JOSE RIZAL 'Those who cannot see where they came from will never get to where they are going.'
Born to a wealthy family
Both parents were educated
Studied at Santo Thomas University in Manila
Studied Philosophy and Medicine in Spain, France and Germany
Wrote Noli, his first novel 1886
NOLI ME TANGERE
Written in Spanish
Means “touch me not”
Book is a passionate expose about the evils of the Spanish friars in the Phils.
wrote a sequel in 1891, “El Filibusterismo” (The Subversive)
Came back to the Phils. at the age of 26
Exiled to Dapitan (South) in 1892
Early1896 - got involved with the katipuneros- freedom fighters
December 1896 - executed
TO MY MOTHERLAND (Jose Rizal, 1886)
An introduction that Rizal wrote for Noli
He equates colonialism to Cancer
Noli Chapter 1
Who are the guests?
What kind of priest is Padre Damaso?
Compare Franciscans and Dominicans.
Describe the female guests.
Who are the Indios?
Role of a friar.
Noli Chapter 2
“ The Cub of a Lion will always be a lion”
“ I do not call upon inspiration to drag itself down and to tell lies.”
“ The prosperity or misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors.” (Agree or disagree?)
Jele-jele bago quiere - A pidgin Spanish Tagalog saying, meaning that one pretends not to desire a thing which is in reality one wants.
Age, Dignity and Rulership
The young blond man wrote: In the Philippines the most useless person in a supper or feast can be thrown out in the street: to begin with, the master of the house can be thrown out into the street and everything will proceed as usual. In the actual state of things , it is almost for the good of the Filipinos not to be allowed to leave the country or to be taught to read.
Questions and Answers
1.What undesirable traits of Filipinos were mentioned in this chapter?
2.How did Rizal liken the Philippines to Capitan Tiago's house?
3.What is the significance of the argument between Padre Damaso and Teniente Guevara?
Chapter 2: Crisostomo Ibarra
We meet Juan Crisostomo Ibarra y Magsalin, the son of the late Don Rafael Ibarra (the man whose body was exhumed). Crisostomo gets confused when Padre Damaso, the friar whom Crisostomo thought was a close friend of his deceased father, said that Don Rafael was never a close friend of his.
Fortunately, the soldier had kinder words to say about Don Rafael. Another good friend of Don Rafael, Capitan Tinong of Tondo, invited Crisostomo for tomorrow's lunch. Crisostomo declined, saying he was leaving for San Diego the following day.
An attendant announced that dinner was served.
Padre Sibyla, Padre Damaso, and Teniente Guevara were surprised to see Crisostomo Ibarra accompanied by Capitan Tiago. This means they did not know the purpose of the dinner.
Ibarra spent seven years in Europe.
Ibarra's name shows that his mother is a Filipina (Magsalin).
Questions and Answers
1.Why did Ibarra think that his father was a close friend of Padre Damaso?
2.Why did Padre Damaso deny that Don Rafael was his friend?
Chapter 03: The Dinner
Capitan Tiago ordered tinola served. It was a dish which Ibarra had not eaten in a long time because of his extended stay in Europe. Tinola contains chicken, white squash and broth.
Table conversation covered where Ibarra went (Northern Europe, Germany and Russian Poland), as well as newsworthy items learned by Ibarra: "...the prosperity or the misery of a people is in direct proportion to its liberties or concerns, and consequently to the sacrifices or selfishness of its ancestors."
Padre Damaso belittled Ibarra's trips abroad saying that these were useless because what Ibarra learned could be also known without having to travel extensively.
Instead of arguing with the friar, Ibarra left after graciously excusing himself from the crowd. Capitan Tiago tried to stop him, saying that Maria Clara was coming soon, but Ibarra still left. Teniente Guevara followed him.
One of the guests (a red-haired writer named Laruja) present will later write an article about how tinola can ruin a feast and why indios should not be allowed to read or travel outside the Philippines.
Padre Damaso is no longer the parish priest of San Diego (town of Capitan Tiago in their province). However, he was still invited to the dinner because he was the confessor of the late wife of Capitan Tiago.
Maria Clara is the sweetheart of Crisostomo Ibarra.
Questions and Answers
1.Why did Ibarra say that his country has forgotten him?
2.How did Rizal show appreciation for the heritage of every country that he visited?
3.What was Rizal's point in introducing the red-haired writer in this chapter?
