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  o   N
D




  http://www.costoflife.org
Gaming and Learning
        Catherine V. Parsons
  Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum,
  Instruction, and Pupil Perso...
Description
Connecting to learners means connecting to the tools of
their everyday world. Therefore, video games, now
ubiq...
Who am I and who are you?
VIDEO GAME

Take one minute and write
down the first 5 words or
phrases that come to mind
when you hear the words
“VIDEO GA...
Learning Path for Today
 Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions

 Learning Concepts, Engagement (and Gaming)

 What we can lea...
Learning Path for Today
 Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions

 Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement)

 What we can lear...
Role of Education in Society

  Understanding education in the context of
  society assists in understanding the intent
  ...
Authentic Education

In order for students to obtain an authentic
education, they must discover, think, act,
make mistakes...
Interplay
“It is important to acknowledge that within a
constructivist paradigm of learning, technology
tools do not evoke...
Ubiquitous
Non-traditional and more constructivist approaches to teaching and
learning generate “student satisfaction, int...
“It takes a lot of courage to release
the familiar and seemingly secure, to
embrace the new. But there is no
real security...
Definitions

GBL
Computer -vs- Console
Serious Games
MMORPG
Virtual World (MUVE)
Simulation
Digital Presence
Game-Based Learning
      (GBL)
“Applications using the
characteristics of video and
computer games to create engaging
and...
Computer -vs- Console
“A video game console is an interactive
entertainment computer or electronic device that
produces a ...
Serious Games
“A serious game is a term used to refer to a
software or hardware application developed with
game technology...
MMORPG

A massively multiplayer online role-
playing game (MMORPG) is a genre
of computer role-playing games
(CRPGs) in wh...
Virtual World (MUVE)

“A Virtual World is a
computer-based simulated
environment intended for its
users to inhabit and int...
Examples
Second Life
Active Worlds
Club Penguin
Wizards 101
There.com
Star Doll
Whyville
EvE
WoW
Webkinz
Big Deal?
Simulation
The imitation of the reality for studying the effect of
changing parameters in a model as a means of
preparing ...
Digital Presence
Learning Path for Today
 Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions

 Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement)

 What we can lear...
Learning   Literacy


Engagement
 Teaching   Play
Learning
Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors,
including skills, knowledge, understanding...
Engagement
“What happens outside of us has a lot
to do with what we choose to do, but
the outside event does not cause the...
Teaching
In education, teachers are those who help students or
pupils learn, often in a school. The objective is typically...
Engagement
“People control their own experiences.
The only way you can truly get them to
behave as you wish is through the...
Literacy

The ability to read and write http://
wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

The traditional definition of literacy is...
Engagement
“Motivation is a key aspect of effective learning but
motivation needs to be sustained through feedback
respons...
Play
“A like balance in mental life characterizes process and
play and product. We met one important phase of this
adjustm...
http://thefuntheory.com/
Engagement
“The intellectual harm accruing from
divorce of work and play, product and
process, is evidenced in the proverb...
21 Research-based Instructional
             Strategies
Taking student readiness into
account                             ...
Learning Principles in Gaming
Active, critical learning principle   Intertextual principle
Design principle               ...
Activity
Engagement
Experience
Constant Achievement
Expanding Circle of
   Competence
Death
No Right Answer
Working Within the
      Rules
Language, Signs, and
     Symbols
Social
Identity
Empathy
Empathy
Simulation
Practice
Applied Learning
Context
Feedback
Multimodal
Mastery
Research?
Byron Review
http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/byronreview/
Why Video Games Make me a
       Better CEO...
Considerations...
“The use of game-based learning can
change not just what is learnt but also
significantly how we learn, f...
Learning Path for Today
 Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions

 Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement)

 What we can lear...
Using Games in School
Mathematics: Lucas Gillispie
       (Pantego)
http://wowinschool.pbworks.com/
The Small Egg
Console Gaming in
    Education
http://www.sesamestreet.org/home
Line Rider
PBS Kids and PBS Go
http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/
   peace/nuclear_weapons/game.html
http://science.discovery.com/
interactives/literacy/darwin/
http://www.freedomfighter56.com
Subject Areas
English              Foreign Language

Science              ELL

History              Drama

Art            ...
Learning Path for Today
 Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions

 Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement)

 What we can lear...
Using Games AS School
LotR:
        Dr. Trista Merrill
Finger Lakes Community College
Econ 201
University of North Carolina - Greensboro
Second Life
Learning Path for Today
 Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions

 Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement)

