Implementation Blueprint, p. 11).
  • The PBIS workshop has been designed to follow the Problem-Solving Model approach. The Problem-Solving Model framework will ensure the school’s ability to weave initiatives together, such as Response to Instruction . PBIS utilizes the problem solving approach as does Response to Instruction. It is imperative that we continue to look at new initiatives within our schools with a lens of how we remain effective by adding something new. With the PSM approach we are able to stay effective and efficient.
  • Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Graphic This graphic describes the interplay between the 4 key elements of PBIS. Each element supports the other. Outcomes: academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families, & educators Practices: interventions and strategies that are evidence-based Data: information that is used to indentify status, need for change, and effects of interventions Systems: support that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of PBIS Systems consider multiple points of support: individual, classroom, school-wide, district, community, state -From SWPBIS Implementers Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai, et al, 2005) Teams can get a copy of the blueprint at www.pbis.org Supporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behavior Emphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.
  • When was the last time you had a “stranger test?” The last time you had substitute.
  • As we begin to think about data collection, we need to make sure that we are describing behavior in a way that is measureable and observable -if we can count it – we can collect data on it…. *****fighting and swearing can only be said to be measureable if they have been operationally defined at the school level
  • Behaviors should also be described objectively, primarily because each person may have different definitions of terms like sometimes and bizarre. Just a with school-wide expectations, we want to make sure that we are consistently talking about the same behaviors
  • So what data will you need about the behavior? Frequency: How often? # of times/class period – day – week – month – year Intensity: How extreme? whispering – talking – yelling - screaming throwing cotton balls – paper – books – chairs Duration: How long? seconds – minutes – hours – days half a class period **continuously? Really? (may feel like it when you’re living with the behavior – but is there anything that we really do CONTINUOUSLY) Context: Where/When/What else is going on? This is the “Everything else that is going on when a problem behavior is occuring…can include not just location and time of day, but also other factors that we don’t always identify. What other students or adults are present? What activity was the student engaged in? ANYTHING happening or present in the environment either right before or during the behavior (when in doubt, write it down)
  • As we begin to plan for data collection for the individual student, we want to remember our focus on working smarter. So, we would start by looking at the data we already have: anecdotal notes by the student’s teacher(s) & prior office referrals and disciplinary actions. Can we establish the function of the behavior based on this data? If not, we could plan for additional data collection. As we do that, we want to consider which data collection strategies will be easiest to implement and give us the level of information that we need. Probably the least difficult collection method is the use of Checklists, followed by DBR, Observation and Interviews. Just like the levels of FBA, these strategies are arranged in order of least to greatest investment of time and resources. Next, we will discuss each in more detail.
  • As we begin to plan for data collection for the individual student, we want to remember our focus on working smarter. So, we would start by looking at the data we already have: anecdotal notes by the student’s teacher(s) & prior office referrals and disciplinary actions. Can we establish the function of the behavior based on this data? If not, we could plan for additional data collection. As we do that, we want to consider which data collection strategies will be easiest to implement and give us the level of information that we need. Probably the least difficult collection method is the use of Checklists, followed by DBR, Observation and Interviews. Just like the levels of FBA, these strategies are arranged in order of least to greatest investment of time and resources. Next, we will discuss each in more detail.
  • Other Names for DBR Home-School Note Behavior Report Card Daily Progress Report Good Behavior Note Check-In Check-Out Card Performance-based behavioral recording
  • Effective behavioral assessment and intervention procedures in applied settings require the use of empirically-supported yet feasible techniques To date, feasible assessment of behavior skills has been focused on ODR data – which may not be sensitive to capture all behaviors of interest To date, support for feasible, formative assessment of academic skills is available (e.g., CBM) – but attention has not been directed toward social behaviors Strengths Highly Flexible Highly Feasible, Acceptable, and Familiar Minimal Cost Given Potential Amount and Uses for Data Reduced Risk of Reactivity (atypical behavior) Can be used in assessment, intervention, and communication Weaknesses Rater Influence (history) Limited Response Format Limited Knowledge about Psychometric Adequacy
  • 60% of teachers surveyed already use DBRs to change student behavior 32% to monitor or observe student behavior 81% to identify positive behaviors, 77% to identify negative behaviors 86% use with individual students, 19% with whole class, 9% with small groups 32% use DBRs “routinely” as part of classroom management plan Increase communication (teacher-student, home-school) As a component of an intervention package, particularly in self-management Provide “quick” assessment of behaviors, especially those not easily captured by other means Monitor student behavior over time Flexible K-12, + or – 1 student or larger group range of behaviors (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & Sassu, 2006)
  • Ensure that use is “systematic” Identify and operationally define a behavior of interest Use a system of observation in a specific time and place Score and summarize the data in a consistent manner (Similar to the criteria that define systematic direct observation (Salvia & Ysseldyke, 2004) Provide checks on integrity and acceptability Understand correspondence with other data sources
  • Data can be quantified, compared, combined, and summarized for summative and formative purposes. For example, DBR data of Susie’s disruptive behavior over the week can be summarized into a statement of average daily or weekly rating (6 out of 9 points) or most likely period of high or low disruption if multiple ratings per day are taken (just before lunch). Since DBR involve rating on some scale, data are summarized relevant to the scale. For example, a simple yes/no checklist can be easily depicted through a bar chart whereas rating information might be plotted on a line graph, with the intervals on the y-axis indicating the DBR scale.
  • This is another way to document DBR data.
  • It is important to consider the fact that the DBR measures the teachers’ perception of the behavior, not the actual behavior (ex. Engaged in the behavior 5 times). Further, we are measuring changes in the teachers perception of the behavior as a movement between scores, and not using a score as a description of a student. Remember, in social behavior there are no absolutes, the goals must be defined within a given social context. In addition, who the rater is matters because we are measuring perceptions. Teachers perceptions tend to move consistently once established on the scale of 1-10, however, it is not appropriate to compare one teachers score of 5 to another teachers score of 1. Thus, keep consistency in the rater for the duration of the intervention.
  • This is an Individual Student Data Tracking Form. You can use this to collect and summarize individual student data. You will need to enter the goal amount and whether the goal is a percent or the total number of occurrences. The baseline data is entered on the top right side of the form by entering the date and the value for that day. Next, you will be able to enter data for the first phase of intervention on the right side of the document. Then, you can enter notes or descriptions for Phase 1. You can also enter a second phase of data and notes, if you revise the plan or change intervention. The form has embedded formulas to automatically create a graph to summarize your data. A blank copy is included in the supplemental resources.
  • Direct assessment is another tool that can be utilized to measure behaviors. This tool is a direct assessment of the frequency of the a behavior across settings and across time. So, looking at this data what can we tell about when Shamel has the most difficulty with negative comments to peers?
  • Another form of direct assessment is a duration recording. This allows you to document the length of incidents for behaviors that might not occur frequently but last for a considerable amount of time, such as tantrums.
  • We have made some recommendations about tools to use for different levels/intensities of intervention. However, the team must ultimately make the call about which data collection tool(s) will provide the data needed to assist in student behavior change. These questions about data will help your team identify the best approaches to collecting data at the tertiary level.
  • “ A problem incorrectly defined leads us to solutions that may not effect change.” ****NEED SOURCE**** We have made some recommendations about tools to use for different levels/intensities of intervention. However, the team must ultimately make the call about which data collection tool(s) will provide the data needed to assist in student behavior change.
  • Team Time Ask participants if they have questions about functional behavior assessment and developing hypotheses. Give instructions for the team time session. Instruct teams to take some time to focus on the topic of functional behavior assessment and developing a hypothesis statement.
  • Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Graphic This graphic describes the interplay between the 4 key elements of PBIS. Each element supports the other. Outcomes: academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families, & educators Practices: interventions and strategies that are evidence-based Data: information that is used to indentify status, need for change, and effects of interventions Systems: support that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of PBIS Systems consider multiple points of support: individual, classroom, school-wide, district, community, state -From SWPBIS Implementers Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai, et al, 2005) Teams can get a copy of the blueprint at www.pbis.org Supporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behavior Emphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.
  • Activity: CHANGE Each group is given a small cup of clear water and told that they have 3 minutes to change it to green. They can use any personal items they brought (Contents of purse, pockets, etc) to help. After initial 3 minutes, offer groups a chance to take a random item from grab bag (which should some items that will turn water green (green paint, green food dye, green kool-aid powder, yellow and blue dye) and some that will not (only yellow paint, red cool-aid, etc). Give groups 2 minutes to turn their water green. For final round, tell groups they can share items or can ask for something from another group. Give them 1 minute to complete assignment. Everyone should have green water at the end. Discuss our efforts to turn yellow and red students “green.” We have limited success when we go it alone, slightly better when we apply a random intervention, the best outcome when we work together using proven (research-based, functionally selected interventions) methods in concert with our team. Not the water that is doing something to turn green, but the teachers who are doing something to change the outcome. ALTERNATIVE ACTIVITY: Correy’s activity chewing gum, microwave popcorn, and coal.
