Power divided between an executive and a legislature EXECUTIVE = state governor (excluding Pennsylvania) LEGISLATURE = elected representatives by the voters to pass laws ENTER VISUAL OF GOVERNOR AND ELECTED OFFICIALS
Loose alliance between 13 states People feared the tyranny of British rule More Americans identified with their state than with the whole nation ENTER VISUAL OF ART OF CONFED
Could pass laws (only if 9 states approved) Could not regulate trade between states or between states and foreign countries Could not tax Could ask states to loan them money in order to raise funds for the national govt (state could refuse to give money) ENTER VISUAL OF DELEGATE OR VOTE
Disagreements arose and there was no unbiased party to decide on a solution - Without power to tax, Congress had no way of repaying national debts - Continental dollar had little value because it was not backed by gold or silver States started printing their own currency which made trade difficult between territories ENTER VISUAL OF GOLD AND SILVER (on this slide) and a slide with different state currencies
Enter visual of Northwest Territory (MAP)
Farmers borrowed money during the war for land, seed, animals, and tools After the war, prices fell and farmers could not pay back loans State governments reclaimed land and farms because debts could not be paid FIND PICTURE OF SHAYS’ REBELLION
Lesson 1 art of confed 2013
Lesson 1: Articles of Confederation OBJECTIVE: Students will learn how the Articles of Confederation created a weak central government and a loose alliance of independent states. KEY WORDS: constitution: a document that sets out laws, principles, organization, and processes for government alliance: agreement between nations to aid and protect each other bill of rights: list of freedoms that the government promises to protect Articles of Confederation: first American constitution in 1777
The States Write Constitutions States wrote constitutions for 2 reasons Virginia’s constitution included a bill of rights
Several other states followed Virginia’s lead STATE GOVERNMENTS
The Articles of Confederation Delegates at Continental Congress believed colonies needed to be united by a national govt States feared a large and powerful central governmentPROCESSING: Why would states be fearful of a controlling, central government that had the power to tell them what to do and how to do it?
Continental Congress approved first American constitution (Articles of Confederation) in 1777 after MUCH DEBATE
Power of Congress Each state sent 1 delegate to Congress = 1 vote per state
NO PRESIDENT to execute laws NO POLICE/MILITARY to enforce the laws NO SYSTEM OF COURTS to settle conflicts between statesPROCESSING: In looking at these 3 limitations, what is a potential problem with this system?
Weaknesses of the Confederation Conflicts between states Money problems
Northwest Ordinance 1787: set up government for Northwest Territory (Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, & Wisconsin) Provided an example of a good way to admit new states to the nation One of the only successes that stemmed from the Articles
Map of Northwest Territory, 1787 QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Shays’ Rebellion Daniel Shays and 1,000 other farmers stormed courthouses in Massachusetts in a revolt against the mistreatment of the farmers
Constitutional Convention is Called Congress realized the Articles were not successful Constitutional Convention was called in Philadelphia in May 1787 to create a stronger, more structured constitution