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Even the Loons are Licensed


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Given at Metropolitan State University for the Health Sciences Librarians of Minnesota on 5 June 2009.

Given at Metropolitan State University for the Health Sciences Librarians of Minnesota on 5 June 2009.

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  • 1. ! v en E se d! cen li a re Dorothea Salo Digital Repository Librarian 5 June 2009
  • 2. I am not a lawyer! • I cannot offer advice on specific situations. Please don’t ask. • This is “practicing law without a license” and it is very, very illegal. • All exercises are hypothetical, though some are based on real situations. I can’t necessarily tell you “the right answer.” • Everything in this presentation is my understanding. I may well be wrong! This is a murky area at best. • You’re librarians. READ UP. Don’t take anybody’s word (certainly not mine!) for anything, except your lawyer’s.
  • 3. If you have a specific copyright question or problem—consult a lawyer! Really. Just do it. That’s what they’re there for. If you don’t, you—yes, you!—are a
  • 4. (and copyright) The ubiquity of loons
  • 5. My goals • Reduce fear • Increase confidence • Explain the basics • Help you accept ambiguity • Help you know where to start with questions and problems you encounter
  • 6. H ow d oes c op y# g ht o w rk?
  • 7. What is it (in the US)? • A limited monopoly granted by federal law • over “original works of authorship” that are “fixed in a tangible medium of expression”* • ‘To promote the progress of science and the useful arts’ • Not unlimited! Not forever! By design! *yes, the Internet counts as “tangible” for copyright purposes
  • 8. Copyright does not cover... • Ideas (only their fixed expression) • Databases and other fact collections! (notably different overseas) • Methods, processes, systems (patent!) • Messy exception: software. • Words. (trademark!) Titles. Recipes. • Invented languages? Nobody’s sure. • Natural languages? Nope. • Works by the federal government • Works already in the public domain • no takebacks!
  • 9. Copyright permits... • Copying for certain socially-approved uses • Scholarship • Parody/satire • Library preservation (“section 108”) • Classroom use (“the TEACH Act”) • Limited copying for other reasons: “fair use”
  • 10. Copyright lasts... • For something created 1978 or later: • Life of author plus 70 years • For corporate-created works, 120 years after creation or 95 years after publication. • For something created between 1923 and 1977: • ... that’s a really good question.
  • 11. You know something is copyrighted in the US if... • copyright-portfolio-development/ flowchart.htm • digitalslider/
  • 12. Activity 1: Copyrighted or not? • Book published in 1967 by a still-living author. Copyright notice reads: “© 1967 PubCo, Inc.” • Topographic map published by USGS, 1995. • Manuscript of a never-published novel. US- born author died in 1942. • Dissertation, degree date 1952, author living, no copyright notice.
  • 13. Important note • Everything I’ve told you is for US works. • Copyright works differently elsewhere! (Yes, despite Berne.) • “Moral rights” of authors • Copyright term length • What is copyrightable • This is a wretched headache. • If you have an international-copyright question, SEE A LAWYER. Really. I mean it!
  • 14. W h at go od $ co p y# gh t?
  • 15. What can you do* with your copyrighted work? Copy * and prevent others from doing without permission Perform Allow or restrict access Republish Use as part of Broadcast a new work Adapt Arrange Translate “derivative work” Write a sequel All rights sold separately!
  • 16. What can you do with your copyright? • Sell it, in whole or in part. • Sign it away without payment. • For the most part, this is what faculty do with their journal articles. • License it • for broad or narrow purposes • temporarily or permanently • “exclusive”ly or non- • free or for pay. • It’s just like any other license. You negotiate it! (With a lawyer around.)
  • 17. A “copyright transfer agreement” is what it sounds like! Once you transfer your exclusive copyright over a work to someone else, YOU NO LONGER OWN THE WORK. You have no say whatever in what is done with or to it, AND YOU CANNOT USE IT AS THOUGH YOU OWNED ITS COPYRIGHT.
  • 18. If your copyright has been violated • You send a cease-and-desist order. • Optionally, you ask a judge for a 10-day restraining order. • You bring a civil (not criminal!) suit. • You ask for a preliminary injunction against further copying. • The judge may or may not grant it. • Try the suit. If you win...
