The Spanish Inquisition-English II


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The Spanish Inquisition-English II

  1. 1. The Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834
  2. 2. Inquisition Definition <ul><li>The act of inquiring into a matter; an investigation </li></ul><ul><li>A rigorous, harsh investigation </li></ul><ul><li>An investigation that violates the rights of individuals </li></ul>
  3. 3. What WAS the Spanish INQUISITION ? <ul><li>The Spanish Inquisition – a tribunal formerly held in the Roman Catholic Church directed at the suppression of heresy (A controversial or unorthodox opinion or doctrine, as in religion, politics, philosophy, or science, ie. “Wrong Thinking”) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of Heresy During the Spanish Inquisition <ul><li>Not Eating Pork </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Prohibited Books (usually of a religious nature) </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing Judaism or Islam </li></ul>
  5. 5. Factors Leading to the Spanish Inquisition <ul><li>711: The Islamic Invasion of Spain and Portugal (Then known as the Iberian Peninsula) </li></ul><ul><li>The Reconquest of Spain Bringing Spain back under Christian Spaniard Control </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Civil War (Isabella vs. Juana) 1474-1479 </li></ul><ul><li>Isabella (Castille) marries the Prince of Aragon, Ferdinand V </li></ul><ul><li>Castille and Aragon are now united and Spain is unified </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand and Isabella Attempt to Further Unify Spain in the 15 th Century under Catholic Control. </li></ul>
  6. 6. the Purpose of the Spanish Inquisition <ul><li>The Spanish Inquisition occurred because Catholic rulers Isabella and Ferdinand were determined to rid Spain of any heretics or non-Catholics . </li></ul><ul><li>In previous years, other Inquisitions had occurred in Spain. As a result, many Jews and Muslims, rather than leave their homes, decided to convert to Catholicism to escape persecution. </li></ul><ul><li>The main goal of the Inquisition was to inspect the genuineness of those that converted to Catholicism in the previous years. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Motives for Instituting the Inquisition <ul><li>To establish political and religious unity </li></ul><ul><li>To weaken political opponents of Ferdinand and Isabella </li></ul><ul><li>Out of fear of other religious groups. </li></ul><ul><li>To do away with power of minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Profit – the property of convicted people was taken </li></ul>
  8. 8. Islamic Conquest of the Christian Visigoth Kingdom <ul><li>711 – Moors (people from northwest Africa: Arabs and natives, known as Berbers) led by the Arabic governor of Tangiers, Tariq ibn-Ziyad invade the Iberian Peninsula (aka Spain and Portugal) with a force of 12, 000 </li></ul><ul><li>Tariq returned to Morocco, but the next year (712) Musa ibn Nusair, the Muslim governor in North Africa, led the best of his Arab troops to Spain with the intention of staying. In three years he had subdued all but the mountainous region in the extreme north and had initiated forays into France, which were stemmed at Poitiers in 732 </li></ul><ul><li>718 Moorish Isalmic rule is at its widest extent </li></ul>
  9. 9. Islamic Conquest of the Christian Visigoth Kingdom Continued… <ul><li>Al Andalus , as Islamic Spain was called, was organized under the civil and religious leadership of the caliph of Damascus. Governors in Spain were generally Syrians, whose political frame of reference was deeply influenced by Byzantine practices. </li></ul><ul><li>722 The Battle of Covadonga in the north-west of Iberia; the Christian Reconquestia begins. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Reconquest ( Reconquista) Begins in Spain <ul><li>732 AD Battle of Tours </li></ul><ul><li>739: Moorish garrison driven out of Galicia by Asturian-Galician forces. </li></ul><ul><li>800: The Franks complete the reconquest of all of today's southern French territory and the Pyrenees </li></ul><ul><li>801: Franks reconquer Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>914:Completion of reconquest in the north-west. Muslims briefly retake Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>1085: Toledo reconquered by Castillian forces </li></ul><ul><li>1236: Half of Iberia reconquered by Christian forces </li></ul><ul><li>1239: the Emirate of Granda remains the only Muslim state in Iberia </li></ul><ul><li>1300s-1400s: Marinid Muslims seize control of some towns on the southern coast but are soon driven out </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pogroms of 1391 and Following Years <ul><li>Ma jor anti-Jewish sentiment in the Iberian peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>James II of Aragon, under pressure from the Roman Catholic Church, passes a law that Jews would no longer be abided in the Iberian peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Conversions to Christianity (20,000 Jews) because the choices were conversion, death, or emigration </li></ul><ul><li>Synagogues burned to the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to expel Jews from Iberian peninsula </li></ul>
