UNIVERSITY OF PIRAEUS      BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT          MBA -TOURISM MANAGEMENT                MBA THESISDI...
ContentsINTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................
QUESTIONNAIRE VARIABLES .....................................................................................................
SummaryThis MBA thesis examines the current status of online strategy in the dynamic and rapid changingonline and technolo...
INTRODUCTIONThis master thesis MBA in Tourism Management program is about the digital (online) strategy forthe promotion o...
Research questionBased on the fact that there is no online destination model in the Greek literature, this essay will tryt...
1st ChapterIntroduction to tourism, web and strategy                                            7
1ST CHAPTERCONCEPTUALIZATION OF TOURISM, WEB AND ONLINE STRATEGY    CHAPTER OVERVIEWIn the initial chapter the research fi...
CONCEPTUALIZATION OF TOURISM    1.1.1 DEFINITION OF TOURISM        Tourism as a phenomenon constitutes one of the biggest ...
The sectors and businesses involved in the tourism activity are many and vary both in sizeand the level of their involveme...
1.1.2 TOURISM DESTINATIONS CHARACTERISTICS           Even if tourism destinations may differ dramatically among them, we c...
1.1.3 TOURISM DESTINATIONS RESOURCES        A destination consists of natural and human phenomena that belong to tourism r...
1.1.4 TOURISM DESTINATION CLASSIFICATIONTourism destinations are classified in basic categories that are presented below. ...
CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE INTERNET AND WEB 2.0      1. 2.1 INTRODUCTIONThe web started its commercial use with the use of s...
Web 2.0 overpasses the limits of a computer platform and its user. WebPages and network are up tothe instant interaction o...
SEO uses techniques that are related to the website design and creation in order the processes that areused by the search ...
centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sitesallow users to share ideas, ...
1.2.4 TRAVEL SOCIAL NETWORKSDefinition of social networks“We define social network sites as web-based services that allow i...
as tripadvisor17 are the main sources of information nowadays for the travelers and their importanceis high regarding the ...
CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ONLINE STRATEGY AND ITS RELATION TO THE     TOURISM PRODUCT     1.3.1 INTRODUCTION"Strategy     is   ...
INFORMATION SEARCH PATTERNS IN TOURISMBesides from web, more technological devices, such as GPS, mobile phones, and smartp...
So today companies have to realize (and largest firms do so) that the consumers shape their onlinebrand and image in the o...
ConclusionE-commerce encourages business development with accessibility, cooperation, functionality andflexibility while t...
REFERENCESAvlonitis, G. J. and Gounaris, S. P. 1997. Marketing Orientation and Company Performance.Baxter, A. (2007), Boar...
2nd CHAPTERDigital strategy Qualitative research          (Case Studies)                                        25
2ND CHAPTER DIGITAL STRATEGY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH -CASE STUDIES    CHAPTER OVERVIEWIn the previous first chapter the basic...
2.1 INTRODUCTIONThere are many paradigms of digital strategy that have been implemented from tourism stakeholders,both bus...
2.2.1. DESTINATIONS WITH ONLINE PRESENCEIn the Web 2.0 era, Gibson (2007) noticed that is important to remember the recent...
Genoa Landing page website   2.2.3 URBAN DESTINATIONS AND CULTURAL HERITAGEUrban destinations are considered to be a combi...
In order to do that, urban destinations in Europe need to adopt innovation approaches, models,processes and tools that all...
(2008), are characterised from a high level of complexity and it is an “independent network ofbusiness, attractions and pu...
(1) Users (the number and type of persons involved or are affected by the product and servicesdevelopment) and (2) the e-s...
Landing webpage of Holland tourism     AUGMENTED REALITY AND TRAVEL APPLICATIONSA modern tool for promoting tourism images...
2.4 DESTINATIONS WITH TARGETED ONLINE CAMPAIGNS -QUEENSLAND - AUSTRALIA «BEST      JOB IN THE WORLD»The organization of To...
CAMPAIGN RESULTSCampaign managed global media coverage (CNN stories, BBC documentaries, Time magazine). Theestimate campai...
2.6 ONLINE STRATEGY DESTINATION MATRIXForm all the before mentioned paradigms, it is quite clear that the e services Desti...
In the veritical axis there are the tools/ solutions that can be used in each case:Mobile MKT: a creation of a mobile vers...
