Tourism from A to Ω Tourism: a 2500 year old phenomenon
Timeline Ancient Greece Ancient Rome, Alexandria Olympia Delphi Middle Ages (5-15 th ) Renaissance (14 th -17 th ) 20 th century 19 th century 21 st century Grand Tour Elite 776 BC Changes in Europe Cities and Places Travel writers Industrial Revolution The TOUR Travel goes Global Tourism 2.0 Modern history Ancient history mass
1. Travel in Ancient Times From ancient Greece to 7 wonders
Xenios in Ancient Greek was an epithet of Zeus, describing him as presiding over the laws of hospitality, and protecting strangers. The feminine Xenia Athena means the same for Athena . Crete is called the land of Xenios Zeus .
According to Mikkel Aaland in Sweat , Homer and other Greek writers tell us the Greeks favored a variety of baths as early as 500 BC, from hot water tubs to hot-air baths, or laconica . From the small Greek laconica grew the Roman balneum and finally the extravagant Roman thermae (Greek word for “heat”).
Before Emperor Agrippa designed and created the first thermae in 25 BC, the smaller, more numerous balneum had been enjoyed by Roman citizens for more than 200 years.
During the rule of Alexander the Great, 700,000 tourists visited what is now a part of Turkey.
First cities that have “global” fame-Alexandria
Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the centre of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage . In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and for some centuries more, was second only to Rome. It became the main Greek city of Egypt, with an extraordinary mix of Greeks from many cities and backgrounds.
Marco Polo (1254-1324), is probably the most famous Westerner traveled on the Silk Road. He excelled all the other travelers in his determination, his writing, and his influence. His journey through Asia lasted 24 years. He reached further than any of his predecessors, beyond Mongolia to China. He became a confidant of Kublai Khan (1214-1294). He traveled the whole of China and returned to tell the tale, which became the greatest travelogue.
" Jehan de Mandeville ", translated as " Sir John Mandeville ", is the name claimed by the compiler of a singular book of supposed travels, written in Anglo-Norman French , and published between 1357 and 1371.
Theobald (1994) suggested that etymologically, the word "tour" is derived from the Latin 'tornare' and the Greek 'tornos,' meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis.' This meaning changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn.
One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey that is a round trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist.
The term Grand Tour was introduced by Richard Lassels in his 1670 book Voyage to Italy .
Young English elites of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries often spent two to four years traveling around Europe in an effort to broaden their horizons and learn about language, architecture, geography, and culture in an experience known as the Grand Tour. The Grand Tour began in the sixteenth century and gained popularity during the seventeenth century.
Upon their return to England, Tourists were supposedly ready to being the responsibilities of an aristocrat.
On August 1st, 1829 François Buloz created the Revue des Deux Mondes. It was the first "modern" publication of the 19th century. Since 1830 it has welcomed ideas related to France and the world emanating from other European countries.
In 1837 there was 396 inns, hotels and taverns in total (but not including pubs that allowed overnight accommodation for their customers). Private guest houses numbered 34. Hotels that were deemed to be of a high standard were called 'Palace Inns' numbered around 30.
They were all located around the area we know of today as the West End.
Examples that existed at that time were:
Cavendish Hotel Durrants Hotel Browns Hotel Mivarts (later to become Claridge's) Mivarts at 48 Davies Street (to become part of Claridge's in 1894) Warrens Hotel on Waterloo Place (Lower Regent Street) Fenton's in St James's Street Limmer's on the corner of George Street W1 and Conduit Street Clarendon Hotel on New Bond Street Clarendon Hotel on Albemarle Street The Burlington on Old Burlington Street Wrights Hotel on Dover Street
In the later part of the 19 th century and up to World War I , passports were not required, on the whole, for travel within Europe, and crossing a border was straightforward.
During World War I , European governments introduced border passport requirements for security reasons (to keep out spies) and to control the emigration of citizens with useful skills, retaining potential manpower. British tourists of the 1920s complained, especially about attached photographs and physical descriptions, which they considered led to a "nasty dehumanisation “ .
In 1920, the League of Nations held a conference on passports and through tickets. The United Nations held a travel conference in 1963, but passport guidelines did not result from it. Passport standardisation came about in 1980, under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO).
Pan American World Airways , commonly known as Pan Am , was the principal US international air carrier from the late 1920s until its collapse on December 4, 1991.
The overall trend of demand has been consistently increasing. In the 1950s and 1960s, annual growth rates of 15% or more were common. Annual growth of 5-6% persisted through the 1980s and 1990s.
As in many mature industries, consolidation is a trend. Airline groupings may consist of limited bilateral partnerships, long-term, multi-faceted alliances between carriers, equity arrangements, mergers , or takeovers .
Travel suppliers provide information that is retrieved from the Sabre® GDS by over 55,000 travel agency locations, travel websites, corporations, and government agencies, who are responsible for tens of millions of bookings around the world each year.
1960 The Sabre® system is created by American Airlines , marking the first real-time business application of computer technology.
1985 Sabre establishes its first European presence.
2005 Launch of dynamic packaging in North America ( CustomTrip ).
2006 Expedia and Priceline choose Sabre as a major partner.
2007 Sabre Rate Assured ™ hotel program is launched.
Travelocity is an online travel agency and wholly owned subsidiary of Sabre Holdings Corporation, which was a publicly traded company until taken private by Silver Lake Partners and Texas Pacific Group in March 2007.
Travelocity was launched on March 12, 1996 by Sabre Interactive, a division of AMR Corporation, which at the time owned the Sabre Reservations System and American Airlines.
Certainly travel technology was born on the coat-tails of the airline industry's use of automation and their need to extend this out to the travel agency partners. It should be kept in mind that there was an online world before the advent of the world wide web in the form of private and commercial online services, via packet switched network using X.25 . Travel technology played a significant role in the so-called dot-com boom and bust, circa 1997-2001.
Galileo is a computer reservations system (CRS) owned by Travelport . As of 2002, it had a 26.4% share of worldwide CRS airline bookings. Galileo was founded in 1971 by United Airlines under the name Apollo Reservation System.
e-ticket Source: wikipedia Travel 2.0 , was used as early as December 2003 on a posting on the Planeta Web 2.0 Discussion Forum and is an offshoot of the Web 2.0 phenomenon. Like many other industries, the online travel industry is currently in transition, adapting to new technologies and trends available on the Internet . An electronic ticket or e-ticket is used to represent the purchase of a seat on a passenger airline , usually through a website or by telephone although purchase through airline ticket offices or travel agencies can also get you an e-ticket.
8. Today (or just yesterday…) e-, Mass, Social, Global but differentiated
Originally, the ancient Olympic Games were held in Olympia , Greece , from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894. The IOC has since become the governing body of the Olympic Movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the Olympic Charter .
Olympic Games after 1896 are a global event. They also unite athletes from all over the world.