Caveon Webinar Series: Protecting Tests Using Copyright Law


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U.S. copyright laws can be used to protect the integrity of your tests and keep your exam from being copied. And when your exam content winds up online, the U.S. Copyright laws can also be used to remove that content from infringing web sites.

Kenneth Horton, from the law firm of Kirton and McConkie, discussed key issues on this important topic. With a technical degree, a business degree (MBA), and a legal degree, Ken provides a multi-disciplinary approach to intellectual property services. These services are enhanced by his constant research into both the legal and strategic aspects of intellectual property required by his teaching position as an associate professor in IP Strategy. Ken exhibits an entrepreneurial flair through investing in—and consulting with—technology-focused companies.

Ken was joined by Senior Web Patroller for Caveon, Cary Straw, who shared other aspects of finding infringing content online.

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  • If evidence of copyright infringement exists it is vital to fully investigate and address all aspects of infringement in order to make website owners aware of illegal activity and have content removed.
  • Caveon Webinar Series: Protecting Tests Using Copyright Law

    1. 1. Upcoming Caveon Events• NCSA – June 19-21 National Harbor, MD– Dr. John Fremer is co-presenting Preventing, Detecting, and Investigating TestSecurity Irregularities: A Comprehensive Guidebook On Test Security For States– Visit the Caveon booth.• Caveon Webinar Series: Next session, July 17 - Test Security Lessonsfrom the National Conference on Student Assessment• Caveon Security Minute, Now Available! Check it out at
    2. 2. Latest Publications• Handbook of Test Security – Now available forpurchase!• TILSA Guidebook for State AssessmentDirectors on Data Forensics – coming thismonth!
    3. 3. Caveon Online• Caveon Security Insights Blog–• twitter– Follow @Caveon• LinkedIn– Caveon Company Page– ―Caveon Test Security‖ Group• Please contribute!• Facebook– Will you be our ―friend?‖– ―Like‖ us!
    4. 4. “Protecting Your Tests Using Copyright Law”Caveon Webinar Series:Cary StrawSenior Web Patrol Security AnalystCaveon Test SecurityKenneth E. HortonAssociate Professor, IP StrategyGore School of BusinessWestminster CollegeJune 19, 2013
    5. 5. The Real Threat to your Tests“An internet search of free braindumpsites was conducted and “at leastpart of the item bank was found to becompromised as early as 3 weeksafter the live release and almostentirely exposed, with greataccuracy, after 8 months.”
    6. 6. Intentional Theft and Blatant InfringementThere are 1000’s of websites that steal your testquestions and sell them for profit.And, it only gets worse…these websites are very incestuous.
    7. 7. Dumps4exam.comDumps4paper.comDumps4papers.comDumps4test.comExamcram.meExamnotes.meExampapers.meExamquestions.bizExamsdumps.comExamsheets.meExamsheetscram.bizExamsheetscram.comExamsheetscram.netExamsheetscram.orgFreeexamking.comItexamsking.comItexamsking.orgITtestssamples.comPaperscollection.comPass4sure.mePass4surecram.bizPass4surecram.comPass4surecram.netPass4surecram.orgPassforsure.mePrepcram.comPrepdumps.bizPrepdumps.comPrepdumps.orgPrepquestions.comITSOLEXPERT.COMActualdump.comActualprep.comActualtests.meActualtestscram.bizActualtestscram.comActualtestscram.netActualtestscram.netActualtestscram.orgBeitcerti ed.comBeitcerti ed.netBraindumps.meBraindumpscram.bizBraindumpscram.comBraindumpscram.netBraindumpscram.orgQuestions4exam.comRealexams.meRealexamscram.bizRealexamscram.comRealexamscram.netSelftestsoft ware.meTestkiller.meTestking.meTestkingcram.bizTestkingcram.comTestkingcram.netTestkingcram.orgTestpapers.meTestquestions.bizTranscender.meQuestionsbible.comQuestionsking.comSanwu.onsugar.comStudyguidebible.comTestprepbible.comVcecollection.comDumpsking.comExam-bible.comExam4collection.comExambible.comExambible.deExambible.orgEXAMBIBLE.COMexambible1.over-blog.comexambible123.over-blog. FAMILY TREE
    8. 8. Not all instances of CopyrightInfringement are intentional• Homework Help Sites• Project and Freelancers• Forums• Auction Sites – eBay, Craigslist• Facebook
