• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Assessment+and+intervention
 

Assessment+and+intervention

on

  • 654 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
654
Views on SlideShare
594
Embed Views
60

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
18
Comments
0

1 Embed 60

http://ncec.ncdpi.wikispaces.net 60

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Participant Expectations and Rules To set the stage and model what we want to teach, we have developed a list of expectations and rules for the participants. These expectations and rules will help the training run smoothly. Take a minute to look at these proposed expectations and let us know if there is anything you feel strongly that we need to add. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: These are the directions for the signal that will be used to gain the audience attention throughout the training. If desired: practice by asking everyone to turn to their neighbor and say “hello” and tell them how happy you are to be here today. After about 15 seconds, raise your hand and say, “Attention here.” Time how long it takes all participants to get quiet. Emphasize finishing thought or comment before raising hand. Stop talking once hand is raised. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Focus on the whole school climate and making it a place where all students can be successful. Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Continuum of Positive Behavior Support Describe as a continuum; one size does not fit all; universals will “sift out” those students who need more instruction. Interventions for at-risk students will sift out those who need even more. If all interventions are in place then the smallest number of students as possible will need the most intensive help. Universal (green) —Universal strategies are for all students. Stress the importance of having universals in place before adding more intensive strategies for at risk and high risk students You will be tempted to start with the top—the tough kids but this is an inefficient use of resources. Effectively implemented universals (listed in the green section on the slide) will assist the majority of students to demonstrate appropriate behavior. However, universals will not decrease behavior to zero. Strategies for students with at-risk behavior (yellow )—next layer of intervention (strategies listed on slide). These students do not have learning history of prosocial behavior and, therefore, need additional support, practice, and teaching. Strategies for students with high-risk behavior (red)— after first two layers you should be left with a small group of students who need intensive individualized interventions. One half of all office referrals require 40-60% of administrator time. These students need highly individualized plans . Other Key Points If you invert the triangle you will see the amount of staff time required at each level. Many schools initially say that we have less that 80% of our students who are in the green area and more than 20% in the top two levels. This indicates a need for stronger, more effective school-wide systems. This graphic is when PBIS is in place in schools and working. You will always have a 5% regardless of your population. Your system-wide, secondary, and tertiary interventions can vary according to students’ overall needs. Remind teams they will be doing double duty for a while—you will be dealing with individual kids as you are creating the system of universal support. Without building universal systems of support, interventions implemented for tough students will not be sustainable. Incidentally, we find that school faculty will be distributed the same way in regard to their “buy in” and support needed to implement PBIS. The participants in the audience are currently falling into these categories.  Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: This graphic describes the interplay between the three elements needed to achieve desired outcomes. Each system supports the other. What makes PBIS different is that all three parts must be addressed to create sustainable change Practices-support student behavior Systems-support adult behavior (which must change first) Data-supports decision making Utilizing the PBIS circles provides a strong problem solving process and helps maintain sustainability. Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: In this section, we are going to discuss the basics of behavior. Understanding these principles will guide our efforts to create strategies/interventions that work to move students to behaviors that will ensure success their success. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: This illustrates how social interactions teach children to predict how the social world works. In this example, we are talking about a teacher. As we go through this section, think about: What did the child learn from this social interaction? What is likely to occur next time? Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Social Interaction Analysis of the scenario described earlier in this section This is what the student learned (looking at it in a little different way). The antecedents were that student stayed up late and there was a quiz in class. (conditional and situational, respectively) Student behavior—put head down and refused to work Teacher behavior—asked student to leave class Student behavior— left class The first consequence reinforces the student’s behavrio because it worked to get out of the quiz. The teacher is increasing the likelihood the child will put head down and refuse in the future. The second consequence reinforces the teacher for asking him to leave the since the student left and the behavior ceased. This increases the likelihood the teacher will continue this behavior in the future. This shows how children learn to predict how the world works. What will happen next time if nothing is changed? Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip: h
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: This points out a basic fact that behavior is learned. This is easy to see when students are displaying appropriate behavior but it is not so obvious when students have learned behavior that is inconsistent with the expectations of school. So we need to focus on teaching and modeling behavior we want students to learn. Kids aren’t born being mean and hateful. They are just trying to figure out how things work. Humans like the world to be predictable and we watch for social cues to help figure out how the world works. Children engage in behaviors—this is a little simplistic when we try to figure out complex human behavior. Generally, though, we can say that students do things to get something, such as a preferred activity, attention, or an object. Students also try to avoid what they do not want—difficult work, embarrassment, failure, conflict, etc. Students are more likely to respond to an adult they have a relationship with. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Creating changes in behavior require understanding the antecedent, the behavior, and the consequence. Behaviors are signaled by an event in the environment, or antecedent, and are reinforced by consequences. What prompts the behavior? What does the behavior look like and sound like? What occurs after the behavior to reinforce it? Does it work to get what the child wants? Behavior can be predicted. