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Geography of the Region China has very diverse landscapes that isolate it from the rest of the world. The landscapes also help to protect China from neighboring tribes or enemies.
Deserts Taklimakan Desert: “Once you go in, you never come out” World’s largest shifting-sand desert Gobi Desert: Fifth largest desert in the world Location of several cities along the Silk Road
Mountains Tian Shan “the Heavens’ mountains” Neighbors the Taklimakan Desert Himalayas “abode of snow” in Sanscrit Mount Everest is included (highest peak in the world at 29, 029 ft) Plateau of Tibet (highest and biggest plateau in the world)
Waterways Chiang Jiang River Longest river in China at 3,915 mi Huang He River (“Yellow River”) Carries a lot of silt which makes it appear yellow Yellow Sea Sand from the Gobi desert on the surface make it appear yellow at sunset East China Sea South China Sea
Nearby Enemies: The Mongols North of China Outstanding leadership & Military Skill Horses
Children learned to ride before they could walk because horsemanship was that important to the Mongols
Mongols traveled in family groups called CLANS. Formal leader was usually the eldest male
Temujin was born in 1167 and became a strong military leader of his clan at the age of 12 after his father was killed. He received recognition from several clans after he showcased his skill and careful thinking with his own people. At the age of 39, he was named Genghis Khan – “ruler of all within the sea.” He shaped the Mongolian Warriors and helped to create order in battle by setting up a structured military.
Division of Ideologies Confucianism Buddhism Taoism/Daoism
Confucianism Based on the teachings of Confucius Chinese thinker and social philosopher Respect for elders Completing duties to the family Attaining virtue by studying the classics or serving the government Visions of personal and social perfection will bring peace and prosperity to the people
Buddhism Based on the teachings of Siddhartha, the Buddha of “Enlightened One” Originated in India and arrived in China via the Silk Road Taught that life is a cycle of pleasure or sorrow, of death and rebirth Suffering is seen as a part of life – caused by paying too much attention to material things A person could escape from suffering through meditation – then reach enlightenment
Taoism/Daoism Based on the teachings of Laozi/Lao-tze
A Chinese philosopher
Emphasis on living in harmony with nature Being content with life Yin Yang: opposing forces are actually in interconnected and give rise to each other
Reunification: 589 C.E. China was reunified under Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty Accomplishments: Practiced traditional politics Organized public works projects (i.e. Rebuilding of the Great Wall, digging of the Grand Canal) Renewed the focus of education through the building of colleges Organized administration system Encouraged followers of each of the 3 systems of thought