  • Tertiary Systems require time and planning. Very often they also require a willingness on the whole staff to try things outside of their comfort zones. Administrative support is critical in the development of a team for intervention, as the team will need to be freed from other duties for an adequate amount of time for training and then to provide support to students and staff
  • We know that all students needs will not be met by Universal and Secondary Support Systems. In order to ensure that we are able to meet the needs of all students, we must establish Tertiary Systems to support more intensive needs of individual students. It’s very uncommon for schools to not have any Tertiary Support Systems, however, many schools do not apply the problem solving process to ensure the practices and systems are operating effectively and have positive outcomes for students.
  • When thinking about how your team will support Tertiary Implementation, consider who, what, when, where, and why. Imagine that your PBIS team attended Module 1 training and had one ball representing Universal implementation to keep in the air. Next, your team attended Module 2 training, and now you have balls representing Universal and Secondary to keep in the air. Finally, you are now adding a ball representing Tertiary Supports. In order to juggle all of these responsibilities, your team has to consider the most efficient ways to operate. Considering the team members available to take responsibility for coordinating implementation at the tertiary level, identifying what supports your school will offer, when the team will meet and when services will be delivered, where the team will meet and where services will be delivered, and always articulating why the tertiary team is meeting/responding, as well as, why a student needs a particular support will be critical.
  • According to a survey completed by 34 administrators of schools implementing RtI (Fall, 2009), the most common team structure is to have only one problem-solving team. When this is the structure, both the pre-referral team and the PBIS team are absorbed into the RtI team (left graphic). The second most common structure is to have two teams, the RtI team, addressing academic issues and the overall RtI process, and the PBIS team addressing behavioral support and the PBIS implementation process. When this is the structure the pre-referral team is absorbed into the RtI team (right).
  • Another way to approach with one team approach. Again must find way to support whole school and individual teachers. This graphic shows that some teams have established representatives for each level of implementation for both academics and behavior.
  • If you have two problem solving models being implemented at your school, you might consider maintaining both team structures. If this is the case, how will you establish communication and build a system of support for teachers. One possible structure would be to keep both the RtI and PBIS team, which will oversee the problem solving process for whole school data and address core instructional issues. The RtI team members will also serve as grade level representatives for academic concerns and PBIS team members will serve as grade level representatives for behavioral concerns.
  • Your team is responsible for creating a tertiary system of supports and facilitating the identification of students needing those supports. You will need to consider the resources (time and materials) needed to establish the system. When establishing systems of support, consider who will need to be included, such as staff members with expertise, stakeholders, or agencies your team can collaborate with to strengthen the supports provided for students with intensive behavioral needs.
  • Your team is also responsible for ensuring that staff receive training on the tertiary support system. First, you will want to ensure that you have accessed the training necessary to build the skills for your PBIS team. You will also need to consider how to continue to increase expertise for all of the staff at your school. In addition, we know that teachers will implement the strategies and plans with greater integrity if your support is offered to them as they attempt to implement these supports systems and practices.
  • Your team will use data to guide implementation. The Implementation Inventory is a tool that we will use throughout this training to help you identify areas that you will need to address with your action plan. In addition, you will need to review student data to determine the effectiveness of the interventions and supports that you offer in your continuum. Data is essential for establishing and maintaining your continuum of supports.
  • To go back to an old analogy: Historically we have approached inappropriate behavior in schools by waiting until the students started the fire and then running around with buckets of water and trying to put them out. We said that one of the ways PBIS was different was that we are interested in prevention, or in taking the matches out of the hands of the students before they ever have a chance to light a match (also knowing that we can carry more books of matches than buckets of water). To extend that analogy, let’s say we are babysitting our nephew. We know he sometimes carries matches, but have always had ample opportunity to take them before a major problem develops. Today, however, he manages to slip some matches past us and strike one -- what is our response? Do we call the fire department for one burning match? No, we blow the match out and take away the matches (and start asking our nephew to hand over matches regularly). Say we don’t see the burning match and he lights a piece of paper on fire? What if it has a chance to grow to a small fire in the trashcan (Probably you just put the fire out with a fire extinguisher)? What if it catches the curtains on fire? – now do you call the fire department?? In other words, its only when you have exhausted your own resources and ability to put the fire out that you call in the specialists. What would happen if every time someone struck a match you called the fire department? Also, you didn’t hook up the hose to put out the match, right? Or try to blow out the flaming curtains? We want to use the same approach to students whose exhibit problem behavior. We want to use the lowest intensity intervention that will work and we want to exhaust our own ideas before we call in the specialists.
  • Interventions are critical to the tertiary level of support, but without a system to ensure they are delivered efficiently and with fidelity, our tertiary system resources might be over-extended. It is critical that the interventions and practices we offer are research-based and have evidence of their effectiveness. As with most patterns of behavior, intervention early increases the likelihood of successful response.
  • Your team will also need to establish, document, and communicate the data decision rules about students eligible for tertiary supports. What guidelines will you provide to outline when a teacher or student would like to initiate a referral for support? How will you communicate the expectations for progress and goal completion? How will you collect data to help you determine if the interventions you are utilizing are effective?
  • These are some examples of different rules that might apply at the tertiary level.
  • Systems for Individual Students Remind participants we are still looking at a system’s approach to improving behavior of children with or without disabilities. This will still require a team of some kind, school may choose to utilize existing team, PBIS Team, RtI, and/or IC team The PBIS team needs to respond to teachers’ requests for support within 48 hours. Students with chronic challenging behaviors often require more than one adult’s input. If there are multiple students exhibiting similar behaviors, then the school has an issue at the system’s level. There is a mismatch between the system and the students. Examination of data should reveal this. Remind participants they cannot take student’s behavior personally. Suggest videotaping to look for patterns of student behavior. Through examining competing pathways, it can be determined why students engage in a particular behavior. By examining competing pathways, we can get to the “purpose” or “function” the behavior serves.
  • Teachers will need to know the expectation for when to initiate a referral, as well as the process for making a referral. Often teachers have accessed support services by having conversations in the hall. This type of contact might not provide the data and documentation to effectively initiate a referral. Remember that good teachers often will not ask for help; therefore, support must be established for them.
  • Once a referral is made How will families be included in a way that helps them feel invited to collaborate, not forced or coerced
  • Once a referral is made the PBIS team needs to respond to teachers’ requests for support within 48 hours. While a formal meeting might not be able to take place within 48 hours, someone from the team should attempt to contact the teacher and offer some type of immediate assistance, until the plan can be developed and implemented. This will make a significant difference in how teachers will feel about requesting assistance, if they see that the process is timely and supportive of their needs. A plan for addressing the students’ needs will need to be contextually and developmentally appropriate. Always consider how will families be included in a way that helps them feel invited to collaborate, not forced or coerced
  • Process for Assistance Our goal is to design a system that allows this process to take place. Following this model the teacher is never left on his/her own. The team meets within 48 hours of initial request for assistance. The team provides strategies for the teacher to implement immediately. The team checks in with the teacher the next day to see how things are going. If strategies are not successful, the team assesses to get the needed information to develop an individual plan for the student. The critical component is that all pieces are connected. This sends the message that this is “our student, our responsibility” and the teacher doesn’t feel he/she is alone. It is a team process with everyone supporting each other.
  • This instrument is an optional tool that can be used by your team to specifically evaluate the Systems at the Tertiary Level of Supports for your school. This can provide additional data about components of tertiary systems that your team might want to consider for action planning, especially following continuously high scores or continuously low scores in the systems section of the Implementation Inventory . Please review the copy in your Supplemental Resources.
  • Positive Behavior Support Graphic This graphic describes the interplay between the 4 key elements of PBIS. Each element supports the other. Outcomes: academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families, & educators Practices: interventions and strategies that are evidence-based Data: information that is used to indentify status, need for change, and effects of interventions Systems: support that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of PBIS Systems consider multiple points of support: individual, classroom, school-wide, district, community, state -From SWPBIS Implementers Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai, et al, 2005) Teams can get a copy of the blueprint at www.pbis.org Supporting staff behavior addresses changing adult behavior to change student behavior Emphasis is usually on practices. Practices are often implemented without systems and data to support them. To maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.
  • *Additional resource could be counselor, additional teacher, social worker, psychologist; basically an additional school staff member with knowledge/expertise about the student and/or the problem behavior **”Community Partners = agency support, behavior support consultant, etc Based on: Crone, D.A., & Horner, R.H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment . New York: Guilford. US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Is school-wide positive behavior support an evidence-based practice? (2009). National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/research/default.aspx
  • Team-directed FBAs are completed when there is a question as to function, when the behavior occurs across settings, when the behavior is more complex Team directed may require the use of more assessment, observation, data collection School teams strongly encouraged to include agencies and other community partners involved with the family (Systems of Care, Child & Family Team) with Team Directed process
  • Both apply behavioral science principles Define target behavior . Identify setting events that increase the likelihood of the occurrence of the targeted behavior. Identify the events/antecedent triggers that reliably predict the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the target behavior. Identify the consequences that maintain the behavior. Identify and plan to teach replacement behavior Horner, R. & Sugai, G. (2007). Function based support: Selected topics. Retrieved from web 5/31/08 http://www.pbis.org/files/1107 gsbriefba.ppt
  • Sometimes it can be difficult to focus on one behavior, as many students present a variety of challenging behaviors. It is important to prioritize which behavior is having the most significant impact on the student and select that particular behavior to begin the intervention process.