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: What situations set off the problem behavior? When does it most likely occur? Least likely? Are there specific conditions, events, or activities that cause problem behavior to be worse? Can be thought of as a predictor of behavior Specifics on conditional and antecedent are coming next. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Conditions are typically not in control of school personnel. However, it is important that you view it as your responsibility to know them and how they impact students. They are conditions that have been occurring for some time. (Note examples on slide and there are more on next slide). Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Factors that contribute to problem behavior Stress that these are “contributing” NOT causal factors—no absolutes, not meant to stereotype, and there are always exceptions. The point of discussing these is to understand a) why “traditional” interventions fail to work and b) how student learning history impacts student behavior in school. Home: student’s parents going through divorce, loss in family, fire, home conditions not meeting basic needs, abuse, etc. Community: unsafe, not supportive of educational goals, oppressive, does not allow for sleep, etc. School: School often encourages problem behavior. Exclusionary, class clowns, frustration without support, not so great relationships, histrionic Disability: which came first the learning or behavior problems? Cognitive dysfunctions and different brain functioning affects behavior and social skill development. We forget that. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Desired Outcome: Consider how conditional antecedents contribute to problem behavior in your school. 10 minutes total 1 minute to think 6 minutes total sharing-3 minutes each person to share 2-3 minutes of share out Key Points not Included on the Slide: Think-Pair-Share Ask everyone to think about this question: What do these contributing factors have to do with behavior at your school? Think of examples of how student behavior may have been misinterpreted. Give Attention Signal and Share some examples briefly Other examples of conditions: Abuse Medication Medical conditions Poor nutrition Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Conditional antecedent is something that we have no control over. Situational antecedents can be controlled and behavior will decrease. An event triggers the behavior: Schedule changes Student teasing another Assemblies/Field trips may be too much stimulus for a student One student told me recently that he didn’t “do subs” Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Social – peers and stuff Academics – math and stuff Environment – schedule changes, subs, field trips, and stuff Personal – situational anxiety, bathroom accidents Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Handout 1: Conditional and Situational Antecedents Desired Outcome: Brainstorm to create a list of possible situational antecedents for students. 5 minutes total 4 minutes to share with colleagues. 1 minute of share out Key Points not Included on the Slide: Think-Pair-Share Give Attention Signal and Share some examples briefly Other examples of conditions: Fire Drill Lunch change Special change Visit of parent or other guest Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: The first bullet is about actions and responses (sometimes). Some children use problem behavior to communicate their wants and needs We need to understand the PURPOSE/FUNCTION of the problem behavior and teach children the necessary or appropriate skills to replace the problem behaviors It also teaches us to alter situations and/or conditions to prevent behavior Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: HANDOUT 2: Effect of Consequence on Behavior Key Points not Included on the Slide: To better understand consequences think about: what usually happens after the behavior occurs? What is the typical adult/peer response? It is not what we “do to kids” so they will be miserable. Behaviors are repeated when desired outcomes are achieved. This is true for both desired and undesired behaviors. If you desire to lose weight, and you do so after changing your eating and exercising, you are likely to continue. If be outcomes are undesired, the behaviors won’t be repeated. If you desire to lose weight, and you don’t loose weight after changing your eating and increasing exercising, you will go back to eating donuts.  Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Here is an example of how behavior effects consequences. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Here is an example of how reinforcement increases the likelihood that behavior will occur again. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Here is an example of how behavior is weakened by withholding consequences. The undesired behavior will decrease and desired behavior will increase over time. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: A consequence is what occurs following the behavior Do consequences support the problem behavior causing it to reoccur? Think of the answers to the questions in order to determine what consequences are supporting the behavior. Once you know this you can begin to alter consequences to support only desired behaviors and to ensure that consequences don’t actually support problem behavior. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: 10 (7 to complete quiz and 3 to review answers. Take 5 minutes to share relevance if time.) Desired Outcome: Assess personal understanding of Behavior Basics and discuss relevance to planning for effective interventions. Key Points not Included on the Slide: Quiz is located in activities Answers to Quiz: learned; need antecedent, behavior, consequence Antecedents; conditional and situational Outcomes A. was tired and had a quiz B. asking him to leave the class C. leaving the class 6. get; avoid 7. Repeat 8. Stop or not be repeated Solicit team/individual feedback on relevance of these points Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Understanding the function is key to developing interventions that actually work to change behavior Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Function explains why behavior occurs We can now teach a replacement behavior that meets the same or similar function. The child’s needs are still being met, but with a more effective behavior or one that works better in school. Knowing the function also gives us more information about how to alter antecedents and consequences Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Simplified: behavior occurs to get or to avoid something Power/control is gaining attention, avoiding tasks activities, etc. Look deeper! Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Graphic/visual to further explain reasons for engaging in behaviors Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: This example explains how one behavior can serve more than one function. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: This is an example of how many behaviors can be used to achieve the same outcome or function. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Prioritize issues of safety first, issues that disrupt the instruction of the student or others next, then issues that bother the teacher are unfortunately last.  It is important to prioritize behaviors that a student exhibits. Students rarely have only ONE behavior problem. The team is attempting to study and intervene on one behavior at a time. (what does it look/sound like?) Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Measurable- Can establish a value (frequency/intensity/duration) and gather comparison data periodically Observable- Behavior must be something that can be seen or heard, not a mental construct Objective- Factual- only the behavior itself, not based on opinions or feelings Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Data must be collected to ensure accurate determination of function. We often “guess” correctly, but often do so incorrectly and interventions fail. Indirect and direct methods can be useful. Indirect data is great for discovery, but direct observation data builds more quantitative proof for assessing the function of behavior. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Interviews: multiple sources (teachers, students, parents) focus on the behavior in question ask questions about behavior patterns When does it occur? Is the behavior more likely to occur given certain tasks? What is the teacher doing? What do peers do? Where does it occur? Are there events that happen outside of the classroom that exacerbate the problem? Are there times when the behavior doesn’t occur? Interview forms Anecdotal records – USE WHAT YOU HAVE. You have some already. Teachers can summarize their notes and data Cum folder Remember to convey information professionally Assessment tools : checklists, questionnaires, rating scales, etc. They may provide insight about current student needs, skill deficits, and performance. There are handout examples of interview forms During assessment activities, the observer may have the teacher, student, and/or parent complete an interview and/or questionnaire. The observer may have the student complete an interview if appropriate. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Handout 4: Direct Data Collection Tools Information Sheet Key Points not Included on the Slide: Observations may need to be frequent, repeated, and planned. It’s good to see the student doing well sometimes. You can consider what is motivating them in that context. Study the context (antecendents, triggers, prompts) How many times are they actually engaging in the behavior? How long does it last? How bad is it? (defining this is key) Direct observation is utilized to confirm the assessment report and to develop a hypothesis regarding the function of the behavior. Two instruments useful during direct observation include the A-B-C procedure and utilization of checklists. A-B-C involves looking at the sequence of antecedents, behavior, consequences. We will show example forms as we explain the process of completing a functional behavior assessment. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Handout 5: Data Collection Tools Key Points not Included on the Slide: A-B-C observe and document what is occurring before (antecedent) tbe behavior (B), during, and after (consequence). This information can facilitate understanding of behavior triggers and consequences that may or may not cause behavior to re-occur. Frequency counts are used to determine how often the behavior is occurring during a specific period of time. It is for lower intensity behaviors that occur often (talk outs, noises, out of seat, pencil tapping) Duration Recording indicates how long an incident lasts. It is helpful for lasting behaviors (tantrums, self stimulation, daydreaming) Intensity recording helps determine the different degrees of the same behavior (tantrums, physical contact) Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Desired Outcome: To practice determining, defining, and assessing a target behavior 15 min. total (5 minutes included to share out) Key Points not Included on the Slide: Use previous slide notes and your teammates’ knowledge  Handout with list of tools (previous slide) (is it there, first?) With this example, just determine which behavior to target Consider safety first, disruption next, teacher’s nerves last Define target behavior (remember measurable, observable and objectively) Determine data tools to use. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Developing a hypothesis to be tested by interventions Use the data to determine what is occurring following the behavior and when the behavior typically occurs From those two pieces of information, the purpose can be determined. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: This is where indirect and direct observations are compiled to hypothesize the function of the student’s problem behavior. The hypothesis describes under what conditions the behavior occurs and why. Using collected data. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: This is an example of a sample hypothesis. Walk the participants through the components: Antecedent (where and when): during independent work, when unattended Behavior; leave seat or area Consequence/outcomes (Function); gain adult attention Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Desired Outcome: practice creating hypothesis statements (15min.) Key Points not Included on the Slide: Using one statement from each category create hypothesis that work. Create as many as you can This activity allows teams practice in creating hypothesis statements, the last step in the Functional Behavior Assessment process. Using the samples given on the slide as a guide, create three part hypothesis statements. For those of you who have done a similar activity like this with behavior specialist, keep in mind that sometimes it’s possible to have 4 parts. You can break the hypothesis into 2 parts stating where (setting) and when (antecedent) same thing…we just made it three? There are examples given for GAIN and AVOID, but not for self-stimulation, because these generally involve a more detailed understanding of the individual in question… This concludes our discussion of functional behavior assessment and developing a hypothesis. Are there any questions? Further training on doing Functional Behavior Assessment that includes defining behaviors, determining functions and context is available . Add any needed action steps to your team’s action plans. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: As we discuss systems and strategies for students with high-risk behaviors and individual systems, we are going to rely heavily on the principles and basics of behavior that we discussed somewhat in module 2. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Remember the reason for discovering the function…to create a plan that works. Use your function theory (hypothesis) and collected data to make changes. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: This is a review of basics of behavior… important to keep these in mind at all stages of the process…FBA…BIP…implementation…review. Maintaining the status quo in addressing behavior issues with students will keep us mired in the past traditions of ineffective interventions based on incorrect information about the issue. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip: .