REFERENCESTHE VIRTUAL TOURIST: USING THE VIRTUAL WORLD TO PROMOTE THE REAL ONE, David C.Wyld ACR Vol.18 (1&2), 2010Au, W.J...
Scott, A.J., 2004. Cultural-products industries and urban economic development: prospects for growth andmarket contestatio...
3RD CHAPTERQuantitative Research in Ancient Olympia    Quanitative research to Olympia tourism product and results        ...
3RD CHAPTER QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH IN ANCIENT OLYMPIACHAPTER OVERVIEWAfter understanding the basic terms and created a stru...
3rd part finding presentation and conclusions     The completed and collected questionnaires data are inserted into the pe...
Α) www.tripadvisor.comTripadvisor.com is updated with many recorded experiences of the visitors. Most impressions aregood,...
Ε) www.flickr.comMaking the search “Olympia Greece” there are 15.563 φωτογραφίες, something that show thatOlympia is an at...
PRIMARY RESEARCH IN TOURISTS3.3 EMPIRICAL PART OF THE STUDYResearch targetsThis chapter with issues related to the tourism...
Population definitionThe research tried to cover foreigners and Greeks over 15 years old that were at Ancient Olympia -ele...
QUESTIONNAIRE VARIABLES                                Questionnaire VariablesGeneral travel behaviour   Group membership,...
Γ3. DATA EDIT FOR ANALYSISQuestionnaire editingIn a tourist market research it is expected from the researcher the return ...
Demographics                                              % repliesNationality                  French                    ...
Here are the tables with specific details about nationality, genre, age, education level and monthlyincome follow.Diagram ...
Diagram 5.6: ageDiagram 5.7educational levelEducational level and income are high to the destination, that menans that the...
Diagram 5.8: monthly incomeGENERAL TRAVEL PATTERNS1.1.1   IntroductionIn this section the general travel patterns are pres...
Diagram 5.9: travel compositionSo, the 41% also comes with their partner, (68 replies). It is important that in the second...
Diagram 5.11 main activities when they travelThe contact with locals and their culture as an activity was selected by the ...
Diagram 5.12 have visited the destination beforeAccommodation and stay at the destinationJust ½ visitors stay at the desti...
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece

5,377

Published on

My Master Thesis for the MBA program of Tourism Management at the University of Piraeus, Greece.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,377
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
63
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Digital Strategy for Tourism Destinations- The case study of Ancient Olympia, Greece"

  1. 1. UNIVERSITY OF PIRAEUS BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT MBA -TOURISM MANAGEMENT MBA THESISDIGITAL STRATEGY FOR TOURISM DESTINATIONSTHE CASE STUDY OF ANCIENT OLYMPIA, GREECE PAPADIMOPOULOS THEMISTOKLIS ∆ΕΜΤ/0928 PIRAEUS, GREECE NOVEMBER 2011
  2. 2. ContentsINTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................................51ST CHAPTER .....................................................................................................................................................8CONCEPTUALIZATION OF TOURISM, WEB AND ONLINE STRATEGY ...........................................8 CHAPTER OVERVIEW ..........................................................................................................................................8 CONCEPTUALIZATION OF TOURISM ...................................................................................................9 1.1.1 DEFINITION OF TOURISM...................................................................................................................9 1.1.2 TOURISM DESTINATIONS CHARACTERISTICS ...........................................................................11 1.1.3 TOURISM DESTINATIONS RESOURCES.........................................................................................12 1.1.4 TOURISM DESTINATION CLASSIFICATION..................................................................................13 CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE INTERNET AND WEB 2.0..............................................................14 1. 2.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................14 1. 2.2 WEB 2.0 OR THE READ/WRITE WEB .......................................................................................................14 Web 2.0 characteristics ...............................................................................................................................14 1.2.3 DIGITAL ADS AND ITS TOOLS ...................................................................................................................15 1.2.4 TRAVEL SOCIAL NETWORKS ....................................................................................................................18 HISTORY OF SOCIAL AND SOCIAL TRAVEL NETWORKS ...................................................................................18 CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ONLINE STRATEGY AND ITS RELATION TO THE TOURISM PRODUCT ..................................................................................................................................................20 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................20 1.3.2 TRAVEL INDUSTRY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY .............................................................................20 INFORMATION SEARCH PATTERNS IN TOURISM .................................................................................................21 1.3.3 COMPANIES NEED TO CHANGE THEIR ONLINE STRATEGY .........................................................................21 SYNOPSIS .........................................................................................................................................................23 