ASSESSMENT ANDINTERVENTION FORINDIVIDUAL STUDENTSPBIS SUMMER INSTITUTE 2012
Objectives Identify basics of behavior. Understand factors that contribute to problem behaviors. Establish why it is important to determine the function of a behavior when choosing interventions.
Participant Expectations Be Responsible Return promptly from breaks Be an active participant Use electronic devices appropriately Be Respectful Maintain cell phone etiquette Listen attentively to others Limit sidebars and stay on topic Be Kind Enter discussions with an open mind Respond appropriately to others’ ideas
Attention SignalPlease make note of time limits and watchyour clocks!Trainer will raise his/her hand.Finish your thought/comment.Participants will raise a hand andwait quietly.
Positive Behavior SupportA systems approach for establishing the socialculture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to be effective learning environments for all students - Rob Horner, Ph.D. Co-Director National Technical Assistance Center for Positive Behavior Support
5% CONTINUUM FBA/BIP OF De-escalation POSITIVE 15% BEHAVIOR Social Skills MentoringINTERVENTION Check In AND Self Management Classroom Based Intervention SUPPORT 80% Defining & Teaching Expectations Routines & Procedures Reinforcement Systems Effective Consequences
Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting S Supporting DA DA EM Decision TA TAStaff Behavior ST SY Making PRACTICES Positive Behavior Intervention Supporting and Student Behavior Support
Behavior Basics: Scenario Student is tired There is a quiz todayStudent puts head down Teacher asks Student leaves on desk and refuses to student to leave the complete quiz class
Behavior Basics: Assumptions Behavior is learned. Every social interaction you have with a child teaches him/her something. Relationships matter! Behavior alters when those involved have a prior positive relationship.
Behavior Basics:The ABCs of BehaviorUnderstanding the purpose of behavior comes fromrepeated observation of: A: Antecedent: stimulus before the behavior B: Behavior: observable and measurable act C: Consequence: what occurs after the behavior that serves to maintain or increase frequency of behavior
Behavior Basics: Antecedents Antecedents are events that happen before the behavior. There are two types of antecedents: Conditional Situational
Behavior Basics:Conditional Antecedents May occur anywhere Increase the likelihood that behavior will occur Oversleeping Medication or lack of medication Hunger Conflict with a particular person
Behavior Basics: Conditional Antecedents HomeSchool Community Disability
Activity 1:Conditional Antecedents How have you seen conditional antecedents impact behavior in your school? Pair with a fellow workshop participant. Share your ideas. Be sure that each person gets to share.
Behavior Basics :Situational Antecedents Behavior triggered by specific event Changes to regularly scheduled events due to bomb threats, fire drills, etc. Teasing/sarcasm/threats Challenged by others May be consistent Group work Math May be unique to one situation Field trips to the zoo Substitute teacher
Behavior Basics: Situational Antecedents SocialAcademic Environment Personal
Activity 2:Situational Antecedents With a colleague, brainstorm possible situational antecedents. List them on your activity sheet. Be sure that each person gets to share ideas.
Behavior Basics: Behavior Behavior is… anything that we say or do. how we react to situations and/or conditions. learned because a purpose or function is served. repeated because a desired outcome occurs.
Behavior Basics: Consequences Consequences are: The outcome of the behavior The responses of adults and/or peers to the behavior Consequences that reinforce behavior lead to repetition of the behavior.
Behavior Basics: ConsequencesBehavior is affected by itsconsequences: Emily raises her hand. Emily’s teacher calls on her to share. She is likely to continue to raise her hand to share ideas.
Behavior Basics: ConsequencesBehavior is strengthened ormaintained by reinforcement: Adam correctly completes his assignments. He is allowed extra time on the computer. He will likely continue to complete his assignments again because he enjoys computer time.