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: The BIP is not a plan on what the student will not/cannot do and what will happen to them if they do it… It is about what will happen around the student differently (context, content and adults) in order to support new and more appropriate behaviors. Students whose behavior supported by data and an FBA warrant a BIP have demonstrated that they cannot control their environment or behaviors. So the onus is on the school to create a climate that provides opportunities in which this student finds choosing the inappropriate behavior less efficient and not meeting his/her function. BIPs are about the grown people manipulating the environment (which we have control over – not the student and his/her behavior) to make the appropriate choice more often than he or she was doing before. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Each of these steps will be discussed in detail in next few slides. Highlight the concepts – Replacement Behaviors, Strategies, alignment with ABC format We are only discussing the first step today. We will cover the rest tomorrow. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: For example, if a student desires to avoid a task, he/she may either put their head down or they may begin doing other tasks. Both of these behaviors can meet the same function. We want to help students learn to use a more appropriate behavior such as asking for assistance. A Replacement behavior is an alternate behavior that the student can do instead of the behavior that does not help any stakeholder meet the function of the behavior with a pro-social behavior or skill. Think marketing and advertising…..companies want us to purchase/consume/patronize their product so they create an environment where there product is a better choice, more convenient and cheaper than their competitor. We are in the market for students that perform academically and behaviorally. So with replacement behaviors we create the what do we want then to do instead of the easy way out. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Explain piece of the example as you read the Example. Point out each part. Highlight that Replacement behavior must address all parts in order to affect the change in behavior and so that we can see if it actually works. See how it ties into hypothesis statement mindset. Without all parts, we are left without an accountability or evaluation model. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: MAJOR PARADIGM SHIFT FOR EDUCATORS Set this up… Personal tie in- If you are trying to incorporate a new lifestyle model (exercising, eating right, smoking cessation or other) It can be problematic for those of us who find it easier not to go to the gym, cook using expensive but healthier choices, quit something cold turkey) So for those of us who have ingrained habits of life, we need to start small. Maybe start parking farther away from school or the office, maybe join a gym near your house or on your way home so it is easier to get there, commit to drinking water with meals and not sodas or tea, buying only three doughnuts and not the whole dozen) The idea is if we can get these behaviors down and have them become a new habit then it is more likely to become second nature and therefore the next step of maybe taking that bosu class next month or maybe cutting bread out of your diet, maybe investing in a patch or a gum for your smoking. Get it! Once we have determined what is we want the student to do as a replacement behaviors. The next step is to come up with an acceptable alternative. This is what will we allow in the interim between behavior change. The caution is that we must understand that if a student always cuts class, fights on the playground every day or always yells out cuss words when given a teacher directive that if they only cut class 3 out of 5 days or uses inappropriate language on the playground instead of fighting or rolls his/her eye but complies with teacher directives every fourth time THEN they are getting better. Think of it like this, any prescription works gradually and the tougher and more deeply imbedded the problem, the longer the intervention to help get to a point where we are at 100%. Our students identified as needing this type of intervention will not become behavior angels overnight. It is a process. Dig in, be prepared to be patient and celebrate every accomplishment no matter how small. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Handout 6: Determining Replacement Behaviors and Alternatives (examples) Key Points not Included on the Slide: The functional assessment and hypothesis tell us the setting events, predictors or triggering antecedents, the problem behavior and the maintaining consequences. To complete the plan, the desired alternative behaviors and maintaining consequences need to be designed. The plan will consist of manipulating the events, the antecedents, teaching the desired behavior and manipulating the consequences. The steps can end with manipulating setting events and avoiding triggers, so that NO behavior has to occur in step 3 at all… The OUTCOME is key to behavioral change… does the outcome of the behavior make it more or less likely that this behavior will be repeated under similar circumstances? Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: If the function is avoidance, you will see patterns that indicate what the student is trying to avoid. It may be person, a situation, a task, a subject, etc. Examples are on the next slide. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Some will be overt and obvious. Some will be disguised, and the adult might think there is a different function. For example, if a child escalates others to avoid working during writing time, the adult may think the child is trying to gain attention or control. Some more examples: Requesting to leave the class Sharpening pencils Socializing Escalating others Distracting teachers Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Sometimes children avoid certain task due to a lack of confidence or to mask a skill deficit. Talk about what saving face means to leave them alone for awhile Give them an out Teach other students how to handle the students actions Enforce expectations respectfully Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Try not to allow student to get attention if they are seeking the attention to avoid the task Talking privately is respectful. Whatever they are avoiding, may be something they need to learn to handle. How to ask for help, How to obtain more information to complete task, or someone to help them get started If avoidance feels like a power struggle, give the student power before they “demand” it from you . Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Remember they could be gaining attention from adults or peers, tangible items or sensory input. Class clown. Hostile or disrespectful student. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Another example is the student who is constantly asking questions to gain attention. How can you tell if they are asking for attention or to avoid a task? Try various interventions to see which works, then the function may be more clear. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Handout 4: Student Examples At-Risk Behavior Handouts Key Points not Included on the Slide: Example of strategy to appropriately gain attention: Have limited number of “attention chips” for student to use when then they need to comment. Once they are gone, they are gone. You may need to plan a time to give a student who is seeking attention the attention they need, but you want to find a way to do so for desired behaviors. Example, student who is stealing from café may need a plan to earn a snack. Focus on desired expectations first. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: 15 min Desired Outcome: After reading a scenario, apply concepts learned to list ABCs, possible function, and begin generating some strategies. Key Points not Included on the Slide: This activity puts the skills you have learned today all together! Choose one for now. After activity, have some groups share ideas. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: As you select strategies it is important to think about what environmental circumstances that you actually have concern and design th eplan around making these things less effective and efficient. Just like you teach large and small groups of students school-wide expectations, you have to directly teach the identified replacement behaviors in a focused lesson that has the desired outcome of mastery of that skill. The big idea…. Make the strategies such that they make the replacement behaviors easier and more convenient for the student. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Diagram Key Features of FBA Results to create interventions. At each stage of the FBA, you need to identify things that you will alter, change or modify to help make your replacement behavior the better choice. We will look are each stage next and how to do it. As we just stated, the functional assessment and hypothesis tell us the setting events, predictors or triggering antecedents, the problem behavior and the maintaining consequences. Each of these pieces must be considered when planning interventions. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Handout 2: Choosing Strategies Key Points not Included on the Slide: RESTATED:   1. The problem behavior is less likely to work for student when environment does not trigger the need that the behavior provides. 2. The replacement behavior should easily access consequences that reinforce it. 3. The problem behavior will be less important when consequences do not support its reoccurrence. The replacement behavior will result in desired consequences that will support its reoccurrence.  EXAMPLES:   1. If a student works with a peer who can help him, the desire to avoid work is decreased. Therefore, off-task behavior is reduced. 2. A student is taught to raise her hand to make a comment instead of calling out. When she raises her hand she should be immediately reinforced for that behavior by being acknowledged and praised. 3. A student should be ignored for talking about an inappropriate topic to gain attention, but should easily get attention for participating in a class discussion. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Antecedent – What happens before the behavior occurs. Design these interventions from the proactive stance of where I can head the behavior off at the pass. This is the one that most educators find the easiest to develop but unless a federal mandate requires it, do not think to do for regular education students. Remember…..dont agree to a intervention that you cannot follow-through on! Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Reframe desired behavior to meet child’s need. The strategy MUST meet the function of the behavior but in a more pro-social manner. Students that need BIP need direct skills lessons that are effective to teach students what to do when faced with a situation they are trying to avoid. It is important to put these in the context of “at school we conduct ourselves like this” to not devalue the skills sets that serve them in alternate settings. Teaching students (all students) to code switch is a life skill that all people need. Help students see connections between desired behavior and desired outcomes. Similar to the classroom management concept of sharing the big picture of why this skill is important to this student may help. These students are intelligent and knowledge of social norms, we just need to re-norm them for our setting. Teaching them in the midst of the behavior makes it real. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: After the deed so to speak is done, now what? Remember to refer back to the function so as not to serve the function in the consequence stage. We tend during this time to reinforce the traditional response to consequence but must remember that response has not proven to be effective so we must think outside the box. By all means enforce the agreed upon consequence but deliver the consequence in a manner that gives students a way to recoup. Grace and Mercy. We pay the price but it is done with love and understanding. Try that! Indirect acknowledgment or correction means talking to others while in student’s presence to give feedback Example: A student is trying to escape writing assignments. Teacher and student created a plan where he did 2 assignments and got to skip one. The student loved the idea of getting out of an assignment while the teacher was happy to get 66% more of the writing than before. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Here are some examples. Look at what the strategies are at each stage. Notice that the strategies are not a laundry list that do not address the function, but rather the interventions focus themselves toward the FBA and replacement behaviors that will result in a behavior change. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Here are some examples. Look at what the strategies are at each stage. Notice that the strategies are not a laundry list that do not address the function, but rather the interventions focus themselves toward the FBA and replacement behaviors that will result in a behavior change. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Desired Outcome: Practice developing interventions based on function that manipulate antecedents, teach behaviors, and alter consequences. 10 min. Key Points not Included on the Slide: Precorrect: If this was a situation where a student had a medical situation that caused this behavior and you were a team of doctors, what you want someone to be willing to do to help them. Now create interventions based on the hypothesis statement with that as a guide. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: What is being measured? How is it being measured? When is it being measured? What are benchmarks/ progress evidence? Do the outcomes truly reflect the plan? Positively stated “will do” not “won’t” (Dead man’s test…) Objective- anyone can read the goal and know what it should look like in action Measurable-Frequency/Intensity/Duration/?? Methods…(Data Collection done during FBA) Schedule- does not have to be TOO prescriptive Assessment should reflect increments (baby steps!) Fidelity-the outcome evaluation is futile if the plan has not been carried out accurately seating change not done social skills lesson skipped reinforcement not provided ignoring not applied work modification not provided Etc… Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: How do we know if it worked. Look at your anecdotal data and concrete data to see if improvements bear out through observations. Go back to those data collection forms and do them again! If yes! – go back and work on another one! Or call it on this one making sure that the environment continues to support the student throughout. Develop infrastructure to support behavior change that is systemic (training, identification of resources, data management, etc.) Ensure that individual plans can be implemented and supported across the school setting If not - insure that everyone followed through with their supports (fidelity) , make sure we were certain of function, and adjust and re-implement. Remember that Rome was not built in a day. Destruction is easy, rebuilding is an arduous but worthy process. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Generalization is the final frontier. It signals that students can carry the behavioral supports, skill sets and knowledge acquired across settings. This is a pivotal step that is often forgotten. It involves multiple stakeholders and settings to make sure that students can understand and implement interventions in the office, classroom, playground, hallway, and with classroom teachers, teachers on duty, administrators, and any other adult in the building. It signals that the plan has stood the test of time and opportunity. Easy, heck no. But it means they got it. Think potty training for your children or your pets. It ain’t over until you can get through the night or long stretches during the day when you cant get home to let them out. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Individualized Systems for Students with High Risk Behavior We have spent considerable time yesterday and today discussing the steps listed on the slide. You can see how complex and intense supports to high-risk students are. Once again, we want to emphasize the importance of establishing a solid foundation of school-wide strategies and supports before systematically addressing the needs of the individual students. FBA: assesses function of behavior Hypothesis: a statement that clarifies conditions that support the behavior based on available data BIP includes goal, methods of monitoring and evaluating Contextual Interventions: all the things that will happen around the student to ensure the change occurs (antecendent, setting, function of behavior, consequence interventions) Generalization Strategies: ensure that the behavioral continue across settings, people, time, etc. This would be an excellent time to make note of any suggestions you may have for your team’s action plans on addressing high-risk students. Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: Ways to think of interventions for behaviors. Prevent Teach Respond Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:
  • Handouts and Activities: Key Points not Included on the Slide: References and resources for material in this workshop today Explanation of Terms or Ideas: Video clip:

Assessment+and+intervention Assessment+and+intervention Presentation Transcript

  • ASSESSMENT ANDINTERVENTION FORINDIVIDUAL STUDENTSPBIS SUMMER INSTITUTE 2012
  • Objectives Identify basics of behavior. Understand factors that contribute to problem behaviors. Establish why it is important to determine the function of a behavior when choosing interventions.