  • 19. Consequences • Permanent injunction against further copying • Actual damages • Statutory damages • ONLY IF THE WORK IS REGISTERED WITH THE US COPYRIGHT OFFICE before infringement or within three months of publication • $750-$30,000 at court’s discretion. Up to $150,000 if the court decides that the infringement is “wilful.” Down to $200 (or $0 for a nonprofit school, library, or archive) if the infringer did not know and had no reason to believe the copying was infringing. • Destruction of copies of infringing works
  • 20. Prison! • Your infringement is “willful” • You knew it wasn’t fair use and did it anyway. • The work is valued between $1000 and $2500.
  • 21. “You copied my email? I’LL SUE!” • Did you register your email’s copyright with the LoC? • What are your damages?
  • 22. E xce pt io ns to op c y# g ht
  • 23. Section 108 • “Reproductions by Libraries or Archives for their Users, for Replacement or for Preservation” • • If you own it, you can copy it for: • Preservation: 3 copies of unpublished work • Replacement: 3 copies, if you can’t otherwise get hold of it • For users: 1 copy of an article; 1 copy of other work not otherwise available • Published in last 20 years: May copy if not otherwise available
  • 24. TEACH Act • Educators may use many copyrighted works in face-to-face classroom situations. • Distance ed? “Reasonable and limited portions” only... and only “in the classroom.” (locked-down server) • Analog materials may be digitized, if used in accordance with the rest of the law AND if there is no digital version that allows Section 110 uses. • Does NOT cover materials read or used outside the classroom. • “Accredited nonprofit educational institutions” only. • intellectualproperty/teachact.htm
  • 25. Strings attached! • The institution needs to have a copyright policy. • Type of work matters! • Specifically teaching material? Not covered. • Non-dramatic literary or musical work? OK to use it all. • Dramatic literary or musical work? “Reasonable portion” only. • Institution must strictly control use. • Copyright and use notice required. • TEACH Act Toolkit •
  • 26. Fair use • Possibly the least-understood concept in copyright! • An “affirmative defense” in a copyright lawsuit. • Principles and guidelines, not hard-and- fast rules.
  • 27. How to know for sure whether a use is fair, in four simple steps 1. Copy a copyrighted work. 2. Get yourself sued by a legitimate copyright owner. 3. Plead fair use as a defense. 4. Win the case. AFAIK, this is the only way.
  • 28. I’m thinking you think this is a loony way to proceed. Good. I agree with you. But that means that what we’re doing is risk management.
  • 29. Risk is never zero. I wish it could be too. I’m sorry.
  • 30. Four-factor fair use test • Character of the use • Nature of the work • Amount of the work copied • Effect on the market for that work, if everybody did what you’re doing
  • 31. Activity II: Fair use? • A teacher doing “digital storytelling” with his students finds that they use photos found via Google Images. He tells them that they must credit the maker with the image URL and by name where possible. Student projects are posted to a private university server and deleted when the course ends. • Does your answer change if the projects are posted to the open Web? • What advice would you have for this teacher? • Don’t answer yet! We may have better answers later.
  • 32. Fair use? • A science blogger reproduces a JPG image of a graph from a 2008 published article on her blog.
  • 33. Fair use? • A poetry scholar reproduces a copyrighted poem in toto in a published book about the poet. After each line of the poem are 10-15 pages of commentary.
  • 34. Fair use? • In a published book, a scholar reproduces a substantial portion of an unpublished short story by an author who died in 1978. The story was found in a library special collection. • Another question: who can sue? • Owning the physical thing does not necessarily mean owning any copyright associated with it! • Libraries and archives: beware of copyfraud!
  • 35. BREAK
  • 36. C o p y# g ht ed in u ca ti on al s e% in gs
  • 37. Confessions • I’m not a serials librarian. • I don’t do vendor licensing. • I don’t handle e-reserves or ILL. • A lot of you probably know more about these things than I do. Please speak up!
  • 38. My favorite book • Croft, Janet Brennan. Legal solutions in Electronic Reserves and the Electronic Delivery of Interlibrary Loan. Haworth 2004. • If you can only buy one book, make it this one! • Yes, it’s already slightly dated... but so is everything else; book publishing is a bit slow.
  • 39. ILL principles • Not supposed to be a substitute for purchasing items • Should not create indirect or direct profit for library (cost-recovery OK) • Libraries at for-profit institutions take note! • Copy must become user’s property • And user should be using it in approved ways. • Copyright warnings should be posted • No “systematic” copying.