4.Why were there many Filipinos who were not educated by their parents during the Spanish occupation?
5.What were the different types of people in society?
Chapter 4: Heretic and Subversive
Ibarra walks the streets of Manila and notes how nothing has changed in the past seven years. He is approached by Teniente Guevarra and learns for the first time about what happened to his father, Don Rafael. An illiterate Spanish tax collector hurt a young boy who was making fun of him. Before he could inflict additional pain on the boy, Don Rafael intervened. In the process, the tax collector was pushed and he died after his head hit a rock. Don Rafael was jailed, people who used to openly respect him came out and denounced him, while Padre Damaso branded him a heretic for not going to confession. Teniente Guevarra tried to get Don Rafael out of jail, was chastised by others, but eventually succeeded in securing Don Rafael's release from prison. However, Don Rafael died in jail.
Teniente Guevarra does not know why Padre Damaso was angry at Don Rafael because long before the incident with the tax collector, Don Rafael was no longer going to confession. Padre Damaso would often dine at the Ibarra residence. The rift appeared only after the young Ibarra left for Europe.
Don Pedro Eibarramendia was a spaniard who married a Filipina or Mestisa. They were the parents of Don Saturnino Ibarra who married a woman from Manila. Don Saturnino is the father of Don Rafael Ibarra who married a Filipina surnamed Magsalin. Their child is Crisostomo Ibarra (who can be said to be more Filipino than Spanish).
1.Why was Ibarra surprised to find out that his father died in jail?
2.What did Teniente Guevarra mean by "one cannot be honest in the
Philippines and not go to jail?"
3.Accdg to Teniente Guevarra, although Don Rafael was admired and
respected by many people, he still had enemies. Who were they?
4.What was held against Don Rafael?
Chapter 5: A Star in the Dark Night
Ibarra asks to be brought to the Fonde de Lala hotel, where he fails to notice the noise and music coming from the house of Capitan Tiago (which can be seen from Ibarra's hotel). He is bothered by thoughts or visions of his father, Don Rafael, suffering in jail and eventually dying there.
In the house of Capitan Tiago, people admire the beautiful Maria Clara. However, instead of Capitan Tiago beaming with pride, it is Padre Damaso who is seen smiling like someone most fortunate.
In this chapter, Rizal introduces a young Franciscan friar, Padre Salvi, parish priest of the town of San Diego.
It is possible that Padre Salvi arrived late, which explains why he was not able to participate in the grabbing of seats of honor at the dinner table. It would help the reader to pay close attention to the way Rizal describes this friar.
1. What kept Ibarra's thought that night?
2. What were some of the beautiful sights he missed that night?
3. Who are the people that occupied his thoughts? Who are these characters?
4. Read the lines that describe how the night went for Ibarra and Father Salvi.
Chapter 6: Capitan Tiago
Capitan Tiago and Dona Pia have long been without child. Padre Damaso advised them to hear mass at Ubando (or Obando, Bulacan). Soon after, Dona Pia conceived, but ever since became depressed. She died after giving birth to a baby girl, Maria Clara, who was raised by her aunt, Tia Isabel. Padre Damaso became the godfather of the child, while Crisostomo Ibarra became a childhood friend of Maria Clara.
Where is Ubando, Bulacan?
Rizal describes the many superstitious beliefs of the religious folk, as well as the corruption in the government which is made widespread by people like Capitan Tiago.
The full name of Capitan Tiago is Santiago de los Santos ("all of the saints") which is Rizal's way of hinting that he will use this character when tackling issues of faith or religion.
Rizal deliberately made unclear the circumstances surrounding Dona Pia's death, in order to heighten the reader's anticipation. The truth is, Dona Pia died because she was extremely upset with giving birth to an illegitimatechild; the child of Padre Damaso.
Note the superstitions related to "paglilihi" (the cravings of a pregnant woman which affect the physical appearance of her child):
Dona Pia kept looking at icons of saints and of the Blessed Virgin Mary
God children look like their godfather or godmother
Here are the characteristics of Capitan Tiago:
Gets along with those in power
Skilled in business
Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael agreed that their children (Maria Clara and
Crisostomo Ibarra) will one day marry each other, and that both fathers
will join businesses for the benefit of their two children.
1.Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God?
2.Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar, there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven?
3.What is the meaning of the statement that Capitan Tiago realizes that in order to become a saint, one either cuts or is cut?
Who is one-eared Malchus, according to the Catholic encyclopedia?
