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Mental health 11 and 12

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  • 1. Eating Disorders:2 major types:  Anorexia Nervosa  Bulimia NervosaCharacteristics of Anorexia:  Extremely thin  Intense fear of gaining weight  Refusal to maintain weight  Psychological disturbance of body image  Dry skin  Brittle hair  Amenorrhea  LanugoDSM-IV subtypes:  Restricting type  Binge-eating-purging subtypeCharacteristics of Bulimia:  Eating excessive amounts of food  Self induced vomiting  Some exercise excessively  Most within 10% of normal weight  Erosion of dental enamel  Severe medical problems due to purgingFeatures of eating disorders:  Overly concerned with body shape  Fear of gaining weight  High co-morbidities; anxiety, mood, substance abuse
  • 2. Aetiology: (no single cause)  Genetics  Biological  Psychological  Family  Social  CulturalTreatment for Anorexia:  SSRI’s (short term)  Weight restoration  Psycho education  Behaviour/cognitive therapy  Treatment often involves familyTreatment for Bulimia:  CBT  Interpersonal psycho therapy  Self help technique can be effectiveNursing Interventions:  Therapeutic relationship  Understanding of the eating disorder  Monitoring of vital signs, weight and emotional status  Monitor eating and habits  Have realistic expectations and set short term goals
  • 3. Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse:3 Main Categories:  Depressant’s (alcohol, benzo, sleeping tablets, opiates, analgesics)  Stimulants (amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, MMDA)  Hallucinogens (LSD, MMDA)Diagnosis:  Dependence  Abuse  Intoxication  WithdrawalDefinitions:  Intoxication: occurs when a person’s intake of substance exceeds their tolerance  Hazardous use: is defined as a repetitive pattern of use that poses a risk of harmful and psychological consequences.  Harmful use: when the pattern of substance use is actually causing harm.  Substance abuse: is often associated with addiction and dependence.  Dependence: the total psychological state of one’s addiction to drugs or to alcohol who must receive an increasing amount to prevent the onset of withdrawal symptoms.Biological Treatments:  Agonist substitution: similar safer drug  Antagonist treatment: blocks pleasurable drug effect  Aversive treatment: makes taking drugs unpleasant
  • 4. Psychosocial Treatments:  Programs  Individual/group therapy  Community reinforcement  Relapse prevention  Preventative efforts via educationDual diagnosis:  More than one disorder

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