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................................242ND CHAPTER DIGITAL STRATEGY QUALITIVE RESEARCH -CASE STUDIES ............................26 CHAPTER OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................26 2.1 INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................................27 2.2 DESTINATION ONLINE PRESENCE AND VIRTUAL TOURIST: USING DIGITAL IMAGE FOR PROMOTING DESTINATION ...................................................................................................................................................27 2.2.1. DESTINATIONS WITH ONLINE PRESENCE .............................................................................................28 2.2.2 DESTINATIONS WITH ONLINE DMO (GENOVA-ITALY) ..........................................................................28 A DIGITAL STRATEGY FRAMEWORK IN A CULTURAL HERITAGE DESTINATION. GENOA, ITALY .........28 2.2.3 URBAN DESTINATIONS AND CULTURAL HERITAGE ............................................................................29 CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS AND ICT ...............................................................................................................30 2.2.5 DIGITAL MANAGEMENT FOR DESTINATION PROMOTION ......................................................................30 2.3 ONLINE DESTINATIONS WITH CONSUMER CENTRIC APPROACH- HOLLAND TOURISM BOARD ...................32 AUGMENTED REALITY AND TRAVEL APPLICATIONS ................................................................................33 2.4 DESTINATIONS WITH TARGETED ONLINE CAMPAIGNS -QUEENSLAND - AUSTRALIA «BEST JOB IN THE WORLD» ......................................................................................................................................................34 2.5 COMPANIES THAT PROMOTE DESTINATIONS THROUGH DIGITAL STRATEGY ............................................35 2.6 ONLINE STRATEGY DESTINATION MATRIX ..............................................................................................36 ONLINE STRATEGY DESTINATION MATRIX ...................................................................................................36 CHAPTER SYNOPSIS ......................................................................................................................................37 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................383RD CHAPTER QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH IN ANCIENT OLYMPIA ..............................................41 CHAPTER OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................41 3.1 THE NEED OF A PRIMARY RESEARCH ...................................................................................................41 3.2 METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................41 ANCIENT OLYMPIA DESTINATION IMAGE THROUGH ONLINE SEARCH -DESK RESEARCH ....................................42 3.3 EMPIRICAL PART OF THE STUDY ..............................................................................................45 Γ1. RESEARCH TARGETS ..................................................................................................................................45 TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH- SAMPLING.................................................................45 SAMPLING METHOD ..............................................................................................................................46 SAMPLE SIZE ...........................................................................................................................................46 2
  3. 3. QUESTIONNAIRE VARIABLES .................................................................................................................47 Γ3. DATA EDIT FOR ANALYSIS.................................................................................................................48 Γ4. BASIC FINDINGS ...............................................................................................................................48 TOURIST PROFILE...................................................................................................................................48 GENERAL TRAVEL PATTERNS ............................................................................................................52 Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................................57 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................................57 ΠΊΝΑΚΕΣ – ∆ΙΑΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΑ ΚΕΦΑΛΑΊΟΥ ....................................................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.4 TH CHAPTER DIGITAL STRATEGY PROPOSAL FOR OLYMPIA ......................................................59 4.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................59 4.2 PROPOSAL FOR TARGET MARKETS ......................................................................................................60 4.3 PHILOSOPHY AND HYPOTHESES ABOUT AN OLYMPIA ONLINE STRATEGY .......................................66 Existing online demand for Greece.............................................................................................................66 2011 online package trends .........................................................................................................................67 4.4 DIGITAL STRATEGY PROPOSAL FOR OLYMPIA DESTINATION ...............................................................70 CHAPTER SYNOPSIS ......................................................................................................................................73 EPILOGUE .....................................................................................................................................................73 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................................74 ESSAY REFERENCES..........................................................................................................................................75 3