  12. 12. Process of The Inner Workings of the inquisition <ul><li>Edict of Grace “Edicto de Gracia&quot; - basic procedure that started after Sunday's mass, the inhabitants were asked to denounce a blasphemer. This method proved to be inefficient as false information, for the sake of killing one's enemy, was very common. Unfortunately, inquisitors used the Edict of Grace for the following 350 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Denunciation - to pronounce especially publicly someone be blameworthy or evil; Once someone was denounced, he was incarcerated until his case was reviewed by the calificadores (a type of jury). The time of incarceration varied from a few days to two years. The victim was never notified of the charges against him while being in prison causing much confusion to the victim. Many died ignorant of their crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation – to show penance through confession </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conversions <ul><li>A Jew that converts to Christianity was known as a Converso </li></ul><ul><li>A Moor who converts to Christianity was known as a Morisco </li></ul>
  14. 14. Relation/Interaction of Jews, Muslims (moors) & Christians <ul><li>Jews protected by king </li></ul><ul><li>--- Tax Farmers </li></ul><ul><li>--- Loans </li></ul><ul><li>Moriscos live away from Christians (Mainly in the South in Grenada) </li></ul><ul><li>Christians dominate Spain (laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Convivencia – the somewhat “idyllic (charmingly simple) “mythical” situation of the coexistence of Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Spain from 711-1492 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Limpieza de Sangre (Blood Purity and Blood Libel of the Mid 1400s <ul><li>Before the Pogroms of 1391, Jew is part of a religion </li></ul><ul><li>Conversions mean they are Christians and equal </li></ul><ul><li>Major conflict between Old vs. New Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Libel is negative propaganda against Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Stories told of Jews stealing Christian babies and sacrificing them at night </li></ul><ul><li>Negative propaganda is very effective (Fear travels through all Christians) </li></ul><ul><li>La Guardia Trial of 1491- the alleged victim of the crime was a child said to be ritualistically murdered by Jews. There was an auto-da-fé followed by public executions of the alleged murderers; however, no body was ever found. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Makeup of the Inquisition <ul><li>Suprema (1488) – 6 members that rule over the Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Tribunals – makeshift courtrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Familiars – Spies </li></ul><ul><li>Finances – confiscations, fines, penances, dispensation. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain <ul><li>Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la InquisiciónSpanish Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Example of a Makeshift Courtroom or Tribunal. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Inquisition facts <ul><li>Used for religious, political, and financial reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Spain had many different belief systems at the time of the Inquisition (Catholicism, Islam, Protestantism, and Judaism) </li></ul><ul><li>Following the Crusades, the leaders of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella, wanted to unify the nation, and they chose Catholicism to do this, making the Inquisition under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Sixtus IV signs the Papal Bull in 1478, granting permission for the Inquisition to begin, and they began driving out Jews, Protestants, and other non-believers. </li></ul><ul><li>1478-1531 – Most active period of the Inquisition </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tomás de Torquemada <ul><li>1483 becomes Grand Inquisitor of both Castile and Aragon (This is the only organization that Castile and Aragon have in common.) </li></ul><ul><li>Very powerful, austere stern man and very Anti-Semitic </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to push the expulsion of the Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood confessor to Isabella </li></ul>