  • Participant Expectations Be Responsible  Return promptly from breaks  Be an active participant  Use electronic devices appropriately Be Respectful  Maintain cell phone etiquette  Listen attentively to others  Limit sidebars and stay on topic Be Kind  Enter discussions with an open mind  Respond appropriately to others’ ideas
  • Attention SignalPlease make note of time limits and watchyour clocks!Trainer will raise his/her hand.Finish your thought/comment.Participants will raise a hand andwait quietly.
  • Positive Behavior SupportA systems approach for establishing the socialculture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to be effective learning environments for all students - Rob Horner, Ph.D. Co-Director National Technical Assistance Center for Positive Behavior Support
  • 5% CONTINUUM FBA/BIP OF De-escalation POSITIVE 15% BEHAVIOR Social Skills MentoringINTERVENTION Check In AND Self Management Classroom Based Intervention SUPPORT 80% Defining & Teaching Expectations Routines & Procedures Reinforcement Systems Effective Consequences
  • Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting S Supporting DA DA EM Decision TA TAStaff Behavior ST SY Making PRACTICES Positive Behavior Intervention Supporting and Student Behavior Support
  • BEHAVIOR BASICS
  • Behavior Basics: Scenario Student is tired There is a quiz todayStudent puts head down Teacher asks Student leaves on desk and refuses to student to leave the complete quiz class
  • Behavior Basics: Analysis Antecedent ConsequenceStudent Behavior Teacher Behavior Student Behavior Consequence
  • Behavior Basics: Assumptions Behavior is learned. Every social interaction you have with a child teaches him/her something. Relationships matter! Behavior alters when those involved have a prior positive relationship.
  • Behavior Basics:The ABCs of BehaviorUnderstanding the purpose of behavior comes fromrepeated observation of: A: Antecedent: stimulus before the behavior B: Behavior: observable and measurable act C: Consequence: what occurs after the behavior that serves to maintain or increase frequency of behavior
  • Behavior Basics: Antecedents Antecedents are events that happen before the behavior. There are two types of antecedents:  Conditional  Situational
  • Behavior Basics:Conditional Antecedents May occur anywhere Increase the likelihood that behavior will occur  Oversleeping  Medication or lack of medication  Hunger  Conflict with a particular person
  • Behavior Basics: Conditional Antecedents HomeSchool Community Disability
  • Activity 1:Conditional Antecedents How have you seen conditional antecedents impact behavior in your school? Pair with a fellow workshop participant. Share your ideas. Be sure that each person gets to share.
  • Behavior Basics :Situational Antecedents Behavior triggered by specific event  Changes to regularly scheduled events due to bomb threats, fire drills, etc.  Teasing/sarcasm/threats  Challenged by others May be consistent  Group work  Math May be unique to one situation  Field trips to the zoo  Substitute teacher
  • Behavior Basics: Situational Antecedents SocialAcademic Environment Personal
  • Activity 2:Situational Antecedents With a colleague, brainstorm possible situational antecedents. List them on your activity sheet. Be sure that each person gets to share ideas.
  • Behavior Basics: Behavior Behavior is…  anything that we say or do.  how we react to situations and/or conditions.  learned because a purpose or function is served.  repeated because a desired outcome occurs.
  • Behavior Basics: Consequences Consequences are:  The outcome of the behavior  The responses of adults and/or peers to the behavior Consequences that reinforce behavior lead to repetition of the behavior.
  • Behavior Basics: ConsequencesBehavior is affected by itsconsequences: Emily raises her hand. Emily’s teacher calls on her to share. She is likely to continue to raise her hand to share ideas.
  • Behavior Basics: ConsequencesBehavior is strengthened ormaintained by reinforcement: Adam correctly completes his assignments. He is allowed extra time on the computer. He will likely continue to complete his assignments again because he enjoys computer time.
  • Behavior Basics: ConsequencesBehavior is weakened by withholdingconsequences that have maintained it: Riley constantly fidgets and taps her pencil to get the teacher’s attention. Instead of scolding her, the teacher gives positive attention to another student sitting quietly. Riley is more likely to sit quietly to get the teacher’s attention.
  • Behavior Basics: Consequence To understand the consequences of a behavior, observe what happens in the environment immediately after the behavior. What is the pay-off? What does the student get? What does the student avoid?
  • Activity 3:Behavior Basics Quiz Complete the quiz on your own. Pair with a neighbor. Compare answers. Discuss relevance of this information to planning effective interventions for students. Watch for the attention signal.
  • UNDERSTANDINGFUNCTIONS OF BEHAVIOR
  • Functions of Behavior The function is the purpose or reason that the behavior occurred. Why is it important for us to know the function of the problem behavior?  To understand the need behind behavior  To find an appropriate replacement behavior  To target appropriate antecedents and consequences to alter  To develop the best behavior support plan
  • Functions of BehaviorBehavior has two major functions:To get something  preferred task or activity  attention of an adult or peer  a specific item or object  sensory inputTo avoid something  a specific task or activity  an adult or child  a specific item or object  sensory overload
  • Functions of Behavior GETATTENTION TANGIBLES SENSORY AVOID
  • Functions of Behavior One behavior can have multiple functions: John throws a tantrum at home in order to avoid cleaning his room, and he throws a tantrum at school to get adult attention.