  • This is an example of a student’s behavior, in which the student demonstrates several challenging behaviors. After some data collection, it is evident that the behavior the student demonstrates most often is leaving his assigned area. Considering the frequency is just one way to prioritize student behaviors. Remember to always address behaviors that are safety issues immediately with a crisis plan if necessary.
  • Setting events are environmental, personal, situations, or daily events that impact student behavior. They may or may not immediately precede the behavior, but are none-the-less a factor associated with the particular behaviors the student demonstrates.
  • This is an example of Setting Event data. We can see from this particular graph that having missed the bus or not having breakfast, which may be related issues, are common setting events associated with the behavioral challenges we observe.
  • Predictors of the occurrence or non-occurrence of the problem behavior Typically occur immediately before the problem behavior When, Where, With whom, Activity Time of day Physical Setting People present Types of interactions (demands, directives, etc.)
  • This is not an exhaustive list of antecedents, rather it is an example of data that can be collected. Often teachers will say “There is no pattern. The behavior happens all the time. It’s unpredictable.” It is important to know that it is extremely rare to see a behavior happen exclusively during one time period or one class or one activity. Rather, we tend to see the teacher is correct, the behavior does happen “all of the time,” however, when we collect the data we can see patterns emerge. Very often we can see one antecedent is more frequently associated with the behavior. While it is not 100% of the time, even accounting for only 20-30% of the time can help us know where to intervene. In this example, which antecedent is most often associated with the problem behavior we observe?
  • When we are talking about functional based approaches to behavior, consequences do not refer to punishments that follow behaviors. Rather, they are any particular outcome that happens immediately after the behavior. They are responses that allow the student to access something or avoid something. Even things we might not immediately recognize as a consequence can be enough to encourage a student to continue demonstrating a particular behavior.
  • This is an example of a graph containing the consequences a student experienced after demonstrating problem behavior. While calling a students name might not immediately seem like attention, it might be sufficient attention for that particular student. In this example, when the student demonstrated the behavior the teacher responded by calling the students name, which suggests the student is motivated by attention. Further, we can see the time-out response is relatively low, which suggests that the student is not trying to escape the classroom activities. So when ever you are collecting data about consequences be mindful of what each of the responses is either giving access to or helping a student escape.
  • Behavior communicates need Need is determined by observing what happens prior to and immediately after behavior Kids engage in behavior for two reasons: to get what they want or avoid what they don’t want. Their behavior is based on their learning history. The behavior has worked in the past. Remember, there is no universal reinforcing or aversive stimulus. What we may find aversive, many find reinforcing, thereby inadvertently reinforcing inappropriate behavior. This is why we MUST observe what happens prior to and immediately after the inappropriate behavior.
  • For example- Many students use off topic comments/inappropriate language to obtain attention from peers through their reactions and to escape the task at hand. In this example, social reinforcement is obtained from the peers and the adult. Remember reinforcement is positive and negative. NOTE : When control is offered as a possible function- think about what is underlying that perception. Control can be a way: To hide skill deficits; therefore escaping/avoiding a task To hide fears around social acceptance; therefore escaping/avoiding a situation For an individual to assert themselves; therefore gaining/obtaining the attention of peers/adults Sugai, H. (2011). Addressing individual challenging behavior through function-based support (FBA Overview). Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/presentations/default.aspx
  • Now that we have worked through the components of determining the function of the behavior, we need to write a statement that helps us make sense of the data. A hypothesis statement will help us to predict when the problem behavior is likely to occur and will guide our intervention and support efforts.
  • A hypothesis statement has four parts: where, context/antecedent, behavior, and the proposed function.
  • People engage in behaviors for a reason. When we understand functions we can try to guess what a person is trying to get or avoid. What is Bruno trying to get or avoid? (Peer attention)
  • It is not possible to determine function of a student’s challenging behavior simply by describing the behavior Choose an appropriate intervention Connect the FUNCTION with the intervention Ask: Will this intervention meet the functional need? Ex. If the function of the behavior is to access adult attention: Intervention should prevent access to adult attention for inappropriate behaviors Intervention should provide access to adult attention for appropriate behaviors Choose an appropriate replacement behavior New or alternative behavior taught to the student as a replacement option for the problem behavior. Key points: It is probably more efficient for the student to engage in the problem behavior Replacement behavior must allow student access to same functional need but more efficiently
  • Based on this data about consequences, if you were selecting an reinforcement component for a behavior plan, which reinforcement would be most effective? Lunch with a teacher
  • When looking at individual student behavioral challenges we must always start with what the data is telling us about the student behavior right now. We do not have to be right, we must have a guess. After we have implemented the plan we will be able to determine if our hypothesis or guess is correct. All teachers in your school need to at a minimum, understand the basics of behavior and how to think about hypothesizing the function of a students behavior.
  • These are the Teacher-led supports that we will discuss as the practices your will establish to your tertiary continuum of supports. *Additional resource could be counselor, additional teacher, social worker, psychologist; basically an additional school staff member with knowledge/expertise about the student and/or the problem behavior **”Community Partners = agency support, behavior support consultant, etc Based on: Crone, D.A., & Horner, R.H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment . New York: Guilford. US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. Is school-wide positive behavior support an evidence-based practice? (2009). National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS), Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org/research/default.aspx
  • Contracts should be based on data that teacher already has collected. Could be data from grade-book (participation, attendance, tardies, homework completion, etc), office referrals, checklists, etc.
  • Jenson, W., Rhode, G., & Reavis, H. (1994). The Tough Kid Tool Box. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.   Wright, J. (2011). Behavior Contracts. Intervention Central. Retrieved 2/17/2011 from: http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/challenging-students/132-behavior-contracts
  • Jenson, W., Rhode, G., & Reavis, H. (1994). The Tough Kid Tool Box. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.   Wright, J. (2011). Behavior Contracts. Intervention Central. Retrieved 2/17/2011 from: http://www.interventioncentral.org/index.php/challenging-students/132-behavior-contracts .
  • Negotiate & Document Terms: Possible questions from the audience: What happens when the student demonstrates a problem behavior that violates school or local school board policies or state law? -Local school Board policy and general statutes supersede behavior contracts.
  • We talked earlier about the problem solving process and now we are going to talk about several tertiary practices. How are these practices related to the problem solving steps? Let’s take a look on the next slide.
  • Teacher Led Support can include a variety of strategies that assists teachers with applying the problem solving process at different levels of intensity. This chart lists the particular components of each of the 3 problem solving strategies that you will learn about in PBIS Module 3 training (TIPs Problem Solving Worksheet, Competing Behavior Pathways, and ERASE). What you can see is that each of these processes has all 5 components of the problem solving process. The TIPs problem solving worksheet can be used to assist with problem solve data related to the entire level of tertiary supports in the school or at the individual student level, depending upon the data that is available. The key concept is that you have data that allows you to address each of the 5 steps regardless of the practice that you select. The data should also be used to determine when and if more intensive individualized practices should be utilized.
  • The TIPS Problem Solving Worksheet follows the problem solving steps exactly. It can be particularly helpful to use when examining whole school or tertiary systems level data to determine the effectiveness of your practices. However, it could also be easily adapted to assist with problem solving for individual students, as it has all of the essential components of other function based assessments, providing you have the appropriate data.
  • This is step 3 in the problem solving process. This is where you brainstorm and identify which solutions would be most appropriate to address the problem you identified. Be sure that the solutions are connected to the problem statement. Think about why a particular solution is more or less appropriate, given the precision problem statement that you wrote.
  • Steps 4 and 5 are to document the implementation of the plan, identify a goal so you can determine success, and then reconvene to evaluate the plan after implementation for a specified amount of time.
  • Competing Behavior Pathways is another approach to teacher-led functional support.
  • For more complicated behaviors we can determine the function by using this competing pathways diagramming process
  • Define Alternative or Competing Behavior The next step in the process is defining acceptable alternative behavior. This is highlighted in the yellow box on the slide. What is the difference between the “desired alternative” and the “acceptable Alternative?” The desired alternative is the behavior that is your ultimate goal. It is the behavior you would see if a miracle happened overnight and when the student came back to school the problem no longer existed. The acceptable alternative(s) are the behaviors that you are teaching as successive approximations of the desired behavior. It is the behavior you are willing to live with until the student masters the new behavior he or she is learning. It may take multiple acceptable alternatives for a student to finally reach the desired alternative. AN EXAMPLE: Jody follows you around your classroom and pokes you, saying your name loudly anytime she needs assistance. If a miracle happened, tomorrow Jody would come in, sit in her seat, raise her hand, and wait for you to recognize her. However, you know that to get Jody to that desired behavior, first you will have to teach her pieces of that behavior: (1) not to poke you as she follows, (2) stay in a masking tape box you tape around her desk while raising her hand and calling your name, (3)sitting in her seat while raising her hand and calling your name, (4) sitting in her seat and raising her hand only….REMEMBER behavior changes in small increments with teaching, practice and coaching.
  • Designing Functional Interventions This form was designed to help with the problem solving process of developing a PBIS plan. The functional assessment and hypothesis tell us the setting events, predictors or triggering antecedents, the problem behavior and the maintaining consequences. To complete the plan, the desired alternative behaviors and maintaining consequences need to be designed. The plan will consist of manipulating the events, the antecedents, teaching the desired behavior and manipulating the consequences. Refer participants to Handout #8, Designing Functional Interventions .