  • 40. What about e-ILL? • For owned materials • Make sure you put appropriate warnings on the document. • Put it in a secure place; take it down once user has it. • Keep records! • For licensed materials • Follow your license. What it says, goes. • Negotiate your license to allow ILL. • CONTU guidelines in Circular 21 •
  • 41. CONTU: “Suggestion of five” • To keep from substituting ILL for a purchase you ought to make... • If you’ve ILLed it more than five times in a calendar year... • Buy it, or • Tell the patron to wait until next year, or • Pay permissions/royalties/per-article charge, or • Use document delivery.
  • 42. Ele ct ro nic res rv e es
  • 43. Analog course packs • 1982: AAP sues NYU and copiers • Settled out of court; NYU agrees to more stringent rules on copying copyrighted material. • 1991: Basic Books v. Kinko’s • Kinko’s claimed fair use. • Basic Books won and was awarded hefty damages. • Best practice for copy shops is now to seek permissions. • See also Princeton UP v. Michigan Document Services, 1996
  • 44. The sad story of CONFU • Conference on Fair Use: 1994-1998 • Conclusion: no conclusion! • Fair Use Guidelines for Electronic Reserve: never widely adopted, not “official” • rsrvguid.htm • AAP and Cornell 2006 • ereserveguidelines.html • ALA 2008 • copyrightb/fairuseandelectronicreserves/ereservesFU.cfm
  • 45. UCSD and Georgia State • AAP made noises at UCSD in 2005 • AAP: “Show us your ereserves system!” • UCSD: “Here’s our policy. Go away.” • Oxford UP, Cambridge UP, Sage vs. GSU • Seeking injunction, no $$$ • Libraries not the only target of the complaint! CMS, faculty sites also. • How will this turn out? Who knows? But watch it carefully.
  • 46. Legal e-reserves • Open access (links usually don’t infringe) • Already-licensed electronic copies • ... but make sure your license permits! • If your license says “no use in e-reserves without further payment,” that’s the rule. License trumps fair use! • Permissions and royalties • ... including the Copyright Clearance Center setup • Why “making a market” matters • Fair use, with all the fuzziness that implies • TEACH Act doesn’t help us here! (Why not?)
  • 47. Things to think about • Subsequent semesters, same instructor • Or same semester, same class, different instructors. • CONFU says pay royalties. Opinions differ. • Secure storage • Probably closer to spirit of fair use than otherwise! • Copyright warnings • Amounts copied • The AAP guidelines are super-conservative. • Who bells cat handles permissions?
  • 48. Course management systems • Generally not under library control. • Faculty are all over the place on this. • Some are afraid to post anything. • Some think “it’s educational, so it’s all fair use, right?” (NO.) • The library alone can’t fix the policy and liability issues here. • You can raise them with administration, and offer education. • You can run a good and helpful e-reserve service. • You can sign up with CCC.
  • 49. So what to do? Remember, it’s about RISK MANAGEMENT. These are institution-level policy decisions. Educate yourself, read policies from other institutions, sort out what you think is best, and then yodel for help.
  • 50. C o p y# g ht in res e arch s e% in gs
  • 51. Digitization projects • Remember: owning the physical item does not confer copyright! • Remember: owning the digital item does not pull it out of the public domain! • Write a digitization license into your special-collections agreements. • Think about a policy of immediately taking down items whose copyright ownership is disputed. • Then you can sort it out.
  • 52. Open access • “Green” and “gold” • Green: Self-archiving, as in an IR or disciplinary repository • Gold: Publishing in a journal that makes articles available free online • “Made possible... by the consent of the author or copyright holder.” • “Gratis” and “libre” • Gratis: you can read it; can you reuse it? • Libre: you can read and reuse (with credit)
  • 53. Finding OA materials • OAIster • • Institutional and disciplinary repositories • Don’t expect the world’s greatest metadata. • Directory of Open Access Journals • • Can browse by subject area • Limited full-text searching • Google Scholar
  • 54. Institutional repositories • As a self-submit system (like a CMS), potentially creates copyright liability. • Again, a takedown policy is a good idea. • In four years running IRs, I’ve never had a copyright challenge. • That absolutely doesn’t mean I won’t. I try to be prepared. • Be extra-careful when faculty want to archive student work. • Students own copyrights too! • And consider FERPA implications.