  • Functions of BehaviorSeveral behaviors can have thesame function: Mike might cuss, walk away, and/or put his head down in order to avoid completing writing assignments.
  • Assessing the Function: ProcessStep 1: Prioritize concerns and define one target behavior.Step 2: Collect data.Step 3: Develop a hypothesis.
  • Assessing the Function: ProcessStep 1: Select and define behaviors.  List all problem behaviors and determine the behavior to target.  Operationally define the behavior:  Measurable  Observable  Objective
  • Assessing the Function: Process Step 2: Collect Data  To determine the function, you must collect data about target behavior.  Data should be collected in a reasonable time frame  Data can be collected through:  indirect methods  direct observation tools
  • Assessing the Function: ProcessIndirect methods for datacollection:  Interviews  Anecdotal records  Assessment tools
  • Assessing the Function: Process Direct data collection involves repeated planned observation of antecedents, behaviors and consequences.  Context: Under what conditions does the behavior occur?  Frequency: How often does it happen?  Duration: How long does it go on?  Intensity: How disruptive or damaging is it?Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002
  • Assessing the Function: ProcessDirect data collection tools  ABC observations  Frequency counts  Duration recording  Intensity recordingWright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994
  • Activity 4: Assessing the Function,Steps 1 and 2Read the paragraph about Rachel on your activity sheetand answer the following questions: 1. Which behavior would you target first? 2. How would you define the behavior? 3. What data collection tools would be helpful in determining the possible function of the target behavior?
  • Assessing the Function: ProcessStep 3: Form a hypothesis about the problembehavior.  Use data to determine if the main purpose of the behavior is to gain or avoid something.  Refine broad category into a specific hypothesis statement.
  • Assessing the Function: Hypothesis  Once you have determined whether the purpose of the behavior is to avoid or gain, then you can create a specific hypothesis.  The goal of the hypothesis is to generate a statement regarding the conditions in which the behavior is most likely to occur.
  • Assessing the Function: HypothesisHypothesis Template:During ______ , when/and _____ (antecedent) occurs,the student does _____ (behavior) in order to gain oravoid _________ (consequences/outcomes).
  • Assessing the Function: HypothesisSample:During independent or small group work, when Pat isleft unattended by a teacher for longer than 5minutes, Pat leaves the seat or area to gain adultattention.
  • Activity 5: Assessing the Function,Step 3 Using the word bank on your table, write them on the template to create up to three hypotheses that contain the antecedent, behavior, and consequences/outcomes.
  • CREATING EFFECTIVEINTERVENTIONS
  • Function Based Interventions:Rationale Understanding the function or purpose of the problem behavior is essential in developing an effective behavior support plan.
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Rationale Reinforcement maintains behavior. It is more efficient for people to use existing behaviors.If you keep doing what you are doing, you will keep getting what you are getting.
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Guidelines  Connect directly to hypothesis by applying interventions that are logically related to function.  Focus on adult and environmental roles.  Identify proactive strategies that prevent, rather than suppress, undesirable behaviors.  Provide strategies to teach desired skills.  Teach replacement behaviors that serve a similar function.  Plan to help student generalize new behaviors to all settings.
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Steps Develop a replacement behavior and acceptable alternatives. Choose strategies that meet functional need through a pro- social skill. Consider how to affect the behavior using the ABC format.
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Replacement Behavior Function can be met with two or more different behaviors. Desired replacement behavior should serve the function in a more acceptable and socially appropriate way. Horner, Sugai at www.pbis.org
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Replacement BehaviorMust be stated in measurable, observable, and positiveterms.  Context/Setting Events…when, where, with whom?  Learner…who?  Behavior…what?  Criterion…how much? During language arts class, when the teacher is providing direct instruction, John will raise his hand and wait to be called on three out of five opportunities for responses.
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Replacement BehaviorAcceptable alternatives  Once you have an ideal replacement behavior, consider acceptable alternatives.  There is a wide range of possible behaviors that meet the function.  Alternatives need to be better than the problem behavior.  Allowing alternatives helps the student feel successful as he/she moves towards the goal.
  • Determining Replacement Setting Behaviors and Alternatives Events AntecedentsProblem Acceptable DesiredBehavior Alternative Replacement Outcome of the Behavior
  • Function Based Interventions:Function of Avoidance Student behavior may be overt or subtle. Usually occurs when a student is facing an undesirable task or class. Behavior reoccurs in specific situations.
  • Function Based Interventions:Examples of Avoidance Behaviors Saying “I don’t want to do this!” Complaining of being sick Making excuses Asking unrelated comments Putting head down Asking to use the bathroom Asking to see another teacher Being tardy Finding other things to do in class
  • Function Based Interventions:Strategies for Avoidance Behaviors  Modify instruction and give student choices.  Teach students what to do when faced with a situation they are trying to avoid.  Provide attainable goals.  Create appropriate methods for taking a break.
  • Function Based Interventions:Strategies for Avoidance Behaviors Collect data to help determine what student is avoiding. Talk privately with student to reveal the reasons for frequent escapes. Avoid embarrassing student and escalating situation.