4.Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government?
5.Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who, afterfinding a great treasure, refuses to sing?
Who is Macbeth?
6.Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers?
7. Who are the Kapitan Tiago in modern Philippines - persons who has everything and is able to buy even the very soul of the common people? Is there a solution this kind of illness in the society?
Chapter 7: Idyll in an Azotea
Ibarra and Maria Clara get to speak privately in the azotea of Capitan Tiago's house. This is their first meeting after seven years. They exchanged proof that each remembered the other one after all this time. When Maria Clara read the only letter Ibarra wrote to her, he suddenly remembered his dead father. It was nearing All Souls Day so Ibarra excused himself and told Maria Clara that he will go to San Diego to take care of his father's grave.
When is All Souls Day?
A major portion of this chapter concerns the old letter of Ibarra to Maria Clara. The reader will note a different (if almost playful) side of Maria Clara, which belies the common perception that she is refined, prim and proper. Capitan Tiago cannot really be considered as someone from San Diego because Maria Clara visits that town only during vacations.
1.How did Ibarra prove that he never, not even for an instant, ever forgot about Maria Clara?
2.And what did Maria Clara do to prove her own love for Ibarra?
3.What other proofs did Ibarra display?
4.And what did Maria Clara show in return?
5.What did Ibarra place in his letter to Maria Clara?
6.And what reasons did Ibarra give for leaving the Philippines?
7.Why is Capitan Tiago considered to be in good terms with God?
8.Why does Rizal say that Capitan Tiago realizes that in the calendar, there are a lot of saints who are probably doing nothing in heaven?
10.Why is Capitan Tiago on good terms with the government?
11.Why did Dona Pia talk about the fisherman (in Macbeth) who, after finding a great treasure, refuses to sing?
Who is Macbeth?
12.Did Capitan Tiago and Don Rafael consult with Maria Clara and Crisostomo Ibarra regarding the arranged wedding plans as agreed by the two fathers?
Chapter 08: Memories
After visiting Maria Clara, Ibarra proceeds to San Diego. Along the way, one thing is quite evident: After being away for seven years, Ibarra saw no changes whatsoever.
This chapter shows a country's lack of progress during those times. Rizal likens the "good Filipino" to the Barkas Bridge -- it is dilapidated but continues to serve others, rises and falls at the whim of the Pasig river's tide, and sometimes gets destroyed by the river. At that time, Filipinos continued to serve the oppressive government.
Questions and Answers
1.What did the old priest mean when he advised Ibarra: "Do not forget
that if knowledge is the patrimony of humanity, it is inheried only by
those who have the heart"?
2.What lesson is Rizal trying to impart with the priest's: "I have tried
to transmit to you what I have received from my teachers; the
riches I have endeavored to augment as much as I could, and I am
passing it on to the following generation. You will do the same with
those who come after you, and you can triple it, for you are going to
very rich countries"?
3.Explain: "They come in search of gold; go to their country to look for
that other gold which we lack. Remember, however, that all that
glitters is not gold."
4.Who is this old priest? From his statement ...you can triple it, for youare going to very rich countries... look for that other gold which welack... we can guess that the priest is a Filipino who got educated in thePhilippines. One can speculate that this priest refers to someone like PadreBurgos who was executed in Bagumbayan (Take note of the line: Thatman had died in Bagumbayan [in reference to the old priest]).
5.Explain: "No, despite everything, the country first; first the
Philippines, Spain's daughter; first the Spanish nation! No, that which is fated does not tarnish the Motherland. No!"
Chapter 09: Some Country Matters
Ibarra sees Padre Damaso riding in his victoria, a low, light, four-wheeled carriage (with a foldable calash top, seating for two passengers and a perched seat in front for the driver.) Padre Damaso, on the other hand, sees Tia Isabel and Maria Clara (they were going to the convent to get Maria Clara's things). This chapter focuses on three major conversations between or among:
Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago (in Tiago's house/office)
Padre Hernando Sibyla and an old, extremely sick Dominican (in Intramuros)
Capitan Heneral and his men
Padre Damaso and Capitan Tiago
Padre Damaso does not want Maria Clara to marry Ibarra and is displeased with Capitan Tiago for not informing him of a marriage agreement made with Don Rafael (Ibarra's father). It is unclear why Capitan Tiago chose not to consult with Padre Damaso about such an agreement in the past. But, true to his form, Capitan Tiago obeys the priest and extinguishes the candle he previously ordered lit for Ibarra's safe journey to San Diego (Ibarra's hometown).