 What we can lear...
Extending Games

Machinima
Programming
PLC Theory and PLNs
Things to consider...
Machinima

“Machinima is real-world filmmaking
techniques applied within an interactive
virtual space where characters and
...
Programming

Authoring Games

Making Games for Free

Alice

Scratch

   Examples
PLC Theory & PLNs

Cognitive Dissonance
  •   WoW

  •   Realm: US Sisters of
      Elune, Alliance

  •   GM: Vyktorea
http://gamesforchange.org/toolkit
Things to consider...
Collaboration or Cheating
Isolated?
Collaboration or Cheating
Learning Path for Today
 Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions

 Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement)

 What we can lear...
Inquiries
No Gamer Left Behind
No Gamer Left Behind
Play
“Mental play is open-mindedness, faith in the
power of thought to preserve its own integrity
without external support...
Fundamental Belief:
“It is important to acknowledge that within a
constructivist paradigm of learning, technology
tools do...
Thank you!
Contact Information
Catherine V. Parsons:
c.parsons@ppcsd.org

   http://www.catherinevictoria.net

   iSLaka: Victoria Gl...
References

Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=WF0AAAAAMAAJ&dq=how+we+think+d...
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  • Transcript of "Keane2009"

    1. 1. ow... o N D http://www.costoflife.org
    2. 2. Gaming and Learning Catherine V. Parsons Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum, Instruction, and Pupil Personnel Service Pine Plains Central School District, NY iSLaka: Victoria Gloucester WoW: Vyktorea
    3. 3. Description Connecting to learners means connecting to the tools of their everyday world. Therefore, video games, now ubiquitous among two full generations, must be considered when examining curriculum and instruction. In this session, participants will deconstruct the learning and design concepts behind video games, examine how these concepts align with research-based classroom practice, and explore ways in which gaming should be incorporated into the definition of what it means to be literate in society today.
    4. 4. Who am I and who are you?
    5. 5. VIDEO GAME Take one minute and write down the first 5 words or phrases that come to mind when you hear the words “VIDEO GAME”.
    6. 6. Learning Path for Today Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions Learning Concepts, Engagement (and Gaming) What we can learn (and children are learning) from games Using Games in School Using Games AS School Extending Games Inquiries
    7. 7. Learning Path for Today Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement) What we can learn (and children are learning) from games Using Games in School Using Games AS School Extending Games Inquiries
    8. 8. Role of Education in Society Understanding education in the context of society assists in understanding the intent and effectiveness of the institution (Pai & Adler, 2001). Pai and Adler (2001) noted education, “… can be viewed as the deliberate means by which each society attempts to transmit and perpetuate its notion of the good life… derived from…belief[s] concerning the nature of the world, knowledge, and values” (p. 4).
    9. 9. Authentic Education In order for students to obtain an authentic education, they must discover, think, act, make mistakes, and live. Educational institutions are accountable for a design that allows processes to take place in order for students to learn to be learners and become motivated through experiences.
    10. 10. Interplay “It is important to acknowledge that within a constructivist paradigm of learning, technology tools do not evoke the dynamics of a learning community, but rather these dynamics are the result of the interplay between content, the instructor, and the learners. Although, the affordances of tools may influence opportunities for discourse and interaction, virtual worlds are another tool for teaching and learning” (Dickey, 2005, p. 132).
    11. 11. Ubiquitous Non-traditional and more constructivist approaches to teaching and learning generate “student satisfaction, interest, engagement, and retention” (Sanborn, Sanotos, Montgomery, & Caruthers, 2007, p. 29). New technology tools require non-traditional approaches, however when educators are faced with planning for ubiquitous technology use they tend to produce tasks that focus on lower order cognitive skills and lower levels of learning lacking constructivist design (Gillespie, 1998; Howard, 2004). The use of technological tools of a society is important to the future success of students becoming productive members of that society (Papert & Caperton, 1999). Howard (2004) questioned the very nature technology in education. Is it precisely the unknown transformative nature of the technologies themselves that creates the stagnating fear of adoption due to the possible change impact on the system.
    12. 12. “It takes a lot of courage to release the familiar and seemingly secure, to embrace the new. But there is no real security in what is no longer meaningful. There is more security in the adventurous and exciting, for in movement there is life, and in change there is power.” Alan Cohen
    13. 13. Definitions GBL Computer -vs- Console Serious Games MMORPG Virtual World (MUVE) Simulation Digital Presence
