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China’s recent history

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  • 1. China’s Recent History June 3, 2014 Orientation for BCFL/VDLC Delegation
  • 2. Imperialism in the 19th Century
  • 3. 1840 British Empire: First Opium War • Britain wanted Chinese tea, porcelain and silk but China only wanted silver • So Britain exported Indian opium to China • Emperor made it illegal but many were addicted
  • 4. 1840 British Empire: First Opium War • Result: Hong Kong ceded, opium import legalized
  • 5. 1860 British Empire: Second Opium War • Old Summer Palace destroyed (modelled on Palace of Versailles)
  • 6. 1894-5 Japan Invaded China China forced to cede Taiwan to Japan
  • 7. Boxer Rebellion against foreign oppression, 1898-1900
  • 8. Eight Nation Alliance Invaded China • Eight powers invaded: British, Japanese, Russian, Italian, German, French, US, and Austrian troops, the alliance defeated the Boxers and demanded further concessions from the Qing government such as treaty ports
  • 9. End of Qing Empire • First Chinese Republic in 1911 with Sun Yat-Sen as President • Followed by warlordism for a few years
  • 10. 1917 Russia Bolshevik Revolution
  • 11. May 4th Movement • Initiated by students inspired by Russian Revolution of 1917, patriots, nationalists, socialists, democrats and republicans • Opposed imperialism and feudalism • Became nationwide protest against imperialism • China never signed the treaty
  • 12. May 4th Movement On the morning of May 4, 1919, student representatives from thirteen different local universities met in Beijing and drafted five resolutions: • to oppose the granting of Shandong to the Japanese under former German concessions. • to draw awareness of China's precarious position to the masses in China. • to recommend a large-scale gathering in Beijing. • to promote the creation of a Beijing student union. • to hold a demonstration that afternoon in protest to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
  • 13. Who is this fellow? • Student active in May 4th Movement in Tianjin
  • 14. Premier Zhou Enlai
  • 15. Deng Yingchao was a team leader in May 4th Movement
  • 16. From May 4th Movement on, Marxism Spread
  • 17. •In 1921 •Two years later, what happened?
  • 18. Founding of Chinese Communist Party
  • 19. Anyuan Miners’ Strike, 1922
  • 20. 1925 Sun Yat-sen died, succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek as head of Nationalist Party (Guomindang)
  • 21. Shanghai General Strike, 1927
  • 22. Shanghai Massacre, 1927 • Nationalists massacred Communists, unionists and workers and students
  • 23. 1931, Japan Invaded Manchuria (China’s Northeast)
  • 24. Hitler assisted Chiang Kai- shek as fellow anti- Communist • Nazis assisted Guomindang in training Chinese troops and Germany got Chinese natural resources • Germany later supported Japan because Hitler felt it was a stronger ally than China
  • 25. Red Army, Long March, 1934-5
  • 26. 9,000 km., 370 days
  • 27. Established red base in Yan’an • Mao Zedong • 1935
  • 28. War of Liberation against Japanese • 1937 United Front against Japanese • 1937 Nanjing Massacre by Japanese
  • 29. Yan’an (1944) Centre of Chinese revolution, 1936 to 1948
  • 30. Who Wrote “Red Star Over China”? (1937)
  • 31. Edgar Snow
  • 32. Anti-Japanese War of Resistance • Guomindang spent much more energy fighting Communist army than fighting the Japanese
  • 33. Japanese occupation lasted till end of WWII
  • 34. Japanese finally routed, 1945
  • 35. Red army defeated nationalist army
  • 36. 1949 what is this event?
  • 37. Socialist Period •1949 to 1978
  • 38. Agriculture and land redistribution • Feudalism ended • Land redistributed, communes set up by 1958 • Rural people still hold claim to land today through their rural household registration
  • 39. Rule of law ends gangsters • Prior to 1949 there was a vast criminal underworld of gangsters and secret societies intermingling with high society like this photo of Shanghai nightlife in 1930s • And there were almost 90 million opium addicts
  • 40. Literacy skyrocketed in one generation • 15% in 1949 to 80-90% by mid-1970s
  • 41. Life expectancy • More than doubled between 1949 and 1975, from 32 to 65 years • Infant mortality in 1970 in Shanghai was less than in New York City • Barefoot doctors in countryside brought health care throughout country • Poverty significantly reduced
  • 42. Industry and central planning • Economy grew by 10 percent per year • Egalitarian wage structure • Guaranteed employment
  • 43. Urban danwei (work unit) system • Lifetime employment guarantee • Housing provided and subsidized • Food and fuel subsidized • Medical care system provided • Public school education free • No firings or negative discipline • Positive examples such as model workers
  • 44. 1966 Cultural Revolution Began • Concern by Chairman Mao and others that socialist principles were being eroded by corruption and capitalist roaders
  • 45. Type of greeting we received in 1974 (without Little Red Books)
  • 46. We visited Dazhai in 1974
  • 47. 1976: Terrible Year • January: Premier Zhou died • April: flowers in Tiananmen Square • July: earthquake in Tangshan: 250,000 died • September: Chairman Mao died • October: Gang of Four arrested
  • 48. 1978 Deng Xiaoping came to power • New China started down the capitalist road
  • 49. One of Deng’s first invited guests: Milton Friedman, Chicago School of Economics
  • 50. 1980, rural communes were abolished • Rural communes abolished • End of collective work in countryside
  • 51. 1980, Special Economic Zones established for industry to try out capitalist methods of production. This is Shenzhen in 1980.
  • 52. Shenzhen today
  • 53. Privatization of industry and lay-offs of millions of workers in State-Owned Enterprises
  • 54. Inflation of the late 1980s lead to protest about corruption and accountability • 1989 • Tiananmen Square • Far more workers were killed than students • They defended the streets leading to the Square by barricading them
  • 55. 1992: Deng’s Southern Tour
  • 56. Privatization of industry and lay-offs of workers in State-Owned Enterprises intensified and workers fought back with demonstrations, blockades
  • 57. China joined WTO in 2001 What event preceded it two months before?
  • 58. 1993 to 2003, Jiang Zemin, President Zhu Rongji, Premier
  • 59. 2003 to 2013, Hu Jintao, President Wen Jiabao, Premier
  • 60. 2013 to 2023 ? Xi Jinping, President
  • 61. 2013 to 2023? Li Keqiang, Premier
  • 62. Workers and citizens rising up. Fate of government and Communist Party?