  4. 4. SummaryThis MBA thesis examines the current status of online strategy in the dynamic and rapid changingonline and technological environment (the Web). More specifically, the aim of this thesis is toinvestigate the level of comprehension of technological tools and their strategic use, from twoperspectives; the academic community (theory and marketing research) and business(implementation and tools usage).The line of reasoning of this study builds upon how the combination of literature and the reality ofonline promotion tools can lead in a concrete and tangible online strategy proposal for destinations.Literature review has indicated that there is a gap between real time use and development of Internettools from market, and existing relevant published research papers (e.g. internet strategy fordestinations and real case studies).In the beginning of the thesis, a conceptual framework is created, which is based on both theoreticaland research frameworks including suggestions found in literature on best practices of digitalstrategy tools for destinations.Moreover, secondary research is carried out analyzing international destination case studies for Italy,the Netherlands, Australia, and Berlin. These destinations are also categorized by their onlinestrategy’s goals such as online presence, DMO (online destination management), online destinationwith services, online campaign/awareness and destination experience as a company’s outside tourismpromotion tool.The final stage of this research effort is conducted at a site of global cultural heritage importance, aninternational tourism destination at its maturity level, Ancient Olympia in Peloponnesus, Greece. Forthis essay primary research was conducted on visitors of Ancient Olympia.This thesis concludes with the formulation of an Internet strategy proposal for the destination ofAncient Olympia. For this proposal, the demand for Greek destinations has also been taken underconsideration, together with the online behavior of Ancient Olympia’s traditional target markets;Germany, France and Italy. Finally, a Digital Strategy Matrix for the destinations is presented, whichproposes the better online strategy scenario for Olympia. 4
  5. 5. INTRODUCTIONThis master thesis MBA in Tourism Management program is about the digital (online) strategy forthe promotion of the tourism product that Olympia as a tourism destination offers.The scientific fields that are related to the in depth study of the main research goal are the following: 1. Tourism and its products 2. The web, internet and technological applications 3. Strategy and digital strategyThe point where these fields come together is the research focus of this thesis.More specifically, the research goals are the following:• Introduce the technological sector latest trends and their connection to the tourism product• Present the online trends in social travel networks and mobile travel• Study on the changes that have occurred in the digital promotion of case studies- destinations• Analyse some best practices in the usage of new technologies in tourism• Present a Greek destination case study – Olympia• Conclude to a online strategy proposal for the destination of Olympia• Contribute to the existing relative literature by adding an example of a cultural heritage destinationThe essay was based onto a primary research on Olympia destination visitors - local stakeholders(businessmen, inhabitants, hospitality managers) and secondary research related to the latest travelonline and mobile trends and online traveler behavior.Many from the data used came from international academic bibliography and scientific blogs relatedto tourism and online strategy. In this particular thesis there was no research in tourism destinationstakeholders. 5
  6. 6. Research questionBased on the fact that there is no online destination model in the Greek literature, this essay will tryto reply to this question: can Olympia be the first destination –case study with an online strategy,after knowing the visitors experience?Research GoalThe thesis goal is dual: first to cover the existing gap in digital strategy regarding Greek destinationsand second create a practical online strategy model for Greek tourism businesses and destinations.MethodologyIn order to reach to a proposed model for a Greek destination, the essay is being done in 3 steps.The first step is to make an introduction to basic terms and relative concepts to what this essay isgoing to analyze and present. The second is to present some other destinations that have an onlineimage- presence and try to categorize them. The third is to conduct a primary research to visitors andknow the Olympia Customer. And the last step is to propose a strategy that is connected to the abovesteps.StructureThe thesis structure is as following: - Introduction to basic terms that essay is about - Quantitative research and classification of destinations online strategy - Qualitative research at the destination of Ancient Olympia, Greece - Online strategy marketing proposal for Ancient Olympia - ConclusionThe following first chapter includes the basic terms that are conceptually associated to the thesis. 6
  7. 7. 1st ChapterIntroduction to tourism, web and strategy 7
  8. 8. 1ST CHAPTERCONCEPTUALIZATION OF TOURISM, WEB AND ONLINE STRATEGY CHAPTER OVERVIEWIn the initial chapter the research fields of the essay are defined.The scientific fields that are related to the in depth study of the main research goal are the following: 1. Tourism 2. Internet and technological applications 3. Strategy and digital strategyTechnological tools that have been applied to tourism combined with the need for adoption of SmallMedium Enterprises (SME’s) online strategies. This essay tries to be a map towards these changesfor the Greek tourism environment and bridge the gap between tourism foreign bibliography and thisneed for Greek businesses. 8
