March, 2010, Beijing<br />Cathy Walker<br />Former Director, Health and Safety Department<br />前职业健康与安全部主任<br />Canadian A...
Early motor vehicles north america evolved from bicycle, Henry Ford’s quadricycle, 1896 早期汽车在北美从自行车进化而来,福特的四轮车, 1896年<br />
Whole vehicles made by one or a small group of  highly skilled mechanics, 1901 henry ford 整部车由一或少许几位高技能机械师制造, 1901年, 亨利•福特...
Mass production led to production efficiency, ford assembly line 1913大规模生产带来生产效率的提高, 福特生产线, 1913年<br />
Interchangeable parts rather than having to make new parts for each vehicle 可相互替换的零部件,而不是为每辆汽车生产新的部件<br />Model A, 1903, s...
Fordism, mass production mean that jobs are divided into small parts so hundreds of unskilled workers, together, build hun...
Of course there are still skilled workers to maintain the production machines, but the production itself is done by unskil...
Workers are alienated from the means of production, karlmarx卡尔·马克思, 工人与劳动活动的异化<br />Capitalist owns the factory 资本家拥有工厂<br...
Fordism福特主义<br />A term coined by Italian Communist, Antonio Gramsci to describe a form of production characterized by an ...
Ford standardized production and consumer choice 福特标准化生产和消费者选择<br />You can have any colour as long as it’s black 你可以选择任何一...
Many myths and half truths about ford 关于福特的许多传说和半真话<br />$5 a day, high wages 五美元一天,高工资<br />Workers should be able to own...
Ford used his own private police force and company goons 福特使用他自己的私人警察和公司暴徒<br />The company threatened firing and did fire...
Workers fought to get the unionFord rouge workers in Detroit, usa 1941工人为建立福特工会在底特律的斗争, 1941年<br />
5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of pickets blockaded plants 1945年在加拿大温莎市的五周罢工, 几千名工人的纠察线堵住了工厂<br />
5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of pickets  fought police 几千名工人与警察的斗争<br />
5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of cars blockaded plants 几千辆车堵住了工厂<br />
5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of cars blockaded plants 几千辆车堵住了工厂<br />
Finally, union is recognized and collective agreement achieved 最终工会得到了承认,并且建立了集体合同<br />
Taylorismfrederickwinslowtaylor, american, 1856-1915 泰勒主义,弗雷德里克•温斯洛•泰勒, 美国人,1856-1915年<br />
Taylor: task of factory management 泰勒:工厂管理的目的是:<br />determine the best way for the worker to do the job, 决定工人工作最好的方式<br /...
Taylor broke down each job 泰勒将工作细分:<br />into its individual motions 细分到每一个动作<br />analyzed these to determine which were ...
Taylor 泰勒<br />eliminated unnecessary motion 消除不必需的动作<br />thus workers followed a machine like routine, becoming far more...
Jobs became simple, repetitive, Easy to learn, and incredibly boring 工作变得简单,重复,学起来简单,同时也难以置信的无聊<br />
Lenin thought taylorism made sense 列宁认为泰勒主义值得推崇<br />he, too, sought industrial efficiency 他同样希望提高工业效率<br />but did not un...
In mass production,Workers became cogs in machines 在大规模生产中,工人变成了机器中的齿轮<br />
Today, time and motion studies of workers’ jobs measure tiny fractions of a second 今天,对工人工时和动作上的测量分析已经精确到了秒<br />The effec...
Lean production, term began in 1988 精益生产, 于1988年提出<br />John Krafcik, quality engineer in the Toyota-GM NUMMI joint ventur...
Toyotism: toyota production system 泰勒主义: 丰田生产系统<br />Focus on improving flow of production 关注生产流程的改善<br />Production level...
Toyota 丰田 ‘安灯’系统向工作组对任何其管辖区域内不正常的情况,提供即时、可见、可听的警告。<br />
Andon light warns of production problems, but what about worker problems? ‘安灯’灯就生产问题提出警告,但是工人遇到的问题呢?<br />
Advantages and disadvantages of working in teams 工作团队的优势与劣势<br />Advantages:优势<br />Get to work with other workers 可以与其他工人...
Current issues for workers in canada:job loss 当前加拿大工人面临的问题: 工作数量的减少<br />Contracting out, ie jobs go elsewhere to other pl...
Crisis of overproduction: endemic to capitalism and a market economy, exactly as marx described生产过剩危机, 资本主义和市场经济特有的危机,就像马克...
Workers resist, led by the unionOccupATION OF gm FACTORY, 1996Issue, contracting out, 5 week strike工会领导的工人抵抗, 围绕着工作外包问题,占领...