Behavior Basics: ConsequencesBehavior is weakened by withholdingconsequences that have maintained it: Riley constantly fidgets and taps her pencil to get the teacher’s attention. Instead of scolding her, the teacher gives positive attention to another student sitting quietly. Riley is more likely to sit quietly to get the teacher’s attention.
Behavior Basics: Consequence To understand the consequences of a behavior, observe what happens in the environment immediately after the behavior. What is the pay-off? What does the student get? What does the student avoid?
Activity 3:Behavior Basics Quiz Complete the quiz on your own. Pair with a neighbor. Compare answers. Discuss relevance of this information to planning effective interventions for students. Watch for the attention signal.
UNDERSTANDINGFUNCTIONS OF BEHAVIOR
Functions of Behavior The function is the purpose or reason that the behavior occurred. Why is it important for us to know the function of the problem behavior? To understand the need behind behavior To find an appropriate replacement behavior To target appropriate antecedents and consequences to alter To develop the best behavior support plan
Functions of BehaviorBehavior has two major functions:To get something preferred task or activity attention of an adult or peer a specific item or object sensory inputTo avoid something a specific task or activity an adult or child a specific item or object sensory overload
Functions of Behavior GETATTENTION TANGIBLES SENSORY AVOID
Functions of Behavior One behavior can have multiple functions: John throws a tantrum at home in order to avoid cleaning his room, and he throws a tantrum at school to get adult attention.
Functions of BehaviorSeveral behaviors can have thesame function: Mike might cuss, walk away, and/or put his head down in order to avoid completing writing assignments.
Assessing the Function: ProcessStep 1: Prioritize concerns and define one target behavior.Step 2: Collect data.Step 3: Develop a hypothesis.
Assessing the Function: ProcessStep 1: Select and define behaviors. List all problem behaviors and determine the behavior to target. Operationally define the behavior: Measurable Observable Objective
Assessing the Function: Process Step 2: Collect Data To determine the function, you must collect data about target behavior. Data should be collected in a reasonable time frame Data can be collected through: indirect methods direct observation tools
Assessing the Function: ProcessIndirect methods for datacollection: Interviews Anecdotal records Assessment tools
Assessing the Function: Process Direct data collection involves repeated planned observation of antecedents, behaviors and consequences. Context: Under what conditions does the behavior occur? Frequency: How often does it happen? Duration: How long does it go on? Intensity: How disruptive or damaging is it?Chafouleas, Riley-Tillman & McDougal, 2002
Assessing the Function: ProcessDirect data collection tools ABC observations Frequency counts Duration recording Intensity recordingWright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994
Activity 4: Assessing the Function,Steps 1 and 2Read the paragraph about Rachel on your activity sheetand answer the following questions: 1. Which behavior would you target first? 2. How would you define the behavior? 3. What data collection tools would be helpful in determining the possible function of the target behavior?
Assessing the Function: ProcessStep 3: Form a hypothesis about the problembehavior. Use data to determine if the main purpose of the behavior is to gain or avoid something. Refine broad category into a specific hypothesis statement.
Assessing the Function: Hypothesis Once you have determined whether the purpose of the behavior is to avoid or gain, then you can create a specific hypothesis. The goal of the hypothesis is to generate a statement regarding the conditions in which the behavior is most likely to occur.
Assessing the Function: HypothesisHypothesis Template:During ______ , when/and _____ (antecedent) occurs,the student does _____ (behavior) in order to gain oravoid _________ (consequences/outcomes).
Assessing the Function: HypothesisSample:During independent or small group work, when Pat isleft unattended by a teacher for longer than 5minutes, Pat leaves the seat or area to gain adultattention.
Activity 5: Assessing the Function,Step 3 Using the word bank on your table, write them on the template to create up to three hypotheses that contain the antecedent, behavior, and consequences/outcomes.
Function Based Interventions:Rationale Understanding the function or purpose of the problem behavior is essential in developing an effective behavior support plan.