(For those unfamiliar with this practice, a candle is usually lit and placed on an altar, sometimes in front of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some prayers are said for someone's safe journey, since there were bandits about and who knows what other dangers lurk at each bend. As long as the candle remained lit, it was believed that the traveler was protected.)
The chapter ends with Tiago blowing out the candle and muttering that there is still time and the journey is long. (What a future father-in-law, eh?) Padre Sibyla and the Very Sick, Old Dominican We don't know what the old priest is sick of, but that's not the point of this chapter. Here we see the Ibarra is completely unaware that the priests are plotting against him. Those Dominicans are deathly afraid of Ibarra because they know he--with his education--is not ignorant of his situation. Also, Ibarra might later rise as a leader for the indios.
The Dominicans, knowing about the misfortune of Don Rafael and knowing character of Ibarra, already foresaw the brewing conflict between the young man and Padre Damaso. Nevertheless, the Dominicans were confident about controlling Ibarra, through Maria Clara and Capian Tiago. Or so thought the old priest. Padre Sibyla sees Ibarra as someone with finesse (good breeding). Afterall, Ibarra was quite subtle in his verbal fight with Padre Damaso earlier.
Sibyla also considers Ibarra as an "obedient child" who will not fight outright with the friars. The old Dominican mentioned that he prefers an open fight rather than the useless praise of his friends, which tends to make the priests soft and unaware that they are starting to lose their hold on the people. (So watch out when things seem to go too well for you. You'll never know...
After all, whom the gods wish to destroy, they first make mad.) Also, since the Spanish government is concerned with maintaining power over the Philippines, they will help the priests if ever the indios rise in revolt. If there is no conflict, however, the government might not see the need for the Spanish priests, and will just rely on the Filipino priests to keep the rest of the population timid. Padre Sibyla worries, however, that the government might side with the indios. Remember that the Church and State are not really the best of friends:
The friars murdered Capitan Heneral Bustamante in Malacanan before. Capitan Heneral Ma. de la Torre was well-loved by the indios because he was just (and didn't always support the friars). Realize that the Filipinos lacked two important things in their bid for political justice and economic freedom:
Lack of country-wide unity. The people were geographically scattered by the Spaniards.
No identified Leader. Anyway, note Rizal's dig at the frailocracy when the priest uttered that God should have mercy on them (the priests).
Capitan Heneral and his men
The Capitan Heneral was aware of the insulting remarks made by Padre Damaso against him, because Laruja (the writer) told the Capitan Heneral's adjutant about it. The story did not come from Teniente Guevara because it was beneath him to "snitch" on Padre Damaso.
(In the vernacular, he did not want to make "sipsip" to the Capitan Heneral.)
The Capitan Heneral revealed to his men that he was unhappy with the situation in the Philippines and that the country should be thrown into chaos so that the priests can be kicked out, just as was done by the Europeans to the priests there.
However, reasoned the Capitan Heneral, since this was the fate of the Philippines, he decided to just close his eyes to the matter, just as his predecessors did.
Chapter 10: The Town
This chapter describes the town of San Diego and the lineage of Crisostomo Ibarra (surprisingly, each generation bore only one child). We learn that at that time, there was no such town called San Diego in the Philippines. We can assume, however, that the town is located near the shore of Laguna Lake, because this is where the guardia civiles chased Ibarra and Elias when the former escaped from prison.
Note also that each town is initially taken care of by a Pilipino priest. Once the town prospers, the Spanish friars take over. Rizal likens Philippine culture to a swaying, wooden bridge. Pinoys enjoy scenes of tragedy or misfortune. We tend to laugh at disabled people (this was during Rizal's time and perhaps even up to today) -- the kids swimming in the lake laughed at an old woman who was having a hard time crossing the bridge; they should've helped her instead. Rizal pointed it out in hopes that people would correct this kind of behavior. Did he succeed?
Ibarra's ancestor, who first came to San Diego, had lived long in the Philippines. He was very fluent with the Tagalog language. How the Ibarras acquired the forest in San Diego. The first Ibarra in San Diego gave cash, jewelry and clothes to those who claimed to own the forest. People, however, feared the forest. You know how forests are: cold, dark, eerie, strange sounds... and don't forget those malaria-bearing mosquitoes.