  • 55. In your IR license • Depositor should warrant that they have right or license to do the deposit. • IR should be allowed to disseminate and copy for preservation in perpetuity. • License should be non-exclusive. • Of course the IR doesn’t care what else the depositor does with the material!
  • 56. U se & D o' e R rs M , D M C A
  • 57. Digital rights management • Technological measures to prevent copying of digital materials. • Tend to prevent legal copying as well as illegal! • Also inhibit digital preservation measures. • Ever used “security” features on a PDF? • That’s DRM. If you have a preservation interest in that PDF, please don’t do that. Keep it on a secure server instead.
  • 58. DMCA • Lots of stuff in it. • Our concern: “anti-circumvention” • Illegal to reverse-engineer or try to work around technological protections on a copyrighted work. • That means us, too. • Serious accessibility challenges • Amazon/Adobe vs. disability-rights advocates
  • 59. What would you do? • Your library wishes to digitize a collection of materials related to an august alumnus, including published works, unpublished letters, and photographs. • Lay out a strategy for rights clearance. • (it’s okay if you don’t have all the answers!)
  • 60. What would you do? • A department would like to digitize and make available a set of honors papers by students. • What advice do you give?
  • 61. What would you do? • A faculty member wishes to self- archive her articles from a now-defunct journal. • What do you tell her?
  • 62. C op y# g ht a c as on te nt prod uc er
  • 63. Copyright in books and articles • The author must sign some sort of agreement with the publisher (why?). • The exact terms of that agreement vary widely, and are crucial to present and future reuse of the material. • Book negotiations are highly individual and I won’t discuss them here.
  • 64. Article agreement styles • Exclusive copyright transfer • Exclusive transfer with grant-back of rights • Reuse in other works; reuse in classroom; posting to Web, disciplinary repository, IR • With or without embargo • Non-exclusive license • “I can publish this and do other publishing-related things with it, but what else you do is up to you.” • “Exclusive for [time], and non-exclusive thereafter.” • Author retains copyright, grants license
  • 65. A real agreement Each Work shall be a “work made for hire” and, as such, [publisher] shall own all right, title and interest in and to the Works including all copyrights and other intellectual property rights therein and all renewals and extensions thereof, in all formats and media, whether now known or hereafter developed, throughout the world in perpetuity. To the extent any of the Works are deemed not to be “works made for hire,” you hereby assign to [publisher] all right, title and interest in and to the Works, including all copyrights and other intellectual property rights therein and all renewals and extensions thereof, throughout the world and in perpetuity. You waive all moral rights you have in the Works.
  • 66. Much better! You hereby grant [publisher] (a) a worldwide, perpetual, royalty-free right and license to use the Work, including all copyrights and other intellectual property rights therein and all renewals and extensions thereof, in all formats and media, whether now known or hereafter developed, including without limitation to publish, display, perform, distribute, reproduce, digitize, transmit, translate, modify and create derivative works of the Work for all or any purposes including but not limited to advertising and promotion; and (b) the right to assign or sublicense all or any of the foregoing rights. You agree that the foregoing license shall be exclusive until six (6) months following the publication of the Work by [publisher] and non-exclusive thereafter.
  • 67. What did I do? I asked.
  • 68. Author addenda • Boilerplate amendments to copyright transfer agreements • Reserving commonly-desired reuse rights • Publishers don’t seem to be real keen. • I’ve never heard of an article being yanked, but I have heard of addenda being refused. • All-online submission processes are another hassle. • Another idea: roll author’s rights/OA into journal licensing negotiations. • California managed it with Springer!
  • 69. Publisher self-archiving policies • What authors can archive without asking publisher permission first • SHERPA/RoMEO • Not comprehensive, but the best there is. • • If that fails... • look on the publisher’s website for author information • ask your authors if they keep their agreements (haha!)
  • 70. The version dance • “Preprint:” author manuscript before peer review • “Postprint:” final author manuscript, after peer review • “Publisher’s copy:” typeset PDF • Publishers care about this! Authors often don’t understand it. • Also note requirements for link and/or credit.
  • 71. Using other people’s work in your own • Images and photographs • Are copyrighted! Just like text! • It’s not “fair use” just because you found it on the Internet. • It’s not “fair use” because you give credit; US copyright law says nothing about credit! • Sound and fury... • Same idea. • (Please don’t ask me about sampling. ARGH.)