  • Function Based Interventions:Function of Gaining Student behavior may be overt or subtle. Student could seek to gain attention, tangible item, or an activity. Attention could be desired from peers and/ or teacher.
  • Function Based Interventions:Examples of Gaining Behaviors Frequently needs feedback from adults Whines, cries or complains Focuses on others’ sensitive issues Enjoys being class clown Is disrespectful or hostile Hoarding or stealing items Spending time on preferred activity instead of assigned task
  • Function Based Interventions:Strategies for Gaining Behaviors Teach appropriate behaviors to gain attention, items, or activity. Reinforce desired behavior and use planned ignoring for misbehavior. If behavior cannot be ignored, rather than acknowledge student individually, remind the class of expectations. Plan a time to give the student feedback on a regular basis.
  • Activity 6: Function BasedInterventions Practice  Choose one of the scenarios to read.  List antecedents, behaviors, and consequences.  Note possible function(s) of the behavior(s).  Answer the following question: Given the scenario, what is likely to happen the next time the situation occurs?  Describe at least two possible intervention strategies.
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesEffective plans…  identify potential triggers and ways to avoid them.  teach acceptable replacement behaviors to mastery.  create outcomes that increase use of replacement behaviors and reduce use of problem behaviors.
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesStrategies need to include changes to the antecedents, behavior,and consequences or outcomes. Antecedents Behavior Consequence or Outcome
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing Strategies Antecedents  Remove or modify the antecedents that prompt problem behavior.  How could the problem behavior be prevented? Behavior  Teach replacement behaviors that require less effort to meet the need.  What appropriate behaviors can we teach the student to meet the need? Consequence/Outcomes  Decrease access to outcomes that maintain problem behavior and increase access to outcomes that support acceptable behavior.  Can we respond with consequences that provide a learning or practice component of the desired behavior?
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesManipulating the Antecedents:  Provide attention on your terms before he gets it on his terms.  Spend extra time with student to review expectations.  Alter lesson or activity.  Modify environment.  Provide additional support.
  • Creating Effective Interventions: Choosing StrategiesManipulating the Behavior: Ensure behavior goal is attainable. Teach social skills that are directly related to desired behavior. Help student discover connection between desired behavior and desired outcomes.
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesManipulating the Consequences/ Outcomes:  Use planned ignoring.  Respond to behavior in a way that does not embarrass student.  Reinforce desired behavior and acceptable alternatives.  Provide indirect acknowledgement or correction when direct acknowledgement is not effective.  Allow student to earn what she/he wants through demonstration of desired behavior or acceptable alternatives.
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesIf it has been determined that a student calls out in order to obtainadult attention, strategies might include: Planned check-ins by teacher  Precorrects for handA raising  Move seat closer to adult Teach skills to get help, occupy wait times, and B tolerate delays Ignore calling out  Reinforce raising hand  Respond C consistently and quickly to appropriate requests and approximations
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesIf it has been determined that a student puts his head down and/or fallsasleep in class to avoid independent written work, strategies might include: Alter lessons to meet student’s abilities  Start lessons with review  Preview work with student individually  Allow him other ways to participate in lesson to keep engaged Teach student how to get help, approach challenging material, handle frustration, and accept errors Reinforce approximations  Contract for breaks  Become tutor for someone else  Positive reinforcement for staying engaged and completing task
  • Activity 7: Design InterventionsWork in groups to create interventions for the studentbelow by filling in the boxes on your worksheet.Hypothesis Statement: During unstructured social times, when interacting with peers, Brittany uses inappropriate language in order to gain peer attention.
  • Creating Effective Interventions: ImplementationAn effective plan includes :  tools for assessing progress  data collection schedule  defined steps to goal  roles and responsibilities  plan for reinforcement  methods for ensuring fidelity
  • Creating Effective Interventions:EvaluationSteps for Evaluation 1. Determine if behavior has improved. 2. If yes, choose one of the following options:  Modify criteria for mastery  Choose another behavior to address  End individualized plan 3. If not, choose one of the following options:  Evaluate fidelity of implementation  Re-evaluation function  Find ways to adjust the plan
  • Creating Effective Interventions:Generalization Practice plan in all applicable settings. Include a variety of adults when developing the plan. Continue implementing plan for a sufficient amount of time. Encourage use of replacement behavior and all acceptable alternatives.
  • Tertiary Level Strategies: Review Understand PBIS team role in supporting individual student needs. Coordinate with other existing resources. Use data to determine function. Develop achievable replacement behavior and alternatives. Support the use of desired behavior by manipulating the ABC. Promote consistency among school staff. Practice plan in all settings. Evaluate regularly.
  • Review:It’s Simple Really… Antecedent is going on, Behavior happens, and Consequence follows. Does C cause B to occur again? Can A change to stop B? Can C change to deter B? Can you teach an acceptable replacement for B? Can C be altered to only reinforce the replacement behavior?
  • References and Resources George, H & Kincaid, D. "Basic Principles of Behavior” Power Point Presentation. Floridas Positive Behavior Support Project: University of South Florida. Presented at First International Conference on Positive Behavior Support. Orlando, Florida 2003 “Functional Behavior Assessment”. Power Point Presentation. Behavior Specialist Team, Special Education Services Wake County Public School System “Secondary and Tertiary Strategies for PBIS”. Power Point Presentation. 2nd Annual Conference on Secondary and Tertiary Interventions. Naperville, IL, 2006 New Mexico Public Education Department