  9. 9. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF TOURISM 1.1.1 DEFINITION OF TOURISM Tourism as a phenomenon constitutes one of the biggest industries in international level,with GDP percentage that reaches to 10-12% and covers over 220 million workplaces. Moreoverwith the declaration of the World Travel and Tourism council, or WTTC1, at 1992, tourism is thelargest industry worldwide with every separate economical index: ROI, added value, employmentrates and taxes. Tourism could be defined as2 "Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries which deliver a travelexperience comprising transportation, accommodation, eating and drinking establishments, retailshops, entertainment businesses and other hospitality services provided for individuals or groupstraveling away from home" or "The sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists,business suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hostingthese tourists and other visitors" Burkart and Medlik3 propose the following definition for tourism: «the phenomenon thatoccurs from temporary visits/ stays away from the permanent place of stay for any reason except thebusiness activities in the place of stay». Tourism is not a homogenous market such as car market or baby food. On the contrary it is aheterogeneous market that is consisted from many sub segments that are related to each other. So ifwe accept Smith definition (1988:183), tourism is: “…the total of all commercial activities that offer products and services for the facilitation ofthe commercial and recreation activities away from the usual environment”. Moreover as tourism could be defines as the amount of relations and phenomena that takeplace during a trip (in local or international level) and the stay of persons in a specific place ofresidence. The residence place for these people is neither the permanent place of stay nor their workplace.» (Kaspar, 1995/ s.27 / Freyer, 1991, p.15). The above definition is general and covers the whole spectrum of the tourism phenomenon.Except from that, there are more that cover for statistical mainly reasons the meaning of tourismphenomenon.1 http://www.wttc.org/2 Mc Intosh, R.W, Tourism, Principles, Practices, Philosophies, Wiley C.R., Ohio, 19843 Tourism: Past, Present and Future, Heinemann, London (1981) 9
  10. 10. The sectors and businesses involved in the tourism activity are many and vary both in sizeand the level of their involvement. Because of this feature, Holloway (1989) proposes theclassification of involved parties in the below sectors:• Carriers – with every mean of transport for travel purpose• Accommodation• Attractions – attraction that are product of human work (man made). And also in this category is the service that uses natural attractions)• Intermediaries – travel agents and tour operators• Auxiliary services of private sector – like souvenirs traders.• Auxiliary services of public sector –like tourist information points). Moreover tourism segments differ regarding the criteria that are taken into considerationevery time. The main classification varies on the travel motive. So there are two main travelsegments:4• Holiday- recreation tourism: this category is important in terms of capacity and many varieties. Also it is larger in terms of resources needed and services offered.• Business tourism (congress, exhibition, incentive, educational tourism) that is more profitable than mass tourism. In this category people have as their main objective their participation in business- scientific meetings and events. These two main tourism segments have some sub segments, which are the following:• Sea tourism,- cruises, yachting, sailing etc.• Culture and heritage tourism, - destinations of important cultural or historic heritage and meaning. Cultural tourism includes also all the types of travel where people learn the local way of thinking and customs of the culture that they visit.• Sport tourism, - like golf, rafting, kayaking etc.• Eco tourism and rural tourism, - which is related to the evaluation and of the natural scenery, mountains, that could attract the attention of special visitors segments.• Health tourism, - spa massage, sea health treatment, with the necessary infrastructure needed4 Classification according to Tsartas book, EKKE edition, Athens 1989 (in Greek). 10
  11. 11. 1.1.2 TOURISM DESTINATIONS CHARACTERISTICS Even if tourism destinations may differ dramatically among them, we can notice somecommon points5: • Tourism destinations consist of a mix of different elements (attractions, accommodation, access, catering, auxiliary services). • Tourism destinations are a kind of appealing cultural images that attract people. This means that in order the potential visitor decides to visit a place and spend his money on it, it has to have value and be attractive. • Tourism is consumed in the place that is produced, so destinations are inseparable. • Tourism destinations have many usages; they do not only exist for tourists but also for residents and service personnel. • A tourism destination is not only something that really exists, but also something that is perceived to exist-an image in the minds of potentials and actual tourists. For this reason the Destination image is a very important variable for tourism marketing.It is easy for someone to realize that tourism destinations are very competitive among them in orderto satisfy their customers- visitors. This conclusion comes from the singularity of tourism, accordingto which even the most satisfied customer is not always satisfied and repeated customer6. And thishappens because he wants to meet new places from the start of his trip.5 Cooper and al., Tourism: Principles and Practice, second edition, Longman, New York, 1999 (p.102)6 Kouremenos A., «Tourism Marketing Research, Piraeus University Courses, in Greek, (2000) 11
