Civilizations of the americas


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Civilizations of the americas

  1. 1. The Maya, Aztecs, and Incas<br />Civilizations of the Americas<br />
  2. 2. Setting the Stage<br />Maya<br /><ul><li>Major Cities: Chichenitza& Tikal
  3. 3. Physical Features: Rainforests, Hills
  4. 4. Climate: Tropical Wet and Dry</li></ul>Aztecs<br />- Major City: Tenochtitlan<br /><ul><li>Physical Features: Coastal Plains, Sierra Madre Mountains, Valley
  5. 5. Climate: Steppe, Highland, </li></li></ul><li>Incas:<br /><ul><li>Major City: Cuzco
  6. 6. Physical Features: Andes Mountains, Desert, Coastal Plains
  7. 7. Climate: Highland, Dry</li></li></ul><li>Class Structure of the Maya<br />The Ruler <br />Nobles & Priests <br />Merchants & Artisans<br />Peasants<br />Slaves<br />
  8. 8. The Ruler:<br />Called the halachuinic, or “true man”<br />Decided when and where to go to war<br />Wore a headdress as tall as a person at religious ceremonies (considered a god-king)<br />
  9. 9. Nobles and Priests:<br />Only priests and nobles knew how to write<br />Nobles led armies in times of war and collected taxes<br />Priests led rituals & performed sacrifices<br />Priests were often mathematicians, astronomers, and healers<br />
  10. 10. Merchants and Artisans:<br />Merchants lived by the waterways and roads to trade with other city-states<br />Goods that were traded: obsidian, jade, copal, and quetzal feathers<br />Artists painted murals of Mayan Life and important battles<br />
  11. 11. Peasants:<br />Worked mostly in the fields<br />WOMEN: generally worked at preparing food, weaving, and sewing<br />MEN: Built temples & pyramids and served as soldiers<br />Sometime attended royal weddings & religious ceremonies<br />
  12. 12. Slaves:<br />People sold into slavery<br />Soldiers captured in war<br />People who committed serious crimes<br />Slaves were often sacrificed when their masters died<br />
  13. 13. Special Occasions<br />Birth of a Child: similar to baptism<br />Girls at 3 months and Boys at 4 months: Babies were given the tools they would use in their lives<br />Girls at 12 years and Boys at 14 years: Coming of Age (confessions, cleansing with water, reciting rules of behavior; removal of symbols of innocence)<br />Family Life of the Maya<br />
  14. 14. MARRIAGE:<br />Men usually married around the age of 20<br />Girls married when they were as young as 14<br />Marriages were set up by a matchmaker<br />Families would agree on how much food and clothing would be given to the bride’s family. <br />They would also agree on the # of years a young man would work for the new wife’s family<br />Villagers then built a hut for the couple behind the house of the bride’s parents<br />When the home was ready, the bride and groom put on special clothing and a priest blessed the marriage<br />
  15. 15. Polytheistic: they believed in more than 160 gods<br />Primary gods were natural forces or objects that affected people’s daily lives<br />Many gods had animal characteristics<br />JAGUARS<br />Maya offered the gods plants, food, flowers, feathers, jade, and shells AS WELL AS HUMAN BLOOD AND BODIES<br />Religious Beliefs of the Maya<br />
  16. 16. Priests performed special sacrificial ceremonies<br />Only priests could explain signs from the gods and lead the people through rituals to please the gods<br />Methods of Sacrifice:<br />A human could be thrown into a well <br /> 60 feet deep and if they survive the fall, they are brought back up and asked what message they had brought back from the gods.<br />Bloodletting<br />Removal of the human heart<br />Animals<br />SACRAFICE<br />
  17. 17. Class Structure of the Incas<br />