  • Youtube video: Eddie Classroom Behavior http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QNZ6nYLgikM
  • Use the information and data you have gathered to respond to each component of the competing behavior pathways form.
  • Write a hypothesis statement about Eddie’s behavior.
  • When selecting solutions, consider teaching, re-teaching, reinforcement for demonstrating the replacement or desired alternative behavior.
  • Consider all of the ways you can intervene regarding setting events, trigger/antecedents, at the problem behavior level, and regarding consequences.
  • the threat of the death penalty does not stop people from murdering; why do teachers think threatening to take away recess will stop target behaviors?” Dr. Laura Riffel www.behaviordoctor.org Intervention & Support Strategies Discuss this slide with participants. It provides an example based Eddie. Note how many of these strategies require changes in adult behavior.
  • the threat of the death penalty does not stop people from murdering; why do teachers think threatening to take away recess will stop target behaviors?” Dr. Laura Riffel www.behaviordoctor.org Intervention & Support Strategies Discuss this slide with participants. It provides an example based Eddie. Note how many of these strategies require changes in adult behavior.
  • the threat of the death penalty does not stop people from murdering; why do teachers think threatening to take away recess will stop target behaviors?” Dr. Laura Riffel www.behaviordoctor.org Intervention & Support Strategies Discuss this slide with participants. It provides an example based Eddie. Note how many of these strategies require changes in adult behavior.
  • Please watch the video of Shane and work together with your team to complete the competing behavior pathways behavior forms in your workbook. While you might not have all of the information you need, because we only have data from one observation, make up any additional data that you need to complete the process. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4iBWHC4Cv_A
  • The third teacher led functional assessment approach that we will cover is ERASE.
  • As we previously outlined, you can see from this slide how ERASE follows each of the 5 problem solving steps. Scott, T. (n.d.). “ERASE” functional assessment and behavior intervention planning prompts. Retrieved from http://faculty.education.ufl.edu/Scott/Terrys/tscott.html
  • An operational definition of behavior begins with a description of its topography – what exactly does the behavior look like? Dimensions such as frequency, duration, and intensity will also be necessary. For example, the behavior “talks out” may not, by itself, be seen as a major issue for many teachers. However, if it were known that the behavior occurred 40-50 times per hour, for durations of over 3 hours per episode, or loud enough to be clearly heard from a distance of 200 feet, it is much more likely that the behavior would be treated as a priority issue. This also would help to define why the behavior is considered a problem. Teachers also should be prepared to present evidence of the types of past intervention strategies used, how those strategies were applied, and the outcomes of those strategies.
  • This information may be compiled by considering past interactions with the student. The more times a person has interacted with the student, the better information they will be able to provide. When memories alone aren’t sufficient, any available school or classroom data (e.g., office referrals, incident reports, etc.) may be helpful in answering the questions.
  • Remember when considering the antecedents and consequences that the environment consists of all actions, items, and events. The teacher, peers, tasks, instruction, and other subtle conditions are part of the environment and must be considered.
  • Based on the information you’ve gathered, make a guess about what the student is getting or avoiding.
  • Replacement behaviors are best determined by persons familiar with the environment. The first step in determining an appropriate replacement is to ask, “what do successful students do under these conditions?” This provides an example of a relevant behavior in that environment. When we select behaviors that suit us but are not relevant to the student it is unlikely that the student will use that behavior as a replacement. Similarly, the replacement we choose must be acceptable to us but also must work for the student in terms of meeting his/her needs (i.e., function). Selecting effective replacement behaviors requires consideration of each of these issues.
  • Replacement behaviors must be taught to the student and then teachers must arrange environments to create success opportunities for students – following that up with reinforcement to maintain the behavior. Negative consequences for negative behavior also need to be considered. All strategies considered here must involve thought of what is realistic for school personnel to implement in a consistent manner.
  • Consider all of the ways we can support the appropriate student behavior by reminding, providing supervision, and preventing triggers for the inappropriate behavior.
  • The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. Albert Einstein Specific and measurable statements about expected or desired behaviors and levels of performance at the end of an instructional time period During a 20 minute recess period, plato will verbally respond to peers in a positive or neutral manner in 80% of opportunities for three consecutive days by the end of the first term
  • CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING A MEASUREMENT PLAN Determine what questions you want to answer by asking what information is logically important in our efforts to create students success. Determine what data are necessary (i.e., what needs to be collected) to answer questions. Determine the simplest way to get data by considering what is realistic in terms of time and effort for the persons being asked to implement. Put the system in place so that all use in a consistent manner to collect information. Analyze information gathered to answer questions, evaluate strategies, and drive policy and practice
  • Activity: Paper Kids Take a paper cutout of a student. Have the audience name setting events, triggers, antecendents that they frequently see. For each one named, rip off a piece of the paper student. Option: When you rip off the final pieces ask if schools know how to put the pieces back together. Demonstrate positives: showing patience, teaching the student new skills, etc and tape the student back together This is what the behavior charting – especially the manipulation of setting events, triggers, & consequences is all about
  • When analyzing data recognize that it will never show 100% -- Sometimes you may hear teachers say “it happens all the time” or “it happens everywhere”. That may be accurate but where is the behavior occurring most frequently. Likewise we need to look for the most frequently occurring maintaining consequence also. For example, if a behavior occurs 33% of the time following a teacher direction that is high level of predictability even though there may be other antecedents identified.
  • When analyzing data recognize that it will never show 100% -- Sometimes you may hear teachers say “it happens all the time” or “it happens everywhere”. That may be accurate but the key is to ask what is happening most frequently. For example, if a behavior occurs 33% of the time following a teacher direction that is high level of predictability even though there may be other antecedents identified.
  • Schools should contact a behavior support consultant or their regional PBIS coordinator to access this training.
  • Let’s practice problem solving at the individual student level. 07/13/12 Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008
  • Student with 2-5 are candidates for more support in behavior, academic, or both areas. Students with 6 or more referrals are good candidates for tertiary supports. How many referrals does Brandon have? Let’s continue to review Brandon’s ODR data. 07/13/12 Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008
  • When is Brandon receiving referrals? What questions would you want to ask about time of day? (what is happening during that time, where, what subject, who is the teacher, who is he with, etc.)
  • P agg is physical aggression. M- is for minor referrals.
  • Obtain Peer attention, obtain adult attendtion, avoid a task, avoid work, avoid peer, avoid adult, don’t know, other, unknown.
  • Time to define hypothesis. Why are the behaviors occurring? This leads to more solvable solutions. 07/13/12 Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008
  • Ready for hypothesis and solution building 07/13/12 Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008
  • The TIPS model provides a framework for developing solutions. There are five main areas for intervention, not including safety. 07/13/12 Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008
  • Same problem, changing reinforcer to match hypothesis is good. 07/13/12 Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008
  • Ready for hypothesis and solution building 07/13/12 Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008
  • Ready for action planning 07/13/12 Newton, J. S., Todd, A. W., Algozzine, K., Horner, R. H., & Algozzine, B. 2008
  • Speakers note for the practice data: teams will use Katie’s data to practice problem solving. Some teams seem to struggle because she demonstrates Physical aggression, disruption, and tardies but the setting is listed most often as the Hallway. Be sure to have teams talk about the idea that you can’t always just look at the area with the highest number because you might be missing another factor. In this case, classroom is also very high. Help teams to discuss that it is possible that the tardies and some of the other behaviors are happening in the hall and others are happening in the classroom. Also, help them to consider the need to question, what is the location for tardies?
  • You got to be careful if you don’t know where you’re going, because you might get there. Yogi Berra Long Range Planning Resources To assess where the school is now and what needs to be accomplished next year, have the participants complete the PBIS Survey during team time. Teams can also take a look at the Implementation Checklist during team time to determine where the school is and what needs to be addressed next. Look at office referral data and compare to previous data to determine what has been accomplished this year. Take time to observe and collect year-end data for comparison to beginning of year data.