Creating Effective Interventions:Rationale Reinforcement maintains behavior. It is more efficient for people to use existing behaviors.If you keep doing what you are doing, you will keep getting what you are getting.
Creating Effective Interventions:Guidelines Connect directly to hypothesis by applying interventions that are logically related to function. Focus on adult and environmental roles. Identify proactive strategies that prevent, rather than suppress, undesirable behaviors. Provide strategies to teach desired skills. Teach replacement behaviors that serve a similar function. Plan to help student generalize new behaviors to all settings.
Creating Effective Interventions:Steps Develop a replacement behavior and acceptable alternatives. Choose strategies that meet functional need through a pro- social skill. Consider how to affect the behavior using the ABC format.
Creating Effective Interventions:Replacement Behavior Function can be met with two or more different behaviors. Desired replacement behavior should serve the function in a more acceptable and socially appropriate way. Horner, Sugai at www.pbis.org
Creating Effective Interventions:Replacement BehaviorMust be stated in measurable, observable, and positiveterms. Context/Setting Events…when, where, with whom? Learner…who? Behavior…what? Criterion…how much? During language arts class, when the teacher is providing direct instruction, John will raise his hand and wait to be called on three out of five opportunities for responses.
Creating Effective Interventions:Replacement BehaviorAcceptable alternatives Once you have an ideal replacement behavior, consider acceptable alternatives. There is a wide range of possible behaviors that meet the function. Alternatives need to be better than the problem behavior. Allowing alternatives helps the student feel successful as he/she moves towards the goal.
Determining Replacement Setting Behaviors and Alternatives Events AntecedentsProblem Acceptable DesiredBehavior Alternative Replacement Outcome of the Behavior
Function Based Interventions:Function of Avoidance Student behavior may be overt or subtle. Usually occurs when a student is facing an undesirable task or class. Behavior reoccurs in specific situations.
Function Based Interventions:Examples of Avoidance Behaviors Saying “I don’t want to do this!” Complaining of being sick Making excuses Asking unrelated comments Putting head down Asking to use the bathroom Asking to see another teacher Being tardy Finding other things to do in class
Function Based Interventions:Strategies for Avoidance Behaviors Modify instruction and give student choices. Teach students what to do when faced with a situation they are trying to avoid. Provide attainable goals. Create appropriate methods for taking a break.
Function Based Interventions:Strategies for Avoidance Behaviors Collect data to help determine what student is avoiding. Talk privately with student to reveal the reasons for frequent escapes. Avoid embarrassing student and escalating situation.
Function Based Interventions:Function of Gaining Student behavior may be overt or subtle. Student could seek to gain attention, tangible item, or an activity. Attention could be desired from peers and/ or teacher.
Function Based Interventions:Examples of Gaining Behaviors Frequently needs feedback from adults Whines, cries or complains Focuses on others’ sensitive issues Enjoys being class clown Is disrespectful or hostile Hoarding or stealing items Spending time on preferred activity instead of assigned task
Function Based Interventions:Strategies for Gaining Behaviors Teach appropriate behaviors to gain attention, items, or activity. Reinforce desired behavior and use planned ignoring for misbehavior. If behavior cannot be ignored, rather than acknowledge student individually, remind the class of expectations. Plan a time to give the student feedback on a regular basis.
Activity 6: Function BasedInterventions Practice Choose one of the scenarios to read. List antecedents, behaviors, and consequences. Note possible function(s) of the behavior(s). Answer the following question: Given the scenario, what is likely to happen the next time the situation occurs? Describe at least two possible intervention strategies.
Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesEffective plans… identify potential triggers and ways to avoid them. teach acceptable replacement behaviors to mastery. create outcomes that increase use of replacement behaviors and reduce use of problem behaviors.
Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesStrategies need to include changes to the antecedents, behavior,and consequences or outcomes. Antecedents Behavior Consequence or Outcome
Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing Strategies Antecedents Remove or modify the antecedents that prompt problem behavior. How could the problem behavior be prevented? Behavior Teach replacement behaviors that require less effort to meet the need. What appropriate behaviors can we teach the student to meet the need? Consequence/Outcomes Decrease access to outcomes that maintain problem behavior and increase access to outcomes that support acceptable behavior. Can we respond with consequences that provide a learning or practice component of the desired behavior?
Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesManipulating the Antecedents: Provide attention on your terms before he gets it on his terms. Spend extra time with student to review expectations. Alter lesson or activity. Modify environment. Provide additional support.
Creating Effective Interventions: Choosing StrategiesManipulating the Behavior: Ensure behavior goal is attainable. Teach social skills that are directly related to desired behavior. Help student discover connection between desired behavior and desired outcomes.
Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesManipulating the Consequences/ Outcomes: Use planned ignoring. Respond to behavior in a way that does not embarrass student. Reinforce desired behavior and acceptable alternatives. Provide indirect acknowledgement or correction when direct acknowledgement is not effective. Allow student to earn what she/he wants through demonstration of desired behavior or acceptable alternatives.
Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesIf it has been determined that a student calls out in order to obtainadult attention, strategies might include: Planned check-ins by teacher Precorrects for handA raising Move seat closer to adult Teach skills to get help, occupy wait times, and B tolerate delays Ignore calling out Reinforce raising hand Respond C consistently and quickly to appropriate requests and approximations
Creating Effective Interventions:Choosing StrategiesIf it has been determined that a student puts his head down and/or fallsasleep in class to avoid independent written work, strategies might include: Alter lessons to meet student’s abilities Start lessons with review Preview work with student individually Allow him other ways to participate in lesson to keep engaged Teach student how to get help, approach challenging material, handle frustration, and accept errors Reinforce approximations Contract for breaks Become tutor for someone else Positive reinforcement for staying engaged and completing task
Activity 7: Design InterventionsWork in groups to create interventions for the studentbelow by filling in the boxes on your worksheet.Hypothesis Statement: During unstructured social times, when interacting with peers, Brittany uses inappropriate language in order to gain peer attention.
Creating Effective Interventions: ImplementationAn effective plan includes : tools for assessing progress data collection schedule defined steps to goal roles and responsibilities plan for reinforcement methods for ensuring fidelity
Creating Effective Interventions:EvaluationSteps for Evaluation 1. Determine if behavior has improved. 2. If yes, choose one of the following options: Modify criteria for mastery Choose another behavior to address End individualized plan 3. If not, choose one of the following options: Evaluate fidelity of implementation Re-evaluation function Find ways to adjust the plan
Creating Effective Interventions:Generalization Practice plan in all applicable settings. Include a variety of adults when developing the plan. Continue implementing plan for a sufficient amount of time. Encourage use of replacement behavior and all acceptable alternatives.
Tertiary Level Strategies: Review Understand PBIS team role in supporting individual student needs. Coordinate with other existing resources. Use data to determine function. Develop achievable replacement behavior and alternatives. Support the use of desired behavior by manipulating the ABC. Promote consistency among school staff. Practice plan in all settings. Evaluate regularly.
Review:It’s Simple Really… Antecedent is going on, Behavior happens, and Consequence follows. Does C cause B to occur again? Can A change to stop B? Can C change to deter B? Can you teach an acceptable replacement for B? Can C be altered to only reinforce the replacement behavior?
References and Resources George, H & Kincaid, D. "Basic Principles of Behavior” Power Point Presentation. Floridas Positive Behavior Support Project: University of South Florida. Presented at First International Conference on Positive Behavior Support. Orlando, Florida 2003 “Functional Behavior Assessment”. Power Point Presentation. Behavior Specialist Team, Special Education Services Wake County Public School System “Secondary and Tertiary Strategies for PBIS”. Power Point Presentation. 2nd Annual Conference on Secondary and Tertiary Interventions. Naperville, IL, 2006 New Mexico Public Education Department