    9. 9. Excerpt from an actual Terms of Use Agreement―You are not allowed to and agree not to use any ofthe solutions, answers, materials or informationavailable on or through the website, whether in wholeor part, to cheat. Examples include:• Submitting any textbook solutions from theWebsite as your own to any class…• Any other violation of your instructors or schoolsacademic honor code….‖
    10. 10. Create Allies and Work as a Team• Start warm and friendly• Build relationships with forum owners• Send a Bystander• Send Cease and Desist Letter• Do not seek revenge, Stay professional
    11. 11. Protecting Your Tests Using Copyright LawKenneth E. HortonAssociate Professor, IP StrategyGore School of BusinessWestminster CollegeSalt Lake City, Utah
    12. 12. Questions Answered• What is a copyright?• What materials can be protected?• What rights are granted from a copyright?• How do I get, maintain and protect a copyright?• How do I enforce my rights?
    13. 13. CopyrightsSubject Matter• Author’s original expression of idea in tangiblemedium of expression (e.g., drawings, musicalscores, sculptures, software code, etc.).
    14. 14. CopyrightsCategories of Works• Broadly interpreted, but specifically includes– Literary Works– Musical Works– Dramatic Works– Pictorial, Graphic and Sculptural Works– Audiovisual Works
    15. 15. CopyrightsCategories of Works– Compilation -- Work formed by selection,assembly, and arrangement of pre-existingmaterials, facts, or data.– Collective Work -- A work in which a number ofcontributions, constituting separate andindependent works, whether or not in the publicdomain, are collected.– Derivative Work -- Work based upon one ormore pre-existing works.
    16. 16. CopyrightsOriginality• Copyright subsists only in original works ofauthorship.• Originality liberally interpreted -- Work need onlyoriginate from author and not copied from another’swork.– Even if identical work, entitled to copyright protection aslong as it was independently created.– The work need not have literary or artistic value or quality(subjective standard avoided).
    17. 17. CopyrightsIdeas versus Expression• Ideas are not copyrightable.• Expression of ideas is copyrightable.• Rationale: Copyright laws will not give monopolyon ideas/scientific principles which could impaircultural or scientific development.
    18. 18. CopyrightsFacts and Data• Facts (historical or contemporary news) and data(calculations) are not copyrightable. However, themanner of reporting the facts and the selection andarrangement of data are protectable.• Rationale: To be protectable, a work must beoriginal (i.e., originate in author). The discoverer offacts or data merely finds and records, but doesnot create.
    19. 19. CopyrightsTangible Medium of Expression• Work must be fixed in a tangible form which issufficiently stable and permanent to permit thework to be perceived, reproduced, or otherwisecommunicated for a period of more than transitoryduration.
    20. 20. CopyrightsSubject Matter• Not Protected is– Symbols, designs, ornamentation,…(generally things that can be trademarked)– Ideas, procedures,… (generally things that are patentable)– Facts/data (as described above)
    21. 21. CopyrightsLength• Life of Author + 70 years• Critical Information when term of copyright starts– When created– When published• Transition date: 1/1/78
    22. 22. CopyrightsRights Granted• Depends on type or work, but specifically includes:– Reproduction Right-- reproduce copyrighted work invirtually all mediums of expression.– Distribution Right -- distribute reproductions of the work bysale, lease, loan, etc.– Performance Right – right to perform work publicly– Display Right – right to display work publicly
    23. 23. CopyrightsRights Granted: Limitations• Fair Use, but not commercial use, for– Criticism– News reporting– Teaching– Scholarship– Research
    24. 24. CopyrightsOwnership• General Rule -- Initial copyright vests increator/author(s).• One claiming copyright must either becreator/author or owner by assignment.• Owner v. possessor
    25. 25. CopyrightsOwnership (continued)• Joint Works -- Work created by two or morepersons, each having equal, undivided interest inwork.• Work Made for Hire -- The employer orcommissioning party is considered the authorprovided this is made clear to the author.