    14. 14. Game-Based Learning (GBL) “Applications using the characteristics of video and computer games to create engaging and immersive learning experiences for delivering specified learning goals, outcomes and experiences”. JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning_innovation/eli_outcomes.aspx
    15. 15. Computer -vs- Console “A video game console is an interactive entertainment computer or electronic device that produces a video display signal which can be used with a display device (a television, monitor, etc.) to display a video game. The term "video game console" is used to distinguish a machine designed for consumers to buy and use solely for playing video games from a personal computer, which has many other functions...” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_console
    16. 16. Serious Games “A serious game is a term used to refer to a software or hardware application developed with game technology and game design principles for a primary purpose other than pure entertainment. The Serious adjective is generally appended to refer to products used by industries like defense, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, religion, and politics.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serious_games
    17. 17. MMORPG A massively multiplayer online role- playing game (MMORPG) is a genre of computer role-playing games (CRPGs) in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mmorpg
    18. 18. Virtual World (MUVE) “A Virtual World is a computer-based simulated environment intended for its users to inhabit and interact via avatars.” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_world
    19. 19. Examples Second Life Active Worlds Club Penguin Wizards 101 There.com Star Doll Whyville EvE WoW Webkinz
    20. 20. Big Deal?
    21. 21. Simulation The imitation of the reality for studying the effect of changing parameters in a model as a means of preparing a decision: www.eyefortransport.com/ glossary/st.shtml In simulated spaces learners, “cooperate... collaborate... make effective decisions under stress... take prudent risks in pursuit of objectives... make ethical and moral decisions... employ scientific deduction... are quicker to master and apply new skills and information... think laterally and strategically... persist and solve difficult problems... understand and deal with foreign cultures... and manage businesses and people” (Prensky, 2007).
    22. 22. Digital Presence
    23. 23. Learning Path for Today Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement) What we can learn (and children are learning) from games Using Games in School Using Games AS School Extending Games Inquiries
    24. 24. Learning Literacy Engagement Teaching Play
    25. 25. Learning Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. It is the goal of education, and the product of experience: http:/ /en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Learning An exercise of constructing personal knowledge that requires the learner to be mentally active rather than passive; interpreting rather than recording information: www.maine.gov/education/highered/Glossary/ Glossary.htm The change in behaviour that results from experience and practice: http://wps.pearsoned.co.uk/wps/media/objects/1452/1487687/glossary/ glossary.html A change in the behavior of the learner as a result of experience. The behavior can be physical and overt, or it can be intellectual or attitudinal: www.rotc.monroe.army.mil/helpdesk/definitions-1/terms.htm
    26. 26. Engagement “What happens outside of us has a lot to do with what we choose to do, but the outside event does not cause the behavior. What we get, and all we ever get, from the outside is information; how we choose to act on that information is up to us” (Glasser, 1990, p. 41).
    27. 27. Teaching In education, teachers are those who help students or pupils learn, often in a school. The objective is typically a course of study, lesson plan, or a practical skill, including learning and thinking skills. The different ways to teach are often referred to as the teacher's pedagogy: http:/ /en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teaching Arranging conditions to bring about learning as planned: http://members.aol.com/JohnEshleman/glossary.html The activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill: http:/ /wordnet.princeton.edu/ perl/webwn
    28. 28. Engagement “People control their own experiences. The only way you can truly get them to behave as you wish is through the threat or actuality of overwhelming superior physical force - and even that is only a temporary solution” (Powers, 1998, p. 122). Perpetual Control Theory
    29. 29. Literacy The ability to read and write http:// wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literacy The ability to read, write, communicate, and comprehend: http:/ /www.educationoasis.com/curriculum/ Reading/glossary_reading_terms.htm
    30. 30. Engagement “Motivation is a key aspect of effective learning but motivation needs to be sustained through feedback responses, reflection and active involvement in order for designed learning to take place. Therefore the key challenge for effective learning with games is for the learner to be engaged, motivated, supported and interested but also importantly for the learning to be undertaken in relation to clear learning outcomes as well as being made relevant to real world contexts of practice. A key challenge for designers then is to get the correct balance between delightful play and fulfilling specified learning outcomes”. JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning_innovation/eli_outcomes.aspx
