Leadership after Muhammad<br />A caliph is a successor<br />Responsibility = to act as the political and military leader of the Muslims<br />
The First Caliph: Abu Bakr<br />Muhammad’s father-in-law & one of Muhammad’s most respected companions<br />An assembly of tribal leaders in Medina chose Abu Bakr as successor<br />First task was to put down revolts by tribes in the area where Islam was not practiced<br />
The Second Caliph: Umar<br />Muhammad’s long-time friend and advisor<br />Before his death, Abu Bakr appointed Umar as his successor.<br />Umar encouraged his armies to conquer more lands<br />
The Third Caliph: Uthman<br />Muhammad’s long-time friend and advisor<br />A council that was elected by Umar before his death appointed Uthman to power<br />He continued to conquer other lands and expand the empire (pushed Muslim forces into North Africa)<br />
The Fourth Caliph: Ali or Mu’awiya?<br />the Islamic Empire grew so rapidly that many cultures and people had to come together to unify<br />some groups didn’t want to<br />Uthman was murdered by a group or unhappy people from Egypt<br />
Ali was the natural choice as Uthman’ssuccesor<br />He participated in elections before<br />He belonged to Muhammad’s bloodline<br />Muhammad had trusted him also<br />Mu’awiya<br />was a relative of Uthman<br />a popular governor in Syria<br />
<ul><li>Mu-awiya challenged Ali’s rise to leadership
Ali tried to negotiate but there was no agreement</li></ul>Ali ruled for 5 years before he was murdered. <br />Mu’awiya then became caliph in 661 CE<br />
Why did the Muslims divide in 2?<br />BIG QUESTION: Who was Muhammad’s rightful successor? <br /> His descendents?<br /> OR<br /> Elected caliphs? <br />
Shi’ites<br />Translates to “the party of Ali”<br />Those who accept ONLY MEMBERS OF MUHAMMAD’S FAMILY as his successors<br />Ali is given the title of Imam – meaning divinely guided as success<br />“Imam” took on a strong sense of spiritual authority<br />
Sunnis<br />Those who claim to follow the Sunna, or example of the prophet Muhammad<br />They accept the election of the first 4 caliphs<br />They do not accept the concept of “Imam” but instead believe that every individual has a relationship with God<br />
Both Sunnis and Shi’ites<br />All Muslims are united in their common belief in Allah<br />They all revere the Qu’ran as Allah’s word<br />Muhammad is recognized as Allah’s prophet by all<br />
Statistics today…<br />What does this data tell us about the controversy between the groups today?<br />
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