  • Help is On the Way This is a list of resources that will assist you as your team does your work. PBIS.org is a wonderful website that has a lot of information and examples. Technical assistance—contact your Regional or LEA Coordinator

PBIS Module 3 Slides PBIS Module 3 Slides Presentation Transcript

  • PBIS Team TrainingModule 3: Tertiary Implementation
  • Exceptional Children Division Behavior Support & Special ProgramsPositive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
  • Modules developed by the University of MissouriCenter for School-wide PBIS and revised byNorth Carolina PBIS Trainers
  • ExpectationsBe Responsible Return promptly from breaks Be an active participantBe Respectful Turn off cell phone ringers Listen attentively to othersBe Kind Participate in activities Listen and respond appropriately to others’ ideas 4
  • Attention SignalTrainer will raise his/her handParticipants will raise their hand and wait quietly 5
  • Welcome to PBIS Module 3 Training!Prepare a poster showing successes and challenges from Universal and Secondary Implementation.Use data from your most recent Implementation Inventory, SET, etc. 6
  • Training ObjectivesParticipants will be able to: Evaluate implementation of school-wide and secondary PBIS Create a system for receiving and processing individual student referrals Use data to:  Identify individual students needing intervention  Develop and evaluate interventions to address problem behavior  Determine effectiveness of tertiary systems 7
  • Module 3 Accomplishments and ProductsAt the end of these two days, teams areexpected to have:Conceptualized tertiary systems for your settingDiscussed implementation of teacher-led practicesReviewed data collection & assessment for individual studentsDeveloped action steps for tertiary implementation 8
  • Activity: PBIS Review Crossword Workbook Page 3 9
  • ActivityReview Universal and Secondary Implementation based on Implementation Inventory Scores.Use the data to identify Action Steps Workbook Pages 4-7 10
  • PBIS Tertiary Support is:A systems approach to individualized intervention and support development.A process that all staff in your school will use to support individual students.A teacher-led process that utilizes a functional approach to addressing behavior 11
  • School Improvement Whole School Academic Effective Classroom BehaviorResources Page 5 School Culturally Organization Responsive Intensive, Individual Interventions Intensive, Individual Interventions •Tutoring Instruction•Functional Behavior Assessment & Effective •Academic Remediation Plans Struggling Students Behavior Intervention Planning Culturally •Specially DesignedInstructional Instruction Responsive Progress Individuals Practices Practices Targeted Group Interventions Monitoring Consider- Interventions Targeted Group •Small group instruction Behavioral EC •Social Skills instruction action for •Focused academic help •Reinforcement of specific skills Positive School Universal sessions Eligibility Related Specially Group Strategies •Group Behavioral Strategies Effective Climate Design/ Services Designed Instructional •Classroom Coaching Instruction Differentiated Mental Health FBA/BIP Practices BehaviorUniversal Interventions Instruction Assistance Interventions Universal Interventions Effective Staff Mental•Effective instructional Positive Focused •School-wide rules and Developmentpractices Health Services Classroom Research-based procedures•Recognition of •Systematic Academic Instructionacademic Management reinforcement Data Basedachievement •Social Skills Instruction Decision Ongoing•Culturally responsive Classroom •Culturally responsive Coaching practices Making Screening and practices and Consultation•Data-based decision- Assessment •Data-based decision-making Parent and making•Parent & Community Community •Parent & CommunityPartnerships Partnerships Partnerships 12
  • CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Secondary Prevention ~5% Systems for Students with Specialized Group High Risk Behavior Systems for Students with At Risk Behavior ~15% Resources Page 6 Primary Prevention School wide andClassroom wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~ 80% of Students 13
  • achieve at high levelsCore Tier I: Begins with clear goals: 6.What do we expect all students to know, understand and do as a result of our instruction? 8.How will we know if these goals are met? 10.How will we respond when students do not meet the goals with initial instruction? 12.How will we respond when some students have already met the goals?(Batsche, 2010) 14
  • Tier II < 20% of studentsSupplemental Core + Supplemental To Achieve Benchmarks 9.Where are the students performing now? 10.Where do we want them to be? 11.How long do we have to get them there? 12.How much do they have to grow per year/month to get there? 13.What resources will move them at that rate? 14.How will we monitor the(Batsche, 2010) growth of students receiving supplemental instruction? 15
  • Tier III < 5% of Studentsve, Individualized Core + Supplemental + Intensive Individual Instruction …to achieve benchmarks 10. Where is the student performing now? 11. Where do we want him/her to be? 12. How long do we have to get him/her there? 13. What supports has he/she received? 14. What resources will move him/her at that rate? 15. How will we monitor and (Batsche, 2010) evaluate the student’s growth? 16
  • Math Science Spanish Reading Soc skills Soc Studies BasketballLabel behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007
  • Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES S Supporting DA EM DA Supporting Decision TA TAStaff Behavior ST SY Making PRACTICES Resources Positive Page 6 Behavior Intervention & Supporting Support Student Behavior 18
  • Team InitiatedProblem Solving Identify(TIPS) Model Problems Develop Evaluate and Hypothesis Revise Action Plan Collect and Use Data Discuss and Develop and Select Implement Solutions Action Plan Resources Pages 7-9 Problem Solving(Newton, et. al., 2009) Meeting Foundations
  • Tertiary Implementation:Data, Systems, and Practices to Support Individuals
  • Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES S Supporting DA EM DA Supporting Decision TA TAStaff Behavior ST SY Making Positive PRACTICES Behavior Intervention & Support Supporting Student Behavior 21
  • Data Collection Strategies & Tools Problem identification, data collection, and evaluation 22
  • Clear Definition ofProblem Behavior The “Stranger Test”  Is the description of the behavior crystal clear?  Would a stranger’s description match yours?  If a stranger read your description, would they be able to identify the problem behavior? 23
  • Measurable DescriptorsMeasurable Not Measurable oppositional lazy bothering rude talking out swearing inattentive out of area fighting defiant completing work 24
  • Data Considerations: Objective DescriptorsObjective Subjective Talking during seatwork Disobedient Seldom Repeatedly Passing notes Hurrying through work Once or twice a weekFive times each day Leaning back in chair Sometimes Bothering a neighbor Continuously Every ten minutes Bizarre Tapping pencil on desk Twice each period 25
  • Data Considerations: Data to CollectHow often does the Frequency extreme Howbehavior occur? is it? Intensity Duration Context How long does it Under what circumstances last? does it occur? 26
  • Data Collection StrategiesWhat is already collected? Anecdotal notes by teacher Office referrals Disciplinary actions 27
  • Data Collection StrategiesWhat else can be collected? Products from Consequences Behavior Contracts Checklists Daily Behavior Report (DBR) Direct Observation Interviews 28
  • “Think sheets” n? of rom now o e solved th e t will I d uld I havWha How sho t ter ways. List 2 be The rule problem? I broke w as Fixing Broken RulesBecoming A Problem Solver What should hap Resources pen Pages 10-11 because I broke the rule? 29
  • DBRs Resources Page 12Daily Behavior Report = DBRAlso referred to as Direct Behavior RatingThe DBR involves a brief rating of target behavior over a specified period of time on a scale 1-10.For more information and examples: http://www.directbehaviorratings.org/cms/in 30 Level II
  • Characteristics of DBRThe DBR involves a brief rating oftarget behavior over a specified periodof timebehavior(s) is specifiedrating of the behavior(s) typically occurs at least dailyobtained information is shared across individuals (e.g., parents, teachers, students)the card is used to monitor the effects of an intervention as a component of an intervention (Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002) 31
  • Potential Uses for the DBRIncrease communicationAs a component of an intervention package, particularly in self- managementProvide “quick” assessment of behaviors, especially those not easily captured by other meansMonitor student behavior over timeFlexible 32
  • A systematic DBR possesses the following 4 characteristics:1. The behavior of interest must be operationally defined2. The observations should be conducted under standardized procedures3. The DBR should be used in a specific time, place, and at a predetermined frequency4. The data must be scored and summarized in a consistent manner 33
  • How are DBR data summarized? 10.9 Class on Time0.80.70.60.50.4 Completed0.3 Work0.20.1 0 Positive Participation 34
  • 35
  • DBR ConsiderationsMeasures perception of behavior“3 to 7” not “he is a 7”No absolutes in Social BehaviorRater Effects 36
  • Individual Student Data Tracking Goal Info 12th %tile BaseLine Goal: 70 Date: Data: Date: Data: Goal Start Date: 25-Aug 25-Aug 40 28-Aug 30 Goal End Date: 10-Dec 26-Aug 20 31-Aug 60 Goal Unit: % opportunities 27-Aug 50 1-Sep 40 INT ERVENT ION Graph Date: Data: Phase1: Heather - Hand Raising 2-Sep 50 Intervention 100 Phase1 3-Sep 70 90 90 90 Intervention 4-Sep 80 Phase2 Base Line Dat a 8-Sep 90 80 80 80 80 9-Sep 70 70 70 70 12t h Percentile 10-Sep 50 60 60 Goal Line 11-Sep 80 50 50 50 50 14-Sep 80 40 40 40 15-Sep 90 % p o n u s e 30 30 r t i 20 20 10 0 Dates Intervention Phase 1 Notes: Phase2:Group Contingency: If Heather meets 80% goal for three of 5 days/ week the entireclass earns 5 minutes extra during recess. Intervention Phase2 Notes: Resources Page 13
  • Direct Assessment – Frequency CountsBehavior Counting Resources Page 14Name ____Shamel ____ Week of __Nov 5, 200X______Behavior to be counted ____Negative Comments to Peers: (Get out of my face. ) Mon. Tue. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Total Arrival IIII IIIII II II IIIII IIIII I 40 IIIII I Math I I I 3 Science II I III IIII I 11 Art IIII IIIII IIIII III IIIII IIII I 24 Reading I II III 6
  • Direct Assessment – Duration RecordingRecord the elapsed time, usually in minutes, from onset to conclusion of target Resourcesbehavior. Be sure to indicate the date, and the activity in which the student wasengaged when the target behavior began to escalate. Page 14Student Name: ___Shamel __ Week of / Day : __Nov 15, 200X____Target Behavior: Tantrum (screams, lays on floor, throws items) Transition Large Group Small Group Work Individual Read Aloud Read Silently In Crowds Library Specials Subject Specific Behavior Incident Briefly describe, making sure to note date, time, and any circumstances you think noteworthy.#1 9:45-10:15, Mon, Nov 15Group was doing read aloud#2 9:35-10:15, Tue, Nov 16Went to an assembly in thegym#3 9:28-10:05, Fri, Nov 19Oral vocabulary test
  • Context ChecklistSocial/Emotional Response to demand/request Transition between tasks/ setting Resources Interruption in routine Page 15 Change in home/family dynamics Lack of social attention Negative social interaction w/peers Negative social interaction w/adults Social skills deficits Consequences imposed for negative behavior Other (specify): ____________________________Academic/Instructional Specific subject: ____________________________ Grade level : on/above/below Activities: too easy/ too difficult Work completion: finishes quickly/ average / rarely finishes
  • Classroom Assessment Resources Pages 16-19 Classroom Management Checklist *adapted from Geoff Colvins Classroom Strategies Name of Teacher ___________________ Date ______________ In Place = 2Designing the Physical Space Partially = 1 Not = 01. A specific classroom area is identified for independentwork.2. A specific classroom area is identified for group work.3. A specific classroom area is identified for free choiceactivity.4. A specific classroom area is identified for time out.5. A specific classroom area is identified which is easily Level I 41accessible for teacher storage and student supplies.