    31. 31. Play “A like balance in mental life characterizes process and play and product. We met one important phase of this adjustment in considering play and work. In play, interest centers in activity, without much reference to its outcome. The sequence of deeds, images, emotions, suffices on its own account. In work, the end holds attention and controls the notice given to means. Since the difference is one of direction of interest, the contrast is one of emphasis, not of cleavage. When comparative prominence in consciousness of activity or outcome is transformed into isolation of one from the other, play degenerates into fooling, and work into drudgery” (Dewey, 1910, p. 217).
    32. 32. http://thefuntheory.com/
    33. 33. Engagement “The intellectual harm accruing from divorce of work and play, product and process, is evidenced in the proverb, "All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." That the obverse is true is perhaps sufficiently signalized in the fact that fooling is so near to foolishness. To be playful and serious at the same time is possible, and it defines the ideal mental condition” (Dewey, 1910, p. 218).
    34. 34. 21 Research-based Instructional Strategies Taking student readiness into account Providing contiguity Defining instructional Using repetition effectively expectations Utilizing unifiers Providing instructional evaluation Providing one-to-one tutoring Providing corrective instruction Utilizing reminders Keeping students on task Utilizing teamwork Maximizing teaching time Reducing student teacher ratio Providing ample learning time below 21 to 1 Providing transfer of learning Clarifying communication instruction Utilizing question and answer Providing decision-making instruction instruction Utilizing computerized instruction Providing prediction and Utilizing demonstrations problem-solving instruction
    35. 35. Learning Principles in Gaming Active, critical learning principle Intertextual principle Design principle Multimodal principle Semiotic principle “Material Intelligence” principle Semiotic domains principle Intuitive knowledge principle Metalevel thinking principle about Subset principle semiotic domains principle Incremental principle “Psychosocial Moratorium” principle Concentrated sample principle Committed learning principle Bottom-up basic principle Identity principle Explicit information on-demand and just-in- Self-knowledge principle time principle Amplification of input principle Discovery principle Achievement principle Transfer principle Practice principle Cultural models of the world principle Ongoing learning principle Cultural models about learning principle “Regime of Competence” principle Cultural models about semiotic domains Probing principle principle Multiple routes principle Distributed principle Situated Meaning Principle Dispersed principle Text principle Affinity group principle Insider principle
    36. 36. Activity
    37. 37. Engagement
    38. 38. Experience
    39. 39. Constant Achievement
    40. 40. Expanding Circle of Competence
    41. 41. Death
    42. 42. No Right Answer
    43. 43. Working Within the Rules
    44. 44. Language, Signs, and Symbols
    45. 45. Social
    46. 46. Identity
    47. 47. Empathy
    48. 48. Empathy
    49. 49. Simulation
    50. 50. Practice
    51. 51. Applied Learning
    52. 52. Context
    53. 53. Feedback
    54. 54. Multimodal
    55. 55. Mastery
    56. 56. Research?
    57. 57. Byron Review http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/byronreview/
    58. 58. Why Video Games Make me a Better CEO...
    59. 59. Considerations... “The use of game-based learning can change not just what is learnt but also significantly how we learn, for this reason it is important to consider all the possible implications of adopting game-based learning in your practice such as context of use, duration of study periods, technical support, community of practitioners”. JISC (Joint Information Systems Committee) http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning_innovation/eli_outcomes.aspx
    60. 60. Learning Path for Today Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement) What we can learn (and children are learning) from games Using Games in School Using Games AS School Extending Games Inquiries
    61. 61. Using Games in School
    62. 62. Mathematics: Lucas Gillispie (Pantego)
    63. 63. http://wowinschool.pbworks.com/
    64. 64. The Small Egg
    65. 65. Console Gaming in Education
    66. 66. http://www.sesamestreet.org/home
    67. 67. Line Rider
    68. 68. PBS Kids and PBS Go
    69. 69. http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/ peace/nuclear_weapons/game.html
    70. 70. http://science.discovery.com/ interactives/literacy/darwin/
    71. 71. http://www.freedomfighter56.com
    72. 72. Subject Areas English Foreign Language Science ELL History Drama Art FACS Music Health Physical Education CDOS Mathematics Technology
    73. 73. Learning Path for Today Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement) What we can learn (and children are learning) from games Using Games in School Using Games AS School Extending Games Inquiries
    74. 74. Using Games AS School
    75. 75. LotR: Dr. Trista Merrill Finger Lakes Community College