  • 72. Fair use for video • Has been a huge problem for documentarists • Guidelines, at last! • fair_use_in_online_video/ • statement_of_best_practices_in_fair_use/ (for documentaries)
  • 73. Reposting the work of others • If you own a copy legally, you own a copy legally. • Passing around that copy is probably okay (“first-sale”). • That doesn’t mean copies of that copy are legal. • If you lease a copy, you don’t own it. • You must obey your license stipulations. • ILL guidelines aren’t bad to have in mind for intranets etc. • Remember, we do want authors and publishers to earn money. • “Link when you can” is a good idea.
  • 74. Creative Commons • What if you want people to reuse your stuff? • You could grant it to the public domain... • ... but then anybody can do anything with it. • Creative Commons is a middle ground. • Licensing copyrighted works to all comers! • With certain conditions...
  • 75. CC license provisions • BY: Must attribute to creator. • On all CC licenses except CC0 (public domain dedication) • ND: No derivative works. • NC: Non-commercial use only. • SA: Share-alike • Release your new work under the same license. • These can be combined!
  • 76. Where to find CC-licensed works • Flickr • Has its own CC search, or use • Flickr Storm: • GREAT source of legally-usable images for your projects and your students’ projects! • Music: ccMixter • • Also see (yes, really) • CC-license your own works! Give back.
  • 77. BREAK
  • 78. C op y# g ht cu r re nt ev ents
  • 79. Orphan works • We know they’re under copyright. • We don’t know to whom. • Personal owner dead; corporate owner defunct. • Broken or nonexistent paper trail. • If you copy it and the owner turns up... you’re liable.
  • 80. Orphan works legislation • Goal: Limit liability of honest users while protecting creators’ rights • 2006: Fairly library-friendly legislation didn’t pass. • 2008: Less library-friendly legislation also didn’t pass. • But now there’s...
  • 81. Google Books • Google partnering with libraries to scan millions of books and other materials • Class-action suit by Authors’ Guild • Settlement in play; not approved as of this date • Contract renegotiation between Google and its library partners
  • 82. Settlement outline • Covers in-copyright books scanned as part of the GBooks project • Public domain is public domain. • Google Partners is handled separately. • Participating libraries also relieved of liability. • Many of these are orphan works! • Settlement allows Google to display these and make revenue from them, while reserving some of the proceeds to pay rightsholders who come forward. • Books Rights Registry: mediates rightsholder information and payout
  • 83. Potential issues • Will the class stand? • Some authors complaining that AG doesn’t represent them. • De facto monopoly? • Settlement covers Google’s activities only. Any other would-be scanner is still liable! • US and EU considering antitrust actions • Nobody knows if settlement will be approved. • Commentator to watch: James Grimmelmann (see BePress)
  • 84. NIH Public Access Policy • Published articles from NIH grants must appear in PubMedCentral within twelve months of publication. • In communications with NIH, articles covered under policy must cite PMCID or NIHMSID.
  • 85. Complexities • Third parties (librarians, grant admins) can submit to PMC, but the PI has to sign off. • Have to make sure that publisher allows NIH deposit. • There have been some ugly-ish situations around this. • SHERPA/RoMEO has a list of NIH-compliant publishers. • You should NEVER have to pay to comply with the policy!
  • 86. Campus mandates • Harvard, Stanford, MIT • The cleverness of the prior license! • The opt-out • Maryland • Boston University • Libraries!
  • 87. Open Notebook Science Open Data • Books and articles aren’t the only shareable products of the research enterprise any more. Data matters! • We’re still figuring out how this works. • Data aren’t copyrightable here... but they may be there. • What about credit norms? • Confidentiality and other IRB issues. • Getting scooped? • Watch Science Commons.
  • 88. S um mi ng up Loo ns to a w t ch
  • 89. Weblogs • Kevin Smith, Schol. Comm. @ Duke • • Copyright Advisory Network • • Peter Jaszi, ©ollectanea • • James Grimmelmann: The Laboratorium •
  • 90. Credits • Stuffed loon: 84299143@N00/2490004138/ • Smoking Loon merlot: harry525/3440297674/ • Monona Bay skyline: 2912984376/ • Little Loons Room: • Loon looking over shoulder: seabamirum/3322669775/ • Look out for Loons: 782094960/
  • 91. Thank you! This presentation is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license.