  • Data ConsiderationsWhat is the target behavior and goal? Focus on a specific behavior that has been operationally defined Goal to increase or decrease behaviorWho is the focus of the rating? Individual, small-group or class-wideWhat is the period for rating? Specific school period, daily, or otherWhat is the setting of observation? Classroom or other location 42
  • Data ConsiderationsHow often will data be collected? Multiple times a day, daily, weeklyWhich tools are the best to assess the behavior? Checklist, rating scale, DBR, observation, interviewWho will conduct the rating? What resources can be used to collect data? Classroom teacher, aide, or other educational professionalWill ratings be tied to consequences? Consequences must be consistently delivered by person responsible 43
  • Activity: Tertiary DataWith your team complete the Tertiary Data activity Workbook Page 8 44
  • Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES S Supporting DA EM DA Supporting Decision TA TAStaff Behavior ST SY Making Positive PRACTICES Behavior Intervention and Supporting Student Behavior Support 45
  • Activity
  • Critical Elements of Tertiary Systems
  • Tertiary Systems ConsiderationsCommit to:Establishing a team to assess and intervene with students who have serious behavior problemsAllotting adequate time and resources for the team Training & planning Design & implementation of individual supports 48
  • Why do we need Tertiary Systems?To make a lasting, positive, change in behaviorTo provide a systematic way to support staff and studentsTo establish practices for children with behavior concerns 49
  • Team Structure ConsiderationWho?What?When?Where?Why? 50
  • Most Common Team StructuresProblem-Solving Only Team RtI & PBIS Teams PBS Pre-referral and PBIS absorbed in RtI Pre-referral absorbed in RtI PBS
  • Will you haverepresentatives for each level of support or for Tier III Tier III grade levels? Academic Behavior Tier II Tier II Academic Behavior Tier I Tier I Academic Behavior Problem Solving Only Team
  • 2nd grade 3rd grade Behavior Behavior 4th grade 1st grade 2nd grade Behavior Behavior Academic 3rd grade Academic 1st grade Kinder- 5th grade Academic garten Behaviorbehavior 4th grade Academic Kinder- garten 5th grade Academic Academic RtI Team PBIS Team RtI process School-wide PBIS process How will you structure both problem solving teams?
  • Team Responsibilities: Tertiary System ConsiderationsIdentify resources and structures develop the tertiary system of supports Assess students Develop and implement support plansPersonnelFamily InvolvementExternal agency involvement (Child and Family Teams/System of Care) 54
  • Team Responsibilities: Implement the Tertiary SystemAccess training and on-going staff development to establish and maintain knowledge of PBIS teamProviding staff development and support to teachers regarding the processSupport teachers with assessment and implementation 55
  • Team Responsibilities: Monitor the Tertiary SystemReview behavioral data and interventions in order to evaluate the effectivenessReviewing Implementation Inventory Tertiary Systems, Data, and Practices to address areas of need 56
  • Activity: Tertiary TeamDiscuss connections to existing teams (ex. RtI, pre-referral, PBIS, SOC, etc.)Discuss team structure, organization, and communication.Complete the Tertiary Team Functions Section of your workbook. Workbook Page 9 57
  • Create the System: Working SmarterWhat does working smarter look like at the individual level? How do we invest our resources wisely? Develop a continuum of support within the tertiary level to address all the shades of red 58
  • Three Important ThemesCreate systems (not just interventions) to support all studentsIntervene earlier rather than laterEvidence, not opinion 59
  • Data Decision RulesTo address:Teachers initiating the behavioral support processStudent data initiating the processProgress and goal completion rulesTertiary intervention effectiveness guidelines 60
  • ExamplesLess than 15 Star Tickets earned per week for 2 weeksMore than 5 absences in a 30 day period3 or more counseling referrals in a 30 day period6 or more office discipline referralsProgress to 80% completion of homework assignments70% of students receiving this tertiary intervention meet their goals within 8 weeks61
  • Activity: Tertiary Data Decision RulesDiscuss with your team possible data decision rules for your school Student referrals Progress and goal completion Intervention effectiveness Workbook Page 10 62
  • Systems for Individual StudentsQuick, supportive response to teacherUnderstand how behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment (competing pathways)If you have multiple students displaying similar behaviors = system issue not individual student issue 63
  • Referral ProcessHow will teachers know who to refer? Data decision rule Professional judgment After what process in classroomHow do they refer? Form To Whom 64
  • Referral ProcessWhat happens next? Data collection Case manager Parent/family participation Team meeting 65
  • Referral ProcessPlan Plan written? Good fit for context? Executed by whom? How do you know? Evaluated?Next Steps 66
  • Individual Student Referral Process Supplemental Resources Page 20 67
  • Activity: Tertiary Referral ProcessDiscuss the referral process for tertiary supports section in your workbook Workbook Page 11 68
  • An evaluation of Systems for the Tertiary Level: Checklist for Individual Student Systems (CISS) Resources Pages 21-24 2-Fully in place 1- Part I: Foundations partially in place 0-not yet started1. Score within the past 18 months on the SET (80%/80%), BOQ (70%), or TIC (80%) indicates that SWPBS is being implemented with fidelity 2 1 01. A person within the school building is identified to coordinate function-based support planning and implementation. 2 1 01. At least three people within the school are trained to conduct basic functional behavior assessment interviews and do simple, confirmatory direct observations 2 1 0 based on the results of the functional behavior assessment interview.1. At least one person within the school, or regularly available to the school, is trained to conduct direct observation methods of functional behavior assessment 2 1 0 and lead development of a behavior support plan. 69
  • Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES S Supporting DA EM DA Supporting Decision TA TAStaff Behavior ST SY Making PRACTICES Positive Behavior Supporting Intervention Student Behavior & Support 70
  • Functional Assessment & Intervention Level ofFunctional Tools Resources Person(s) involved INFORMAL Support Page 25 EASIER Behavior Contract SIMPLE Teacher Problem Solving Worksheet RESPONSIVETeacher Student Led Competing Behavior Pathway Parent Additional resource ERASE ERASE Team Teacher Brief Intervention Planning NOT Student RESPONSIVE Parent Team COMPLICATEDDirected Full FBA & BIP with Child/Family Team Team HARDER Teacher FORMAL Student Functional Analysis & Behavior Parent 71 Intervention Plan
  • 72
  • Both Identify:Problem behaviorSetting events that increase the likelihood of the occurrence of the targeted behaviorAntecedents that reliably predict the target behaviorConsequences that maintain the behaviorPlans to teach replacement behavior 73
  • BehaviorWhat is the challenging behavior?What can you observe? What does it look or sound like?Choose onePrioritize 74
  • Behavior 75
  • Setting EventsWhat environmental, personal, situational or daily events impact the behavior? Eating/Sleeping routines Medical/Physical problems Familial and staff interactionsDo not immediately precede problem behavior 76
  • Setting Events 77
  • AntecedentWhat happens immediately before the behavior?Predicts problem behaviorWhen, Where, With whom, Activity Time of day Physical Setting People present Types of interactions (demands, directives, etc.) 78
  • Antecedent 79
  • ConsequenceWhat happens immediately after the behavior?Gives student a reason to repeat the problem behaviorNot related to punishment 80
  • Function …People behave for a reason - we call this “function” Function:  Does he/she get something? Tangibles, attention, stimulation, people, etc.  Does he/she avoid or escape something? People, activities, embarrassment, tasks, etc. 82
  • Only Two Basic Functions Problem Behavior Escape/ Obtain/Get Avoid Something Something Stimulation/ Tangible/ Social Sensory ActivitySugai, 2011 Adult Peer
  • Hypothesis Statements Information about the problem behavior is used to write a hypothesis statement that helps us predict when the problem behavior is likely to occur and the function of that behavior 84
  • Hypothesis StatementsWhen Estes is ___________ and __________ (happens), he where/setting context/antecedenttypically responds by _________ to gain/avoid____________ . Hypothesis: behavior functionWhen Estes is in language arts and the teacher is providing directinstruction he typically responds by making verbal noises (ex. Burping) to access peer and teacher attention. 85
  • Bruno Activityhttp://www.sonoma.edu/cihs/classroom/mod_3/lesson1.html http://www.sonoma.edu/cihs/classroom/mod_3/lesson1.html Write a hypothesis statement about 86 http://www.sonoma.edu/cihs/classroom/mod_3/lesson1.html http://www.sonoma.edu/cihs/classroom/mod_3/lesson1.html Bruno’s behavior