A description of Don Saturnino. Spanish mestizo, probably the Fernando Jose type (hello there, Rosalinda fans!) He was very strict, but was also hardworking. He helped contribute to San Diego's progress. Don Saturnina's wife. We can't tell for sure if she was a Filipina from Manila, a Spanish mestiza, or a Spaniard born and raised in Manila. It's also possible she was a native.
Geez, do people really care about Ibarra's lineage? Apparently so. Ibarra's ancestors had a mean streak, but their blood soon mixed with native understanding, compassion and self-control.
Chapter 11 - The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule
Even though Don rafael Ibarra is the wealthiest in San Diego to whom everyone owes a debt of gratitude from, he is not the most influencial person in this town. He is humble and a man of character.
Kapitan Tiago is also not considered the powerful person in town, even though he receives gifts from everyone and to whom a few has certain debt of gratitude from. Though he is considered well-loved, some people were also laughing at him behind his back and were spreading ill rumors about him.
The friars and the spaniards are the powerful and most influential persons in town. Although, they are competitors in position and power, they act civil with each other in gatherings and in public.
1. Why do you think this chapter is entitled "The Sovereigns: Divide and Rule"? Describe the sovereigns.
2. What are the similarities of San Diego and old Rome? Describe.
3. Describe the differences of Father Salvi and Father Damaso.
4. Re-tell the encounter between Father Salvi and the Alferez. Comment on their actions and words.
5. What is the relationship between the chocolate and the character of the priests. Discuss.
Chapter 35: The Luncheon
Ibarra returns to the school. On opposite ends of a long table sit Ibarra and the mayor. To the right of the young man sits Maria Clara; to his left, the scribe. Also present are Capitan Tiago, the alferes, and the town captain. Capitan Tiago receives a telegram and learns that the Capitan Heneral will proceed to the house of Capitan Tiago.
Capitan Tiago leaves the luncheon and goes home immediately. The friars were hurt, but they did not say anything. The alferes, mayor and town captain also received telegrams from the Capitan Heneral, who will arrive on the fourth. People notice that Padre Damaso is not present. Talk turns to the sermon delivered by Padre Damaso, while Padre Salvi remains quiet and does not contribute to the discussion. Children are with their parents, and talk centers around careers: should one be a priest or a doctor?
As the luncheon comes to an end, Padre Damaso arrives. He sits in front of the dining table and criticizes the architecture which Ibarra is proud of. Ibarra keeps quiet. Padre Damaso then belittles the mestizos and indios in order to get at Ibarra. Again, Ibarra remains quiet. Padre Damaso then talks about Ibarra's father, Don Rafael, and laughs at the way Don Rafael died in jail... He is unable to finish his sentence because Ibarra leaps at Padre Damaso, hits him on the head (Padre Damaso falls), then grabs a knife and warns people to stay away. Padre Damaso stands up and Ibarra grabs him while asking if there was anyone in the crowd who did not love their father, or who hated even the memory of their dad. Ibarra turns to the friar and asks him if he does not hear the deafening silence.
Ibarra tells everyone present about the good things his father, Don Rafael, has done. He asks the crowd if Padre Damaso is justified in tarnishing the memory of his father. The crowd remains silent. Ibarra raises the knife, Maria Clara stops him. Ibarra drops the knife and runs away.
Who is Padre Damaso?
1.Why is the Capitan Heneral going to the house of Capitan Tiago?
2.Why did the friars feel bad?
3.Who was the mayor referring to (dinner guest called Platon)?
4.Did Ibarra deliberately not invite Padre Damaso to the luncheon?
5.From the conversation between Padre Salvi and the mayor, what
can we infer from the latter (mayor)?
6.Why did Padre Salvi remain silent?
7.What did Rizal say about the way Filipinos discipline their children
especially when they are in front of others?
8.From the career discussion (should a child be a priest or a doctor),
what can be said about the effectivity of schools?
9.Why did Padre Damaso come to the luncheon even if he was not
10.What criticisms did Padre Damaso level at Ibarra?
11.And what did Ibarra do while he was being humiliated?
12.What made Ibarra break his silence, hit the friar, and threaten to
stab Padre Damaso?
13.What did Ibarra mean when he said that he was avoiding Padre
Damaso, God brought the friar to Ibarra, and therefore God made a judgment?
14.What can we say about the fact that from the many people present,it was only Maria Clara who stopped Ibarra from killing PadreDamaso?