  12. 12. 1.1.3 TOURISM DESTINATIONS RESOURCES A destination consists of natural and human phenomena that belong to tourism resources,which can be divided in four categories: (i) Natural sites This category includes climate, the natural environment and all the natural and humancharacteristics that could be regarded as travel motives. (ii) Socio- cultural sites A tourism destination is definitely something more than a sum of the natural and tourismcharacteristics. It also includes the socio- cultural characteristics that complement the uniqueness ofthe destination. (iii) Infrastructure The road network, the level of tourism services and other factors that are not touristic butthey make visits happen to the destination. (iv) Accommodation and tourism shopping markets Tourism local businesses such as hotels and shops consist of the tourism infrastructure forthe service in a destination. In this category there are also car rentals, restaurants and other tourismservices related markets. Hereby is the classification of the tourism destinations according to World TourismOrganization (UNWTO). 12
  13. 13. 1.1.4 TOURISM DESTINATION CLASSIFICATIONTourism destinations are classified in basic categories that are presented below. Basic categoriesconsist of urban areas, resorts, and sea routes.Urban areas1.1 Capital/ city (e.g. city break tourism)1.2 Special types/ cultural city (cultural capitals)1.3 Other cities, townsResorts (cities/ villages)2.1 Recreation Resorts 2.1.1 Health resort (health tourism) 2.1.2 Area close to sea as a recreation area 2.1.3 Area close to river or lake as a recreation area 2.1.4 Mountainous resort2.2 Seaside resort2.3 River resort2.4 Ski resort2.5 Mountainous resort of alternative type (forest)Outdoors3.1 Locations near sea, lake, rivers 3.1.1 Areas close to sea 3.1.2 Areas close to lakes 3.1.3 Areas close to rivers3.2 Mountains 3.2.1 Highlands 3.2.2 Hills3.3 Villages and rural areasSea, lake or river routes (cruises)Table 1.1 tourism destination classificationsSource: WTOAfter having a short introduction to basic tourism terms that are related to the essay, at the next partsof the first chapter an introduction to web follows. 13
  14. 14. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE INTERNET AND WEB 2.0 1. 2.1 INTRODUCTIONThe web started its commercial use with the use of static pages for the promotion of products,business and organizations. Since its first use, thousands of applications and different software toolshave been created, resulting to a dynamic lifetime.Practically the biggest shift came with the user involvement in the process of content provider. Thenew role of user from passive reader to active content contributor has brought a change in the web.User is a content provider –value co creator today. Especially in tourism this change is far moreimportant, because of the fact that the users opinion that is expressed online can result into morebookings or bookings cancellation. 1. 2.2 WEB 2.0 OR THE READ/WRITE WEBWeb 2.0, when it was used for the first time7 as a term, it was a philosophical term mostly andapproach to the web. Today it is used8 to describe the relation of the user with the web. This relationis based on the growing ability of the user to share information, to co create content online and co-work with each other.This trend is continually become stronger with the rapid technological development and the usage ofnew devices (Kindle by Amazon.com, iPad Apple etc). it is referring to a web new dimension, adynamic platform that people with no special skills in web development or IT can really work online.New tools except from being the new trend, are most of the times free, or open source and of courseso easy to use. Web 2.0 characteristicsUS scholars claim that we live in the Information Age, so Information search is a very commonsearch in the worldwide web. Search is one of the most important functions that are related to theinternet and user behavior, as the user search things online.7 Tim OReilly, OReilly Media Web 2.0 conference, 20048 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 14
  15. 15. Web 2.0 overpasses the limits of a computer platform and its user. WebPages and network are up tothe instant interaction of the user and content creation and share.User is allowed to change his online working environment and intervene in the content, create hiswebpage with personal preferences. Some main applications of web 2.0 are social media, wikis (wikiplatforms)9 and blogs10. Many of the interactions are known, such as Facebook.com, twitter.com,Youtube.com. Web 2.0 functions are search, tagging, linking among webpages easily links ή ηcontent authoring, where is some wikis users can create articles and cowork, edit, or delete them(there is an open community approach to web 2.0). Also users can upload their own videos, photosand all this information can be related directly with the social media.1.2.3 DIGITAL ADS AND ITS TOOLSToday online advertisement is totally interactive in the social media environment, where campaignsask from the users to interact, that users choose, select, vote or somehow contribute in the web 2.0environment. In this essay it has to be presented in brief the basic tools and terms that are related tothe issue, such as Google Adwords, search engine optimization, (SEO) and a description of socialmedia most common applications. Google AdwordsGoogle has developed a powerful tool- channel to control business presence and user search in theweb. Google AdWords is Googles main advertising product and main source of revenue. Googlestotal advertising revenues were USD$28 billion in 2010. AdWords offers pay-per-click (PPC)advertising, cost-per-thousand (CPM) advertising, and site-targeted advertising for text, banner, andrich-media ads. The AdWords program includes local, national, and international distribution. SEO- Search Engine OptimizationA very common search tool is Search engine optimization -SEO11. SEO is the process of improvingthe visibility of a website or web page in search engines via the "natural," or un-paid ("organic" or"algorithmic"), search results.9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Search_engine_optimization 15