June 2008, company lies about closure during bargaining, workers and union occupy GM canadian headquarters 2008年6月,公司在协商期间...
Alternatives to assembly line?Labour shortage in sweden 1974strong union demands: workers allowed to take breaks when want...
Jobs became skilled again requiring years of training;but, when labour shortage over, so was the volvo experiment, plant f...
Labour productivity 劳动生产率<br />When news stories mention “productivity,” they almost always mean labour productivity, whic...
Productivity at auto assembly plant 汽车装配厂中的生产率<br />A physical measure — the total number of cars produced in a given peri...
North america北美: 国家间汽车生产率<br />
Mexico auto assembly automates;productivity catches up 墨西哥汽车生产线自动化,生产率追赶上来<br />
Improving Productivity in auto assembly 提高汽车生产率<br />If an auto assembly company can reduce the number of its direct emplo...
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Automotiveindustryintroduction Cathywalker Chinese 2010 3 15

  1. 1. March, 2010, Beijing<br />Cathy Walker<br />Former Director, Health and Safety Department<br />前职业健康与安全部主任<br />Canadian Auto Workers Union<br />加拿大汽车工人工会 <br />Automotive industryIntroduction汽车工业介绍<br />
  2. 2. Early motor vehicles north america evolved from bicycle, Henry Ford’s quadricycle, 1896 早期汽车在北美从自行车进化而来,福特的四轮车, 1896年<br />
  3. 3. Whole vehicles made by one or a small group of highly skilled mechanics, 1901 henry ford 整部车由一或少许几位高技能机械师制造, 1901年, 亨利•福特<br />
  4. 4. Mass production led to production efficiency, ford assembly line 1913大规模生产带来生产效率的提高, 福特生产线, 1913年<br />
  5. 5. Interchangeable parts rather than having to make new parts for each vehicle 可相互替换的零部件,而不是为每辆汽车生产新的部件<br />Model A, 1903, skilled fitter took 8.5 hours to build a major part of a car A型,1903年,技能钳工花费8.5小时来建造一个车的主要部分 <br />Model T, 1908, completely redesigned assembly line so that each job took 2.5 minutes T模式,1908年,全面重新设计的流水线,每道程序花费2.5分钟<br />1913 introduced moving assembly line so workers didn’t have to walk between stations, reducing each job to under 2 minutes 1913年引进移动流水线,工人不必再在工作台之间走动,将每道程序压缩到2分钟之内<br />Cars were painted by hand 车身是手工喷漆的<br />
  6. 6. Fordism, mass production mean that jobs are divided into small parts so hundreds of unskilled workers, together, build hundreds of vehicles 福特主义,大规模生产意味着工作被细分成很多小部分,可由几百名无技术的工人一起建造几百辆汽车<br />
  7. 7. Of course there are still skilled workers to maintain the production machines, but the production itself is done by unskilled workers 当然, 仍然有高技术工人来维护生产设备,但是生产本身是由无技术的工人来完成<br />
  8. 8. Workers are alienated from the means of production, karlmarx卡尔·马克思, 工人与劳动活动的异化<br />Capitalist owns the factory 资本家拥有工厂<br />And the workers are simply factors of production 工人只是简单<br />的生产因素<br />
  9. 9. Fordism福特主义<br />A term coined by Italian Communist, Antonio Gramsci to describe a form of production characterized by an assembly line (conveyor belt factory system) and standardized outputs linked with the stimulation of demand brought about by low prices, advertising, and credit. <br />由意大利共产主义者安东尼·葛兰西<br />提出的概念,用来描述一种以流水线<br />和标准化的产品为特征,利用廉价、<br />广告与贷款来刺激需求的生产方式.<br />
  10. 10. Ford standardized production and consumer choice 福特标准化生产和消费者选择<br />You can have any colour as long as it’s black 你可以选择任何一种颜色.只要它是黑色的<br />Henry Ford, Model T Ford, 1921 亨利福特, 福特T型车,1921年<br />
  11. 11. Many myths and half truths about ford 关于福特的许多传说和半真话<br />$5 a day, high wages 五美元一天,高工资<br />Workers should be able to own the vehicles they produce 工人应该可以拥有他们制造的汽车<br />But, the reality is that Ford did much to keep unions out of his factories 但是现实是福特使用很多方式去预防在其工厂里工会<br />
