Ionic bonding

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Ionic bonding

  1. 1. Ionic Bonding
  2. 2. CA Standards Students know atoms combine toform molecules by sharing electrons toform covalent or metallic bonds or byexchanging electrons to form ionicbonds. Students know salt crystals, suchas NaCl, are repeating patterns ofpositive and negative ions heldtogether by electrostatic attraction.
  3. 3. Bonds Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit.  Ionic bonds – transfer of electrons  Covalent bonds – sharing of electrons
  4. 4. The Octet Rule – Ionic CompoundsIonic compounds form so that each atom, bygaining or losing electrons, has an octet ofelectrons in its highest occupied energy level.Metals lose electrons to form positively-chargedcationsNonmetals gains electrons to form negatively-charged anions
  5. 5. Ionic Bonding:The Formation of Sodium Chloride Sodium has 1 valence electron Chlorine has 7 valence electrons An electron transferred gives each an octet Na: 1s22s22p63s1 Cl: 1s22s22p63s23p5
  6. 6. Ionic Bonding:The Formation of Sodium ChlorideThis transfer forms ions, eachwith an octet: Na+ 1s22s22p6 Cl- 1s22s22p63s23p6
  7. 7. Ionic Bonding:The Formation of Sodium ChlorideThe resulting ions come togetherdue to electrostatic attraction (opposites attract): Na+ Cl-The net charge on the compoundmust equal zero
  8. 8. Examples of Ionic compoundsMg2+Cl-2 Magnesium chloride: Magnesium loses two electrons and each chlorine gains one electronNa+2O2- Sodium oxide: Each sodium loses one electron and the oxygen gains two electronsAl3+2S2-3 Aluminum sulfide: Each aluminum loses two electrons (six total) and each sulfur gains two electrons (six total)
  9. 9. Metal Monatomic Ion name CationsLithium Li+ LithiumSodium Na+ SodiumPotassium K+ PotassiumMagnesium Mg2+ MagnesiumCalcium Ca2+ CalciumBarium Ba2+ BariumAluminum Al3+ Aluminum
  10. 10. Nonmetal Monatomic Ion Name AnionsFluorine F- FluorideChlorine Cl- ChlorideBromine Br- BromideIodine I- IodideOxygen O2- OxideSulfur S2- SulfideNitrogen N3- NitridePhosphorus P3- Phosphide
  11. 11. Sodium Chloride Crystal LatticeIonic compounds formsolid crystals at ordinarytemperatures.Ionic compounds organizein a characteristiccrystal lattice ofalternating positive andnegative ions. All salts are ionic compounds and form crystals.
  12. 12. Properties of Ionic CompoundsStructure: Crystalline solidsMelting point: Generally highBoiling Point: Generally highElectrical Excellent conductors, Conductivity: molten and aqueousSolubility in Generally soluble water:

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