  • Identifying the function helps:Choose an appropriate intervention Will this intervention meet the functional need?Choose an appropriate replacement behavior Alternative behavior taught to the student What you want the student to do instead Must meet functional need 87
  • Teacher-LedBehavior Support 89
  • Teacher – Led SupportAny individualized behavior support shouldalways begin with a hypothesis based ondata about the student 90
  • Teacher – Led Support 91
  • Behavior ContractIndividualized class or school behavior plan Adjust goals Prerequisite skills Shorter time periods More frequent reinforcementContract to address performance deficit 92
  • Behavioral ContractsPositive reinforcement interventionClarify behavioral expectations for students and staff to carry out the intervention planInclude the student in designing the contract to increase motivationInclude parents in planning and reinforcement 93
  • Steps for Designing Behavior ContractsList student behaviors Can be reduced or increased Behavioral goals should usually be stated in positive, goal-oriented terms Clearly defined, observable(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994) 94
  • Steps for Designing Behavior ContractsContract Reinforcers A statement or section that explains the minimum conditions under which the student will earn a point, sticker, or other token for showing appropriate behaviors Amount of behavior Amount of reinforcement(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994) 95
  • Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts (continued)Collection Describe when the student will be able to redeem points earned for reward/recognition (Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994) 96
  • Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts (continued)Bonus clauses (optional) can provide extra incentives for the student to follow the contract offers the student some type of additional pay-off for consistently reaching behavioral targets 97(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
  • Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts (continued)Negotiate and Document Terms Discuss the plan and responsibilities of the student and staffAreas for signature. both teacher and student signatures Other staff, parents, administrators(Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994) 98
  • Sample Contracts These a if I do re my con n’t m eet m sequenceMy Contract: y goa ls: s a l s: go my ese ar e Race to 20!ThResources Pages 26-29 These ar e my rewa rds if I m ee t my goa ls: 99
  • How are Tertiary Practices related toTeam the Problem Solving Identify Process? Let’sInitiated Problems examine that together.ProblemSolving(TIPS) Evaluate and Develop HypothesisModel Revise Action Plan Collect and Use Data Discuss and Develop and Select Implement Solutions Action Plan Problem Solving Meeting Foundations 100
  • Teacher Led Support- How they connect to the problem solving processProblem Solving TIPs Problem Competing ERASEProcess Solving Worksheet Behavior PathwaysIdentify the problem Primary Problem Problem Behavior Explain the problem StatementDevelop hypothesis Precision Problem Evaluate Setting Reason for engaging in Statement events, antecedents, the behavior behavior and consequencesDiscuss and select Solution Options Desired alternative Appropriate behavior-solutions and strategies to what he/she should do address each pathway instead componentDevelop and Action Planning Who/When listed in Support- plan forimplement action plan Strategies helping student engage in appropriate behaviorEvaluate and revise Evaluation Planning Plan review. Evaluate- to 101action plan determine if plan is
  • TIPS Problem Solving Worksheet Use during Activities Date: ___________ Resources School: ________________ Page 301. Primary Problem Statement Problem Statement elements  Who ___________________________________________________  What __________________________________________________  Where _________________________________________________  When _________________________________________________  Why ___________________________________________________2. Precision Problem Statement 102
  • 3. SolutionsPreventreduce probability of future or continued problembehaviorTeachincrease probability of positive behavior changeAcknowledgeProvide positive feedback when expected behavioroccursCorrectSpecific feedback to increase probability of improvedbehavior after errorExtinctionreduce reward for problem behaviorSafetyremove occurrence or possibility of injury or harm) 103
  • 4. Action Planning For solutions to be implemented, who will do what by when?5. Evaluation Planning Goal Setting (what will it look like when you can say there is no longer a problem?) Data Collection (gather additional information) To measure outcomes To measure fidelity of implementation 104
  • Teacher-Led Functional Support: Competing Pathways 105
  • Competing Pathways: Chart Behavior & HypothesizeSetting Problem Maintaining AntecedentsEvents Behavior Consequences 106
  • Competing Pathways: Identify Replacement Behavior(s)Setting Problem Maintaining AntecedentsEvents Behavior Consequences Acceptable Acceptable Alternative Acceptable Alternative Acceptable Alternative Alternative Maintaining Consequences Desired Alternative 107
  • Competing Pathways: Resources Identify Interventions Page 32Setting Triggering Problem MaintainingEvents Antecedents Behavior Consequences Acceptable Alternative Maintaining Desired Consequences Alternative Setting Behavior Event Antecedent Consequence TeachingStrategies Strategies Strategies Strategies 108
  • Case Study: Eddie 109
  • Case Study: EddieDo we have a problem?What data do you have?What might you still need to collect? 110
  • Designing Functional Interventions Setting Triggering Problem Maintaining Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Verbal Asked to Verbal Avoids hand-disagreements with peers turn in Disagreement ing in home- before class homework With teacher work 111
  • HypothesisWhat is your hypothesis about the problem behavior?When Eddie is ___________ and __________ (happens), he where/setting context/antecedenttypically responds by _________ to gain/avoid ____________ . behavior function 112
  • Replacement BehaviorWhat do you want the student to do instead of the problem behavior?Will the behavior require shaping with a series of successive approximations of the desired behavior? 113
  • Setting Triggering Problem Maintaining Events Antecedents Behavior Consequences Verbal Asked to Verbal AvoidsDisagree turn in Disagreement handing inment with homework with teacher homework peers before Acceptable Alternative class Request help/ Write down assignments Maintaining Consequences Desired Adjusted work Behavior Completion goals Eddie will complete assigned 114 homework
  • Utilizing the Competing Behavior Pathways Strategies SheetHow can you impact each area involved with the challenging behavior?Consider: Instruction Interventions Environmental modification 115
  • Intervention & Support Strategies: Eddie’s PlanEvent Antecedent Behavior ConsequencesStrategies Strategies Teaching Strategies Strategies Complete Teach Eddie missing Teacher Re-teach and assignments reinforce the how to request and in study hall. homework help and write students Earn free submission down will utilize homework routine. assignments. Peer passes for Mediation every 8 Strategies. assignments turned in on time. 116
  • Implement the StrategiesWho is responsible?Resources?When to review?Goal?Collect data during implementation 117
  • Eddie’s Plan Example Event Antecedent Behavior Consequences Strategies Strategies Teaching Strategies Strategies Complete missing Re-teach and Teach Eddie assignments in Teacher reinforce the how to request study hall. Earn and homework help and write free homework students submission down passes for will utilize routine. assignments. every 8 Peer Mediation assignments Strategies. turned in on time.Plan review date: 11/19/2011We agree to the conditions of this plan.Eddie Smith _________________Student Parent_____________ _____________ 118Teacher Team member
  • EvaluateWas the plan implemented consistently and with fidelity?Did it work?What changes need to be made? 119
  • Eddie’s Plan ReviewEvent Antecedent Behavior ConsequencesStrategies Strategies Teaching Strategies Strategies Complete missingTeacher and Re-teach andstudents Teach Eddie how assignments in reinforce thewill utilize to request help study hall. Earn homeworkPeer and write down free homework submissionMediation assignments. passes for every 8 routine.Strategies. Update 11/19/11- assignments UpdateUpdate Taught 9/30/11. turned in on time. 11/19/11- re-11/19/11- 3 Increased from 1 Update 11/19/11- taught onpeers completed Increased number 9/30/11;attended PM assignment/wk to of assignments reinforced withtrng. 1 peer 8 completed completed by 60%. Freewas observed assignments/ wk. Eddie is earning homeworkusing free homework passes, 6strategies passes. earned to date.with Eddie. 120
  • Case Study Practice: Shane Watch this video clip of Shane’s behavior in math class and identify problems. WorkbookPractice with your team. Page 12 121
  • Teacher led FunctionalAssessment of Behavior: ERASE Resources Page 33-37 122
  • ERAS ESupplemental problemResourcesPage 34 E x p la in behavior What is the problem? E v a lu a t e R eas onHow will you know What is he/she getting out if it works? of it or getting away from? S upport A p p r o p r ia t e How can you help this What would you like happen more often? him/her to do instead? (Scott, n.d.)