  12. 12. Ford used his own private police force and company goons 福特使用他自己的私人警察和公司暴徒<br />The company threatened firing and did fire people for ‘talking union’ 公司利用辞退来威胁组织参与工会的员工<br />Workplaces were full of favouritism and bribery, eg. Workers needed to give the supervisors a bottle of alcohol for better jobs 工作场所充斥着偏袒和贿赂, 比如工人需要送给监督员一瓶酒来得到更好的工作<br />Company spied on workers’ personal lives 公司刺探工人的私人生活<br />Shortage of labour during World War II meant workers had more power 二战期间的劳工短缺使工人有了更大的力量<br />
  13. 13. Workers fought to get the unionFord rouge workers in Detroit, usa 1941工人为建立福特工会在底特律的斗争, 1941年<br />
  14. 14. 5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of pickets blockaded plants 1945年在加拿大温莎市的五周罢工, 几千名工人的纠察线堵住了工厂<br />
  15. 15. 5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of pickets fought police 几千名工人与警察的斗争<br />
  16. 16. 5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of cars blockaded plants 几千辆车堵住了工厂<br />
  17. 17. 5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of cars blockaded plants 几千辆车堵住了工厂<br />
  18. 18. Finally, union is recognized and collective agreement achieved 最终工会得到了承认,并且建立了集体合同<br />
  19. 19. Taylorismfrederickwinslowtaylor, american, 1856-1915 泰勒主义,弗雷德里克•温斯洛•泰勒, 美国人,1856-1915年<br />
  20. 20. Taylor: task of factory management 泰勒:工厂管理的目的是:<br />determine the best way for the worker to do the job, 决定工人工作最好的方式<br />provide the proper tools and training 提供适当的工具和培训<br />provide incentives for good performance 对良好的工作表现的给予奖励<br />
  21. 21. Taylor broke down each job 泰勒将工作细分:<br />into its individual motions 细分到每一个动作<br />analyzed these to determine which were essential, and timed the workers with a stopwatch 分析这些动作来决定<br />哪些是必需的,以秒表来计算工人的时间<br />scientific management 科学管理<br />1910年<br />
  22. 22. Taylor 泰勒<br />eliminated unnecessary motion 消除不必需的动作<br />thus workers followed a machine like routine, becoming far more productive 这样工人遵守着一个机械化的过程,变得非常有效率<br />
  23. 23. Jobs became simple, repetitive, Easy to learn, and incredibly boring 工作变得简单,重复,学起来简单,同时也难以置信的无聊<br />
  24. 24. Lenin thought taylorism made sense 列宁认为泰勒主义值得推崇<br />he, too, sought industrial efficiency 他同样希望提高工业效率<br />but did not understand the shortcomings of a system that de-skilled labour 但是他不明白一个使工人丧失技能的系统的缺陷<br />removing the thinking part of labour made jobs very boring 移除了劳动的思考成分,是工作非常无聊<br />
  25. 25. In mass production,Workers became cogs in machines 在大规模生产中,工人变成了机器中的齿轮<br />
  26. 26. Today, time and motion studies of workers’ jobs measure tiny fractions of a second 今天,对工人工时和动作上的测量分析已经精确到了秒<br />The effect is that workers no longer can work ahead on an assembly line to get small breaks 对工人的影响是他们再也不能在流水线上提前完成工作来得到短暂的休息.<br />They have no time to rest within their jobs but must follow the steps laid out by management precisely or they cannot keep up他们在工作中没有时间休息,而是需要严格遵守管理者制定的步骤,否则他们将跟不上<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Lean production, term began in 1988 精益生产, 于1988年提出<br />John Krafcik, quality engineer in the Toyota-GM NUMMI joint venture in California约翰·克拉富西克, 加利福尼亚州丰田通用合资汽车厂质量工程师<br />Identify and steadily eliminate waste 辨认并消除浪费<br />Continuous improvement 持续改进<br />
  29. 29. Toyotism: toyota production system 泰勒主义: 丰田生产系统<br />Focus on improving flow of production 关注生产流程的改善<br />Production levelling 生产平准化<br />Eg. Kanban, pull system, ‘看板’, 拉动系统 parts are ready and brought to the assembly line when production requires it, just-in-time (JIT) production 当生产需要的时候,立即将已准备好的零部件运送到流水线上, 即时生产<br />JIT is basically a system of inventory control and shifts responsibility for stocking inventory to parts suppliers <br />即时生产是一个控制存货的系统, 将存货的责任转嫁到零部件提供商身上<br />
  30. 30. Toyota 丰田 ‘安灯’系统向工作组对任何其管辖区域内不正常的情况,提供即时、可见、可听的警告。<br />