  16. 16. SEO uses techniques that are related to the website design and creation in order the processes that areused by the search engines being adapted to the special webpage goal. What is being most wellpreserved by search engines is 1) thematic related content (e.g. with the use of a blog) also 2) pageimportance and rating in content, visits and reference from other partiers. SEO implementation alsoincludes processes and techniques not related with the webpage. SEO primary target is the increaseof visits in the webpage via visits that are related to the search engines, relative to the webpagecontent and have value for the user. The content online needs to have value for the user is order to bepromoted by the search engines, since users will promote it online as well.In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a siteappears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engines users. SEOmay target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search, academicsearch, news search and industry-specific vertical search engines.As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, what people search for,the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines and which search engines arepreferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its contentand HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to removebarriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the numberof backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic. Social networking platformsOnline marketing in tourism is supported from the traditional reservation systems that travelbusinesses use. There are platforms that integrate web 2.0 applications and online promotions tollsthat are tourism related (information, booking). Users can share their preferences and choices withtheir friends and promote the most valuable local businesses.A social networking service is an online service, platform, or site that focuses on building andreflecting of social networks or social relations among people, who, for example, share interestsand/or activities and people with similar or somewhat similar interests, backgrounds and/or activitiesmake their own communities. A social network service consists of a representation of each user(often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social networkservices are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. Online community services are sometimes considered as a socialnetwork service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual- 16
  17. 17. centered service whereas online community services are group-centered. Social networking sitesallow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual networks.A brief reference- classification of such platforms • RSS feeds • blogs12 • Online magazines - Open Source platforms • podcasts (sound) and videos such as Youtube or vimeo13 • Tagging – categorizing content, using twitter hastags etc • mash-ups –for the aggregation of different sources of content • geotagging- geo categorization (google maps, foursquare, flickr.com etc • Wikis- content that users can co work (create, edit) online in parallel • Linkedin – for the professionals, that you can find colleagues, partners and search new business ventures online • Cloud computing14, is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility(like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet)All the above-mentioned tools are continually updated to have more features and choices for theusers and their communities.12 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog13 Vimeo is a respectful community of creative people who are passionate about sharing the videos they make.We provide the best tools and highest quality video in the universe.14 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing 17
  18. 18. 1.2.4 TRAVEL SOCIAL NETWORKSDefinition of social networks“We define social network sites as web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a publicor semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom theyshare a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by otherswithin the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site15”. HISTORY OF SOCIAL AND SOCIAL TRAVEL NETWORKSThe first recognizable social network site (SixDegrees.com) was launched in 1997. SixDegrees.comallowed users to create profiles, list their Friends and, beginning in 1998, surf the Friends lists. AIMand ICQ buddy lists supported lists of Friends, although those Friends were not visible to others.SixDegrees was the first to combine these features. After SixDegrees.com there were more socialnetwork sites (SNS) but the mainstream was MySpace - especially when teenagers began joiningMySpace en masse in 2004.Alongside these open services, other SNSs launched to support niche demographics beforeexpanding to a broader audience. Unlike previous SNSs, Facebook was designed to support distinctcollege networks only. Facebook began in early 2004 as a Harvard-only SNS (Cassidy, 2006). Tojoin, a user had to have a harvard.edu email address. Unlike other SNSs, Facebook users are unableto make their full profiles public to all users. “Another feature that differentiates Facebook is theability for outside developers to build ‘‘Applications’’ which allow users to personalize their profilesand perform other tasks, such as compare movie preferences and chart travel histories16”.Facebook is currently the largest social network using the English language; there are also large non-English networks such as VKontakte (in Russian), and Qzone and RenRen (in Chinese).Social travel networksVarious Web 2.0 products and applications allow Internet users to create and produce content, builtrelations and also offer new services. It is said before that the technology progress affects directlytourism and academic research follows the technology and user trends. Travel social networks such15 Moyd, Ellison, Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship, 200716 Moyd, Ellison, Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship, 2007 18