  • ERASE: ExplainWhat is the problem? Create an operational definition of behavior Describe why the behavior is a problem Determine if student can engage in appropriate behavior. List what has already been tried. PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3 124
  • ERASE: ReasonWhat is student getting or avoiding?Determine what times, locations, contexts, conditions, etc. tend to predict or precede: problem behavior appropriate behavior PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3 125
  • ERASE: ReasonDetermine what types of events tend to follow behavior? peers, instruction, consequences, etc. after problem behavior after appropriate behavior 126
  • ERASE: ReasonMake a guess at the function – why do you think he/she is doing this? access to . . . (persons, objects, attention, etc.) escape or avoid . . . (persons, activities, attention, etc.) 127
  • ERASE: Appropriate What would you like student to do instead? Determine what times, locations, contexts, conditions, etc. tend to predict or precede: fair pair – incompatible with problem (can’t do at same time) functional – meets the same function as problem behaviorPBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3 128
  • ERASE: SupportHow can you help this happen more often? Determine how the replacement behavior and intervention plan will be taught Rules (what it is and -- when, where, how, and why to use behavior) Examples (modeling and use of naturally occurring examples) Practice (opportunities to practice with teacher feedback) 129PBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3
  • ERASE: SupportConsider realistic routines and physical arrangements that could be implemented to facilitate student success (avoid predictable failure and create success opportunities) prompts and reminders supervise avoid triggers 130
  • ERASE: SupportDetermine appropriate consequences for replacement and problem behaviors – and consider what is realistic for you to do reinforcement (matches function) correction (how might this happen?) negative consequences (matches function) natural (try to keep it as realistic as possible) 131
  • ERASE: EvaluateHow will you know if it works? Consider realistic strategies for measuring behavior keep it simple consider times and conditions where measurement would be particularly meaningful and realisticPBIS Newsletter, Volume 2, Issue 3 132
  • ERASE: EvaluateConsider what your measure will look like when the behavior is no longer a problem measurable behavior by what time should this happen? 133
  • Activity: ERASE ProcessReview the data for ElvinWrite the corresponding letter from the ERASE process that best describes where the information would be entered on the ERASE form Workbook Pages 13-14 134
  • Activity: Paper KidsDo you have students like this?How do you help? 135
  • General Recommendations For Tertiary PracticesKeep doing what is already workingAlways look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect Avoid defining a large number of goals Do a small number of things well 136
  • General Recommendations For Tertiary PracticesDo not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possibleWhen it comes to problem behavior nothing is 100% 137
  • Activity: Tertiary PracticesEvaluate and plan for Tertiary Practices Workbook Page 15 138
  • Additional training available for the team in your school that will be providing support and practicing the FBA/BIP processes 139
  • Team Let’s Practice!Initiated IdentifyProblem ProblemsSolving(TIPS)Model Evaluate and Develop Revise Hypothesis Action Plan . Collect and Use Data Discuss and Develop and Select Implement Solutions Action Plan Problem Solving Meeting Foundations Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated
  • Using the Referrals by Student report as a Universal Screening Tool- Who? Let’s review BH Use the data to data for identify individual Brandon. students in need of tertiary supports. Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team InitiatedProblem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.
  • When?
  • When?
  • What?
  • Where?
  • Why? 146
  • Do we have a problem?
  • TeamInitiated IdentifyProblem ProblemsSolving(TIPS)Model Evaluate and Develop Revise Hypothesis Action Plan . Collect and Use Data Discuss and Develop and Select Implement Solutions Action Plan Problem Solving Meeting Foundations (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Problem StatementsWrite a “problem statement” that specifies the precise nature of the problemThe more Ws (what, when, where, who, why) you incorporate into the problem statement, the more precise the problem statement will beThe more precise the problem statement, the easier it will be to generate a solution that “fits” the problem 149 (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Problem-Solving Action Plan Write your Precise Problem Implementation and Evaluation Statement here. Precise Problem Statement, Solution Actions (e.g., Goal with Timeline, based on review of data Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Who? By Fidelity & Outcome (What, When, Where, Who, Reward, Correction, When? Measures, & Updates Why) Extinction, Safety)BH has received 7 ODRsduring the first grading period Re-teach SS 11/1/10 JM will earn 80% offor disrespectful behaviors Responsibility lessons Implement CICO his daily points on hisincluding inappropriate daily progress reportlanguage and harassment in Reinforce on-task JA 11/3/10 behaviors with DPR per day for 4/5 days perthe classroom during reading All 11/3/10 week by 12/18/10possibly motivated by peer teachersattention. (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Team Initiated QuickProblem Solving Identify Review(TIPS) Model Problems Evaluate and Develop Revise Hypothesis Action Plan . Collect and Use Data Discuss and Develop and Select Implement Solutions Action Plan Problem Solving Meeting Foundations (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Solutions – Generic Strategies Prevent – Remove or alter “trigger” for problem behavior Define & Teach – Define behavioral expectations; provide demonstration/instruction in expected behavior (alternative to problem behavior Reward/reinforce – The expected/alternative behavior when it occurs; prompt for it, as necessary Withhold reward/reinforcement – For the problem behavior, if possible (“Extinction”) Use non-rewarding/non-reinforcing corrective consequences – When problem behavior occurs Although not a “solution strategy,” Safety may need to be considered (i.e., procedures that may be required to decrease likelihood of injuries or property damage) 152 (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Problem statement: BH has received 7 ODRs during the first grading periodfor disrespectful behaviors including inappropriate language andharassment in the classroom during reading possibly motivated by peerattention.Prevent “Trigger”Define & Teach Reteach Respect lessons emphasizing alternatives to cursing . Teach 5 alternative phrases to express frustration.Reward/Reinforce Establish behavior contract and reward earning 80% of points per day.Withhold Reward Teach peers to withhold attention.Corrective Ask for alternative way of expressing hisconsequence thoughts/feelings. Suggest alternatives when necessary.OtherSafety (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Problem-Solving Action Plan Write Solutions here. Implementation and Evaluation Precise Problem Statement, Solution Actions (e.g., Goal with Timeline, based on review of data Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Who? By Fidelity & Outcome (What, When, Where, Who, Reward, Correction, When? Measures, & Updates Why) Extinction, Safety)JM has received 2 ODRsduring the first grading period Re-teach Respect SS 11/1/10 JM will earn 80% offor disruptive behaviors in the lessons. Teach 5 alternative his daily points on hisclassroom during reading daily progress reportpossibly motivated by expressions. JA 11/3/10 Behavior Contract and per day for 4/5 days perattention. Reinforce 80% use of All 11/3/10 week by 12/18/10 appropriate language. teachers (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Team Initiated QuickProblem Solving Identify Review(TIPS) Model Problems Evaluate and Develop Revise Hypothesis Action Plan . Collect and Use Data Discuss and Develop and Select Implement Solutions Action Plan Problem Solving Meeting Foundations (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Document Problem-Solving Action Plan Document Implementation Goal here. here. Implementation and Evaluation Precise Problem Statement, Solution Actions (e.g., Goal with Timeline, based on review of data Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Who? By Fidelity & Outcome (What, When, Where, Who, Reward, Correction, When? Measures, & Updates Why) Extinction, Safety)JM has received 2 ODRsduring the first grading period Re-teach SS 11/1/10 BH will earn 80% offor disruptive behaviors in the Responsibility lessons Implement CICO his daily points on hisclassroom during reading behavior contract perpossibly motivated by Reinforce on-task JA 11/3/10 behaviors with DPR day for 4/5 days perattention. All 11/3/10 week by 12/18/10 teachers (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Team Initiated QuickProblem Solving Identify Review(TIPS) Model Problems Evaluate and Develop Revise Hypothesis Action Plan . Collect and Use Data Discuss and Develop and Select Implement Solutions Action Plan Problem Solving Meeting Foundations (Newton, et al, 2009)
  • Evaluate Problem-Solving Action Plan here. Implementation and Evaluation Precise Problem Statement, Solution Actions (e.g., Goal with Timeline, based on review of data Prevent, Teach, Prompt, Who? By Fidelity & Outcome (What, When, Where, Who, Reward, Correction, When? Measures, & Updates Why) Extinction, Safety) 11/1 BM has shownJM has received 2 ODRs some initial progressduring the first grading period Re-teach SS 11/1/10 JM will earnbehavior with his 80% offor disruptive behaviors in the Responsibility lessons contract and he his daily points on hisclassroom during reading Implement CICO earned 80% of his Reinforce on-task JA 11/3/10 daily progress reportpossibly motivated by points for the past 8 behaviors with DPR per day for Update: per days. 4/5 daysattention. All 11/3/10 week by 12/18/10the continue with teachers plan. Consider next- Add a self- monitoring component and check back in 2 weeks. Newton,, et. al., 2009
  • Problem Solving PracticeUse your disciplinary data and the results of the team activities to practice the problem solving processIf you do not have your own data, practice data is provided in the Resources pages 38-40Use the TIPS problem solving Resources worksheet to assist you with Workbook the Page 38-40 Page 16 process 160
  • Planning for Implementation 161
  • Tertiary Action Planning WorkbookReview your individual student Page 17 discipline dataApply the problem solving stepsDevelop your Module 3 Action Plan What is the plan for individual students with intensive needs? What is the plan for data & support systems to address students with intensive needs? 162
  • Action Planning Workbook Page 18Use your Implementation Inventory DataConsider Universal, Secondary and Tertiary ImplementationReview the action steps your team has developed during training, prioritize items, and finalize your action plan (Action Plan document) 163
  • Additional Tools and Supportwww.ncpublicschools.org/positivebehavior/www.pbisassessment.orgwww.pbis.orgAll references are cited in the reference section of your workbookTechnical Assistance—Your Regional or LEA Coordinator Resources Pages 42-45 164
  • Conclusion of Module 3Questions?Please complete and return your training evaluation formThank you! 165