Disciplinary disproportionality 2013

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  • 1. DISCIPLINARY DISPROPORTIONALITY Cayce McCamish, Ph.D.
  • 2. WHAT ARE WE REALLY TALKING ABOUT? Disciplinary Disproportionality -Behavior -Policies & Procedures -Rules & Expectations -Inequitable outcomes -Race Can we discuss disciplinary disproportionality without discussing race?
  • 3. WHAT IS DISCIPLINARY DISPROPORTIONALITY? It is a term used to describe the inequitable distribution of disciplinary actions in schools (Wallace, Goodkind, Wallace, & Bachman, 2008).  Exclusionary disciplinary practicessuspensions, expulsions, or other actions that result in the removal of the student from the educational environment.  The inequity occurs on the basis of race. 
  • 4. HOW IS IT CALCULATED?     Risk Index is “the percentage of a given racial/ethnic group that is in a specific category.” Risk Ratio is a comparison of the “Risk Index for the target racial/ethnic group and the risk index of all other groups.” Risk Ratio presents a quantifiable number indicating the level of over or under-representation of members of a certain racial/ethnic group to be included in a particular category. In the case of disciplinary disproportionality the category would calculate the risk for certain racial/ethnic groups for receiving suspensions, expulsions, or other exclusionary disciplinary outcomes. Risk Index = Number of Suspensions- received by Black Students Total Number Enrolled- Students who are Black Risk Ratio= Risk of Suspensions- for Black Students Total Risk of Suspensions- for all other racial groups (The Equity Project at Indiana University, 2011).
  • 5. BEGINNING WITH… Desegregation
  • 6. HISTORICAL CONTEXT Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) “with all deliberate speed…”
  • 7. FIRST DOCUMENTATION OF EVIDENCE  HEW/OCR, 1971: First collection of data regarding expulsions by race   Black students 3X more likely to be expelled HEW/OCR, 1973: First national survey to collect data regarding suspensions by race  Black students 3X more likely to be suspended  Children’s Defense Fund, 1974: Children Out of School in America  Children’s Defense Fund, 1975: School Suspensions: Are they helping children?
  • 8. DISCIPLINARY DISPROPORTIONALITY: A THING OF THE PAST?
  • 9. DISPROPORTIONALITY RATE Year(s) Rate of greater likelihoodSuspensions Source 1973 3 (CDF, 1975) 1991-2005 3.3 (Wallace et al., 2008) 2010 3.5 (CRDC, 2012)
  • 10. CIVIL RIGHTS DATA COLLECTION 2012 Disparate Discipline Rates SY 2009-2010 (CDRC, 2012) 100% 90% 29% 39% 80% 36% 33% 51% 70% 60% 22% 24% 50% 23% 25% 40% 24% 30% 46% 39% 35% 20% 35% 2% 3% 1% 2% ISS OSS-single OSS- multiple Expulsions 18% 10% 6% 0% Overall Enrollment White Hispanic Black Asian/Pacific Islander American Indian
  • 11. RESEARCH- INFLUENTIAL FACTORS  Class and gender are factors that impact the rate of disciplinary referral but do not fully account for racial differences. (Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002) (Skiba, Michael, & Nardo, 2000; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002; Hinojosa, 2008)  Types of behaviors do not appear to be significantly different- but interpretation of behaviors does appear to be a factor that contributes to disproportionality. (Bahr & Fuchs, 1991 in Noltemeir and McGlothlin)
  • 12. GENDER AS A FACTOR Race and Gender Percentage of OSS received (CRDC, 2012) 20% 15% 10% Males 5% Females 0% American Indian Asian/Pacific Islander Black Hispanic White For students who are Black, both males and females have higher rates of suspensions. 1 in 5 males and 1 in 10 females receive an out-of-school suspension.
  • 13. BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES  Black students appear to be referred to the office for infractions that are both less serious and more subjective in their interpretation than white students. White students were significantly more likely than black students to be referred to the office for smoking, leaving without permission, vandalism, and obscene language.  Black students were more likely to be referred for disrespect, excessive noise, threats, and loitering.   (Skiba, Peterson, & Williams, 1997; Wu, Pink, Crain, & Moles, 1982)
  • 14. MISPERCEPTIONS Highest rates of disproportionality occur in the categories of “disruptive” and “Other” (Rausch & Skiba, 2004).  Misinterpretation of African American student behaviors as inappropriate overlapping speech as disrespect  play fighting as aggression  ritualized humor as insults   (Hanna, 1988 as cited in Monroe, 2005; Weinstein, Curran, and Tomlinson-Clark, 2004 in Monroe, 2005).