    76. 76. Econ 201 University of North Carolina - Greensboro
    77. 77. Second Life
    78. 78. Learning Path for Today Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement) What we can learn (and children are learning) from games Using Games in School Using Games AS School Extending Games Inquiries
    79. 79. Extending Games Machinima Programming PLC Theory and PLNs Things to consider...
    80. 80. Machinima “Machinima is real-world filmmaking techniques applied within an interactive virtual space where characters and events can be either controlled by humans, scripts or artificial intelligence.” http://www.machinima.org/machinima-faq.html
    81. 81. Programming Authoring Games Making Games for Free Alice Scratch Examples
    82. 82. PLC Theory & PLNs Cognitive Dissonance • WoW • Realm: US Sisters of Elune, Alliance • GM: Vyktorea
    83. 83. http://gamesforchange.org/toolkit
    84. 84. Things to consider...
    85. 85. Collaboration or Cheating
    86. 86. Isolated?
    87. 87. Collaboration or Cheating
    88. 88. Learning Path for Today Fundamental Beliefs and Definitions Learning Concepts and Gaming (Engagement) What we can learn (and children are learning) from games Using Games in School Using Games AS School Extending Games Inquiries
    89. 89. Inquiries
    90. 90. No Gamer Left Behind
    91. 91. No Gamer Left Behind
    92. 92. Play “Mental play is open-mindedness, faith in the power of thought to preserve its own integrity without external supports and arbitrary restrictions. Hence free mental play involves seriousness, the earnest following of the development of subject-matter. It is incompatible with carelessness or flippancy, for it exacts accurate noting of every result reached in order that every conclusion may be put to further use” (Dewey, 1910, p. 219).
    93. 93. Fundamental Belief: “It is important to acknowledge that within a constructivist paradigm of learning, technology tools do not evoke the dynamics of a learning community, but rather these dynamics are the result of the interplay between content, the instructor, and the learners. Although, the affordances of tools may influence opportunities for discourse and interaction, virtual worlds are another tool for teaching and learning” (Dickey, 2005, p. 132).
    94. 94. Thank you!
    95. 95. Contact Information Catherine V. Parsons: c.parsons@ppcsd.org http://www.catherinevictoria.net iSLaka: Victoria Gloucester: victoria.gloucester@gmail.com http:// www.victoriagloucester.net Skype: victoriagloucester Twitter: vgloucester iWoWaka: Vyktorea Realm: US - Sisters of Elune Alliance Cognitive Dissonance
    96. 96. References Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=WF0AAAAAMAAJ&dq=how+we+think+dewey+1910. Dewey, J. (1997 - Original Work published 1959). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books. Dickey, M. (2005). Brave New (Interactive) Worlds: A review of the design affordances and constraints of two 3D virtual worlds as interactive learning environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 13(1), p. 121 - 137. Retrieved from EbscoHost. Friedman, M., Harwell, D.H., & Schnepel, K. C. (2006). Effective instruction: A handbook of evidence-based strategies. Columbia, SC: The Institute for Evidence-Based Decision- Making in Education. Gee, J. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. NY, Palgrave Macmillan. Gee, J. (2007). Good vide games + good learning: Collected essays on video games, learning, and literacy. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. Gillespie, F. (1998). Instructional design for the new technologies. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 76, p. 39 - 52. Glasser, W. (1990). The quality school: Managing students without coercion. New York, NY: Perennnial Library. Howard, A. (2004). American studies and the new technologies: New paradigms for teaching and learning. Rethinking History, 8(20), p. 277 - 291. Jasko, S. (1997). Education and assessment: How do we measure a game? Education, 118(1), 18-21. Retrieved from ProQuest Education Journals database. (Document ID: 21746439). Kolb, D. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Kolb, D., Rubin, I., & Osland, J. (1991). Organizational behavior: An experiential approach (5th edition) Englewood Cliffs, N J: Prentice-Hall. Malone, T., & Lepper, M. (1987). Making learning fun: A taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning. In R.E. Snow and M. J. Farr (Eds). APtitude, learning and instruction III: Cognitive and affective process analyses. Hillsdale, NJ: Eribaum, 1987. Pai, Y., & Adler, S. A. (2001). Cultural foundations of education (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Papert, S. & Caperton, G. (1999). Vision for education: The Caperton-Papert platform. 91st annual National Governors' Association. St. Louis, Missouri. Retrieved from http:// www.papert.org/articles/Vision_for_education.html. Prensky, M. (2007). Simulation nation. Edutopia. Retrieved March 26, 2007. Powers, W. (1998). Making sense of behavior: The meaning of control. New Canaan, CT: Benchmark Publications. Sanborn, R., Sanotos, A., Montgomery, A., & Caruthers, J. (2005). Four scenarios for the future of education. The Futurist, 38(7), p 26 - 30. Sullo, B. (2007). Activating the desire to learn. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
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