Bully Prevention In Positive Behavior Intervention and Support
Assumptions Schools that are interested in implementing Bully Prevention fall under the following criteria: Universals implementation has begun. Data indicates bullying should be addressed.
Today’s Goals Define why bullying is worth addressing. Provide a comprehensive model for bully prevention. Describe core elements of UNIVERSAL level bully prevention. Demonstrate reduction in bullying and improved perception of school safety through data.
Rationale for BullyPrevention The National School Safety Center (NSSC) called bullying the most enduring and underrated problem in U.S. schools(Beale, 2001). Nearly 30 percent of students have reported being involved in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim (Nansel, et al., 2001; Swearer & Espelage, 2004). Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to skip and/or drop out of school (Berthold & Hoover, 2000; Neary & Joseph, 1994). Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to suffer from underachievement and sub-potential performance in employment settings (Carney & Merrell, 2001; NSSC, 1995).
Typical Bully Prevention Most Bully Prevention programs focus on the bully and the victim. Which leads to several problems: Bullying is inadvertently taught. Bullies are blamed. The role of bystanders are ignored. Program results are ineffective over time.
Bully Prevention in PBIS School-wide Bully Prevention aligns with universal implementation: All students learn behavior expectations. All staff reinforce students demonstrating expectations. All staff address students not demonstrating expectations.
Foundations of Bully Prevention Bullying behavior occurs in many forms, and locations, but typically involves student-student interactions. Bullying behavior is often reinforced by: Attention from bystanders Reaction from victim Access to resources Self-reinforcement
Foundations of BullyPreventionTwo key changes lead to prevention of bullying behaviors: Reinforcements that follow bullying are removed. Staff and students effectively respond to bullying behavior.
CONTINUUM OFBullying Bully & POSITIVE Victim Individual BEHAVIORPrevention Support INTERVENTIONModel AND Additional and more frequent role play & SUPPORT practice Teach School-Wide Expectations Teach & Reinforce Stop, Talk, & Walk
Teach All Students Teach school-wide expectations Students should be able to recognize respectful verses non- respectful behavior. Link concept of respect and responsibility to the most appropriate expectation. Teach how bullying is reinforced Bullies gain attention. Bullies gain materials/activities. Teach how to respond to non-respectful behavior Say, “Stop.” Walk away.
Teaching “Stop” If someone is not being respectful toward you, or someone else, tell them to “Stop!” Because talking is hard in emotional situations… always include a physical signal to stop. Review how the stop signal should look and sound. Firm hand signal Clear voice
Responding to “Stop” Eventually, every student will be told to stop. When this happens, he or she should follow these three steps: Stop what you are doing. Take a deep breath. Go about your day (no big deal). This three-step procedure should be followed even when the student doesn’t agree with the “stop.”
Teaching “Walk” Sometimes, even when students tell others to “Stop,” problem behavior will continue. When this happens, students are to "walk away" from the problem behavior. Remember that walking away removes the reinforcement for bullying. Teach students to encourage one another when they use the appropriate
Teaching “Talk” Even when students use “stop” and they “walk away” from the problem, sometimes students will continue to behave inappropriately toward them. When that happens, students should "talk" to an adult. Report problems to adults.
Teaching “Talk”There is a difference between tattling and talking. Talking is when you have tried to solve the problem yourself, and have used the "stop" and "walk" steps first. Tattling is when you do not use the "stop" and "walk away" steps before talking to an adult. Tattling is when your goal is to get the other person in trouble.
Responding to “Talk”When any problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response sequence: Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e. "Im glad you told me."). Ask who, what, when and where. Ensure the student’s safety. Is the bullying still happening?
Responding to “Talk” Is there fear of revenge? What does the student need to feel safe? What is the severity of the situation? "Did you tell the student to stop?" If yes, praise the student for using an appropriate response. If no, practice. "Did you walk away from the problem behavior?" If yes, praise student for using appropriate response. If no, practice.
Reinforcing “Stop/Walk/Talk” Effective generalization requires the prompt reinforcement of appropriate behavior the FIRST time it is attempted. Staff should look for students that use the 3- step response appropriately and reward. Students that struggle with problem behavior (either as victim or perpetrator) are less likely to attempt new approaches. These students need reinforcement for attempting to implement the strategies.
Practice “Stop/Walk/Talk” Break into groups of four and designate roles. Roles are: Perpetrator, Victim, Bystander, & Teacher. Role-play a typical scenario utilizing the strategies. Brainstorm potential pitfalls and solutions.
Implementing BullyPrevention Universals must be in place. Download Bully Prevention in PBIS Manual. Elementary School Version Middle School Version Plan to train all staff and students prior to implementing strategies.
PBIS Team Roles Takes the lead with implementation. Determines a school-wide “stop” signal. Develops schedule for student Bully Prevention training (initial and follow-up). Plans ongoing support of supervisors and teachers. Evaluates student outcome data (ODRs). Uses an implementation checklist. Follows up with faculty. Works with the district to maintain efforts.
Teacher Role Read manual. Deliver initial lessons and follow up lessons. Practice with students. Report incidents. Respond to “Talk” as trained. Reinforce appropriate behavior. Give feedback to PBIS team.
Administrator Role Provide leadership for Bully Prevention Model. Read manual. Practice with students. Check in with students and staff. Report incidences. Reinforce staff and student behavior!
Research Support Scott Ross of University of Oregon has studied Bully Prevention at the elementary level. Three elementary schools Two students at each school with physical/social aggression at high rates All staff taught with the Bully Prevention in PBIS manual All students taught by staff All playground personnel received implementation support
Baseline 3.14 Acquisition 1.88 Full BP-PBS Implementation .88 72% Reduction Rob School 1 Bruce Number of Incidents of Bullying Behavior Cindy School 2 Scott Anne School 3 Ken20 School Days
28% increase 19% decrease21 BP-PBS, Scott Ross
22% decrease 21% increase22 BP-PBS, Scott Ross
Summary Manual available on wiki. Establish school-wide expectations. Teach students how to respond to behavior that is NOT respectful. Provide extra review and pre-correction for students with more extensive need. Provide support for staff implementation fidelity. Collect and use data to improve implementation and impact. Work with your team to determine next steps.
Work Cited Beale, A. V., & Scott, P. C. (2001, April). Bullybusters: Using drama to empower students to take a stand against bullying behavior. Professional School Counseling, 4, 300-305. Berthold, K. A., & Hoover, J. H. (2000, January). Correlates of bullying and victimization among intermediate students in the Midwestern USA . School Psychology International, 21, 65-78. Carney, A. G., & Merrell, K. W. (2001, August). Bullying in schools: Perspectives on understanding and preventing an international problem. School Psychology International, 22, 364-382. Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2003). Bullying in American Schools A Social-Ecological Perspective on Prevention and Intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., & Ramani, P. S. (2001, April 16). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment . JAMA, 285, 2094-2100. Neary, A., & Joseph, S. (1994, January). Peer victimization and its relationship to self- concept and depression among schoolgirls . Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 183-