  20. 20. Tomás de Torquemada Continued… <ul><li>He is inquisitor-general until 1498. </li></ul><ul><li>He established the rules of the Inquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for executing around 2,000 Spaniards </li></ul><ul><li>Established local tribunals to judge the accused heretics </li></ul><ul><li>Accused heretics were encouraged to indict and accuse other heretics, thus beginning a vicious, cruel cycle of accusations </li></ul><ul><li>If accused heretics confessed, they were released or received a prison sentence </li></ul><ul><li>The penalty for not confessing to heresy or refusing to accuse others of heresy would result in torturous, public death or life in prison. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Privileges of Members of the Inquisition <ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Censor Literature – Index of Prohibited Books </li></ul><ul><li>Immunity from other Jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Exemption </li></ul><ul><li>No Quartering of Troops </li></ul>
  22. 22. Reasons for Censorship during the inquisition <ul><li>Trying to stop the spread of ideas the Catholic Church deemed heretical </li></ul><ul><li>“ Indexes” – Lists of heretical books (published in 1551, 1559, 1583, 1612, 1632, and 1640) </li></ul><ul><li>List of banned books of all kinds, but focused on religious texts and vernacular translations of the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibitions of the texts actually hindered the spread of Spanish culture throughout Europe </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Trials <ul><li>Lawyers – Defense lawyers emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Witnesses – could testify </li></ul><ul><li>Enemies – Name your enemies </li></ul>
  24. 24. Torture of the inquisition <ul><li>Aselli: </li></ul><ul><li>Water Torment </li></ul><ul><li>Burning Heretics at the Stake </li></ul>
  25. 25. Torture of the inquisition <ul><li>Garrucha: </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging from the Ceiling </li></ul><ul><li>The Heretics Fork </li></ul>
  26. 26. Methods Used to Force Confessions and Evaluate Validity of Conversions: Continued <ul><li>Strappado: Pulley </li></ul><ul><li>Potro: The Rack </li></ul>
  27. 27. Torture Continued <ul><li>Torture was used to get a confession not to punish </li></ul><ul><li>There were a multitude of methods of torture used during the Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Starvation or forcing mass quantities of water or other fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Heated metal pincers, thumbscrews, boots, and other devices designed to burn, pinch, or otherwise mutilate </li></ul>
  28. 28. Torture Statistics <ul><li>“ The historian Hernando del Pulgar, contemporary of Ferdinand and Isabella, estimated that the Inquisition had burned at the stake 2,000 people and reconciled another 15,000 by 1490 (just one decade after the Inquisition began). ” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Auto-da-Fé <ul><li>Means “Act of Faith” </li></ul><ul><li>the ritual of public execution of people tried by the Inquisition, carried out by the civil authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Major social event and civic occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Sanbenito – an ornamented (yellow with a red cross)garment worn by a condemned heretic at an auto-da-Fé </li></ul><ul><li>Usually the heretics were publicly burned at the stake </li></ul>
  30. 30. auto-da-Fé Continued… <ul><li>Took place in the public square </li></ul><ul><li>Religious and civil authorities were in attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Involved a Catholic Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted several hours </li></ul><ul><li>The defendant at the trial did not know what witnesses would be called against him. </li></ul><ul><li>The defendant might not even know the specific crime accused of </li></ul>
  31. 31. 1492 <ul><li>Invasion of Granada (the last Muslim stronghold in the region) </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Granada completes the Reconquista </li></ul><ul><li>Spain is completely unified </li></ul><ul><li>The Edict of Expulsion: gave Jews 3 months to either convert to Christianity or leave the Kingdom of Castille and theCrown of Aragon </li></ul>
  32. 32. The End of the Inquisition <ul><li>The French Revolution of 1789 would cause the Inquisition to disband. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Revolution, a new government arose in Spain “Cortes de Cadiz” and they chose not to include the Inquisition in the new constitution. </li></ul>