    26. 26. CopyrightsAcquisition• Acquired automatically on creation• Tangible medium depends on the type of work• No publication or registration is required, but canbe advantageous
    27. 27. CopyrightPublication• Publication: Tangible copies of work sold, leased,given away or otherwise made available to generalpublic.• Publication previously—but no longer— requiredfor obtaining federal copyright– Advantages remain though for publishing yourwork
    28. 28. CopyrightsNotice of Publication• Optional• Place all published works to avoidcertain defenses to infringement• Three elements– Symbol ―©‖, ―(C)‖,‖COPR.‖ or―COPYRIGHT‖;– Year the work was first published; and– Name of copyright owner.
    29. 29. CopyrightsRegistration• Optional• Statutory advantages– Presumption of ownership– Statutory damages (up to $30,000 per infringing act)• Prerequisite to filing suit against alleged infringer• Recommendation -- Register within 3 months offirst publication to preserve all rights
    30. 30. CopyrightsRegistration• Filing Requirements– Application– Deposit– Fee• Examination only considers– Originality– ―fixed‖– Proper subject matter
    31. 31. CopyrightsEnforcement• Elements of Infringement– Establish ownership– Proof of Copying• Direct v. Indirect Proof• Indirect Proof of Copying– Access– Substantial Similarity– Sliding Scale
    32. 32. CopyrightsEnforcement• Remedies– Injunctions– Impounding of Copies– $$$$$$$$$• Actual• Statutory: 0.75 to 30K per act ofinfringement, at the discretion of the Court– Increased damages (i.e., willful infringement)
    33. 33. CopyrightsEnforcement• Criminal Offenses: becoming more important toolwith online piracy• Indirect Infringement– Right and ability to control infringer’s acts– Receives a financial benefit from theinfringement– Knowledge is not necessary
    34. 34. CopyrightsDMCA• DMCA: provides safe harbors for online contentproviders if they:– Store material at request of user;– Are merely Referring users to online locations wherematerial is located; or– Only store the infringing material by system caching.– In other words, they are intermediary and store materialwhile serving as a conduit.– Modifications proposed (but not enacted) in 2011/2012 togive more power to copyright owners
    35. 35. CopyrightsInternet• Eligibility for DMCA– Adopt, implement, and inform its subscribers ofpolicy for terminating repeat infringers.– Must accommodate and not interfere with"standard" measures to identify and protectcopyrighted works.– Need NOT monitor or affirmatively seek outcopyright infringement , except as part of thestandard technical measures.– Need NOT have to access, remove, or blockmaterial if such action is prohibited by law.
    36. 36. DMCA Take Down Notice1. Identify copyrighted work(s).2. Identify infringing material with sufficient detail.3. Sufficient Contact Information4. Certify copyright owner or agent.5. Find and send notification to the service provider(if needed by ―Whois‖ search).
    37. 37. CopyrightsInternational Considerations• Protection limited to each country• Enforcement also limited to each country• Seeking protection becomes a matter of cost v.benefit analysis• Enforcing rights also becomes a cost v. benefitanalysis
    38. 38. CopyrightsTake Aways• Legal avenues are limited because of logistics andcost.• Ask nicely first, then ask nicely• When possible, form a cooperative relationship• When not, hit hard and hit fast (to keep material outof circulation)
    39. 39. Options for Delivery of Notification• DMCA – Digital Millennium Copyright Act• Bystander Letter
    40. 40. Removal Successusing Bystander/DMCA Notifications
    41. 41. Final Thoughts• Monitor the web for evidence of potentialinfringement• Infringement may be found on braindump sites,portals, forums as well as typical websites• Attempt to build friendly relationships with site andforum operators• Support further necessary investigation with theappropriate takedown notifications
    42. 42. THANK YOU!- Follow Caveon on twitter @caveon- Check out our blog LinkedIn Group ―Caveon Test Security‖Cary StrawSenior Web Patrol Security AnalystCaveon Test SecurityKenneth E. HortonAssociate Professor, IP StrategyGore School of BusinessWestminster College