  31. 31. Andon light warns of production problems, but what about worker problems? ‘安灯’灯就生产问题提出警告,但是工人遇到的问题呢?<br />
  32. 32. Advantages and disadvantages of working in teams 工作团队的优势与劣势<br />Advantages:优势<br />Get to work with other workers 可以与其他工人一起工作<br />Variation in jobs if there are, eg. 12 jobs shared among 12 workers 工作的变化,例如12名工人分担12样工作<br />Can help to reduce repetitive strain injuries 可以帮助减少重复性劳损<br />Disadvantages: 劣势<br />Jobs are still boring 工作仍然无聊<br />If a worker is absent, other workers may be forced to do his job too 如果一名工人缺席,其他工人可能会被迫做他的工作<br />If a worker is injured on a particular job and is unable to do it for a time, the other workers in the team are forced to do it, increasing their discomfort and risk of injury 如果一名工人在一个工作上受伤,暂时无法工作,团队里的其他工人将被迫去做那份工作,导致增强他们的不适和受伤的可能性<br />
  33. 33. Current issues for workers in canada:job loss 当前加拿大工人面临的问题: 工作数量的减少<br />Contracting out, ie jobs go elsewhere to other plants in Canada or to other countries 工作分包, 工作被分包到加拿大其他工厂或其他国家<br />Free trade agreements and de-regulation have hurt workers, allowing companies to go where they want, when they want 自由贸易协定和取消管制伤害到工人,允许公司任何时候到任何地方去都可以<br />
  34. 34. Crisis of overproduction: endemic to capitalism and a market economy, exactly as marx described生产过剩危机, 资本主义和市场经济特有的危机,就像马克思形容的那样<br />Late 2008, GM and Chrysler faced bankruptcy in US and were bailed out by US and Canadian governments<br />2008年末, 通用与克莱斯勒面临<br />破产,美国和加拿大政府向其提供<br />援助拯救<br />
  35. 35. Workers resist, led by the unionOccupATION OF gm FACTORY, 1996Issue, contracting out, 5 week strike工会领导的工人抵抗, 围绕着工作外包问题,占领通用的工厂, 1996年, 5周罢工<br />
  36. 36. June 2008, company lies about closure during bargaining, workers and union occupy GM canadian headquarters 2008年6月,公司在协商期间谎称倒闭,工人和工会占领了通用加拿大总部<br />
  37. 37. Alternatives to assembly line?Labour shortage in sweden 1974strong union demands: workers allowed to take breaks when wantedfinally, assembly line eliminated 流水线的替代? 1974年瑞典的劳工短缺,工会强势的要求允许工人在他们认为需要的时候休息. 最终,流水线被取消.<br />
  38. 38. Jobs became skilled again requiring years of training;but, when labour shortage over, so was the volvo experiment, plant finally closed 工作再次变得技术化,要求多年的培训.但是随着劳工短缺的结束, 这个沃尔沃试验也结束了,最终工厂关闭<br />
  39. 39. Labour productivity 劳动生产率<br />When news stories mention “productivity,” they almost always mean labour productivity, which measures the output that an hour of labour produces. Often expressed as “output per hour” or “output per worker-hour”. 当新闻提到生产率, 它们总指的是劳动生产率,是用来衡量一小时劳动的产出.通过表达为: ‘产量每小时’或者’产量每人工小时’.<br />
  40. 40. Productivity at auto assembly plant 汽车装配厂中的生产率<br />A physical measure — the total number of cars produced in a given period of time (a week, a month, a year) divided by the number of worker-hours needed to produce them, or 物理衡量: 在一个时间段内(一周,一月,一年)生产出的汽车数量,除以所花费的人工小时数, 或者:<br />A monetary measure — the total dollar value of cars produced in a given period of time divided by the total number of worker-hours needed to produce them. 货币衡量: 在一个时间段内,所有生产出的汽车金钱价值,除以所花费的人工小时数<br />
  41. 41. North america北美: 国家间汽车生产率<br />
  42. 42. Mexico auto assembly automates;productivity catches up 墨西哥汽车生产线自动化,生产率追赶上来<br />
  43. 43. Improving Productivity in auto assembly 提高汽车生产率<br />If an auto assembly company can reduce the number of its direct employees by sub-contracting out or in (using dispatch workers), its reported productivity goes up 如果一个汽车装配公司可以通过外包或内包(使用派遣工人)减少直接雇佣的员工, 报告的生产率会增高<br />And since it is seen as a productive company, the price of its shares goes up 因为它会被看作一个有高生产率的公司,公司的股票价格将会升高<br />Today, a plant producing 250,000 or more cars per year is considered efficient and productive 今天, 一个一年生产25万或更多量汽车的被认为是有效率和高生产率的<br />

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