  • 15. WHERE DOES IT HAPPEN?  Racial disparities in school suspension appear to be greatly impacted by disproportionate rate of office referral for African-American students.  (Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002)
  • 16. TYPE OF SCHOOL Out-of-school Suspension Incident Rates by Race and Locale 60 52.39 Incident Rate Per 100 Students 50 40 39.21 38.89 African American 30 28.15 Hispanic White 20 19.19 16.9 19.03 13.9 10 10.01 10.38 9.97 6.6 0 Urban Suburban Town Rural (Rausch & Skiba, 2004)
  • 17. ZERO TOLERANCE “In districts that reported expulsions under zerotolerance policies, Hispanic and African-American students represent 45% of the student body, but 56% of the students expelled under such policies” (CRDC, 2012).
  • 18. REFERENCES        Children’s Defense Fund, (1975). School Suspensions: Are they helping children? A Report. p. 1-270. Washington Research Project, Inc. Children’s Defense Fund (1974). Children Out of School in America. Cambridge, MA: The Washington Research Project, Inc. Retrieved November 1, 2011 from: http://diglib.lib.utk.edu/cdf/main.php?bid=124&pg=1. Children’s Defense Fund, (2011). Portrait of Inequality 2011: Black Children in America. Retrieved August 3, 2011 from: http://www.childrensdefense.org/childresearch-data-publications/data/portrait-of-inequality-2011.html. Civil Rights Data Collection Report (2006). Projected Values for the Nation. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from: http://ocrdata.ed.gov/. Civil Rights Data Collection Report (2012). The Transformed Data Collection (CRDC). Retrieved March 8, 2012 from: http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/crdc-2012-data-summary.pdf. Hinojosa, M. (2008). Black-White differences in school suspension: Effect of student beliefs about teachers. Sociological Spectrum, 28, p. 175-193. Losen, D. (2011). Discipline Policies, Successful Schools and Racial Justice. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved March 8, 2012 from: http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED524711.pdf.
  • 19. REFERENCES       Mendez, L. (2003). Predictors of suspension and negative school outcomes: A longitudinal investigation. New Directions for Youth Development, 99, p. 17- 33. Monroe, C. (2005). Why are “Bad Boys” always Black? Causes of Disproportionality in School Discipline and Recommendations for Change. The Clearing House, 79, 1. Noltemeyer, A. & Mcloughlin, C. (2010). Changes in Exclusionary Discipline Rates and Disciplinary Disproportionality Over Time. International Journal of Special Education, (25) 1, p. 59-70. Rausch, M. & Skiba, R. (2004). Disproportionality in school discipline among minority students in Indiana: Description and Analysis. Children Left Behind Policy Briefs Supplementary Analysis 2-A, Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, July 2004. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from: http://eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED488897.pdf. Skiba, R., Peterson, R. & Williams, T. (1997). Office referrals and suspension: Disciplinary intervention in middle schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 20, 3, p. 295-315. Skiba, R., Michael, R., Nardo, A., & Peterson, R., (2002). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. The Urban Review, 34,4, 317-342.
  • 20. REFERENCES         Skiba, R., Horner, R. Chung, C., Rausch, M., May, S. & Tobin, T. (2011). Race is not neutral: A national investigation of African American and Latino Disproportionality in school discipline. School Psychology Review, 40, p. 85-107. Skiba, R. J., Peterson, R. L., & Williams, T. (1997). Office referrals and suspension: Disciplinary intervention in middle schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 20(3), 295-315. Skiba, R., Poloni-Staudinger, L., Simmons, A, Feggins-Azziz, R., & Choong-Geun, C. (2005). Unproven Links: Can poverty explain ethnic disproportionality in special education? The Journal of Special Education, (39)3, p. 130-144. Skiba, R. & Rausch, M. (2006). Zero Tolerance, Suspension, and Expulsion: Questions of equity and effectiveness. In Everston, C. & Weinstein, C (Eds.) Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, preactice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Skiba, R., Simmons, A., Ritter, S., Kohler, K., & Wu, T. (2003) The Psychology of Disproportionality: Minority placement in context. Minority Voices, 6, p. 27-40. The Equity Project (2012). Glossary of equity terms. Retrieved March 8, 2012 from: http://www.indiana.edu/~equity/glossary.php. Wallace, J., Goodkind, S., Wallace, C., & Bachman, J. (2008). Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005. The Negro Educational Review, 59, p. 47-62. Wu, S., Pink, W., Crain, R., Moles, O., (1982). Student suspension: A critical reappraisal. The Urban Review, 14, p. 245-303.
  • 21. RESOURCES  Elementary and Middle Schools Technical Assistance Center (EMSTAC)   Indiana Center for Evaluation and Education Policy: Indiana Disproportionality Project   http://centerforcsri.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=625&Itemid=119 NCCRESt Policy Brief   http://www.nccrest.org/about.html The Center for Comprehensive School Improvement   http://ceep.indiana.edu/equity/idp/reports.shtml NCCRESt   http://www.emstac.org/resources/disproportionality.htm http://www.nccrest.org/Briefs/School_Discipline_Brief.pdf Race is Not Neutral  http://vimeo.com/14102730