  19. 19. as tripadvisor17 are the main sources of information nowadays for the travelers and their importanceis high regarding the online traveler’s decision.Social Travel networks started in 1995 with Cruise Critic as a feature of America Online. At 1999Virtual Tourist followed and 2000 Tripadvisor was the last of the big travel networks. Today boththree of these brands belong to Expedia.The most valuable and important function of networks is the option to communicate and interactinstant among them. The rapid development of new applications (foursquare, google places) andtheir integration demands the continuous re approach for companies to their business strategies. Sotourism is one of the main industries that was affected directly from the technological revolution inonline marketing.So the message conveyed by the large industry tourism exhibitions is the following:Congruence among travel online networks and travelers preferences knowledge before their arrival in thedestinationThe following text essay presents the online strategy perspectives related to destinations.17 http://www.tripadvisor.com/ 19
  20. 20. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF ONLINE STRATEGY AND ITS RELATION TO THE TOURISM PRODUCT 1.3.1 INTRODUCTION"Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term: whichachieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within a 18challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholder expectations ".“Strategy or business strategy defines the way for an organization to actualize their vision and fulfilltheir mission. It is essential for business strategy that both the vision and the mission arecommunicated across an organization to provide visibility, understanding and purpose towards theachievement of the common goal (also referred as vision).19”In this essay we are also interested in the relation with the Information Communication technology.“Today, Information Technology (IT) plays a critical role for businesses. IT means (e.g. products,services, systems, hardware, software, etc.) are used to enhance business operations for improvingthe quality of products and services offered to customers and how businesses are run, aiming atimproving the efficiency and effectiveness of providing the aforementioned products and services.Additionally, IT means are also the products and services provided by businesses, constituting theirmain line of business20”.In the following pages we will examine the relation of travel industry and the information technologystrategy. 1.3.2 TRAVEL INDUSTRY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGYSearch is one of the most important things in the relation between user and digital information. Userstoday are more or less educated on searching information online, after the wide use of searchengines. Starting with the oldest lycos.com, altavista.com, yahoo.com and continuing with the mostagile like Google.com, Mahalo.com, with personal emails, filters and personal search preferences forthe users. In tourism search, information search starts with destinations and technologicalcompatibilities became more and more, information became more multiple with accommodation,tickets, packages, offers, etc.18 Johnson and Scholes19 Constantinos Giannoulis, Modeling Business Strategy For Business-IT Alignment, p.10, Stockholm 201120 Constantinos Giannoulis, Modeling Business Strategy For Business-IT Alignment, p.10, Stockholm 2011 20
  21. 21. INFORMATION SEARCH PATTERNS IN TOURISMBesides from web, more technological devices, such as GPS, mobile phones, and smartphones haveimproved the way people travel and the offered tourism services.Travelers use GPS is order to get easy information from local businesses (also Local BusinessServices) and get familiar with the location they are and visit. Technology spread gave theopportunity to the users to information access via their personal and mobile phones and devices.Digital applications and changes in user behaviorThe Mobile technology gave travelers the opportunity to check in their hotel and airport flights; afeature that gave them also the security in case of emergency. The integration of standard processesand technology gave the option to the service providers to reduce costs and improve consumerexperiences. For example, the airline industry used mobile check-in with the integration of check-inprocess to the smartphone. In June 2007 airline companies started using the e boarding pass wherebarcodes where sent directly to customers mobile phones in Montreal, Canada. Customer scans hisimage in a kiosk and moves to security check. Today most of the airlines are using such check inapplications.Mobile check in has made some countries that their people want to test such innovative applicationsto create some test bases for that reason. Finland and Japan are two examples (Baxter,2007). Mobile check-in increases effectives both of the services and the customer satisfaction. It ismuch easier for a traveller to use mobile check in without standing in long queues at the airports andit also reduces human resources costs for the airline carriers. 1.3.3 COMPANIES NEED TO CHANGE THEIR ONLINE STRATEGYSince users started to use the network not only for information search and content search but forusages such as buying tickets online, they created the need for companies to adopt new technologies.Not only that, but companies had to study this changing behavior of online users and redefine theirstrategy. Digital content usage and the change in online users behaviourThe change in human behavior started with the digital age- information age and the network oflocations, distribution channels, producers and content. This technology shift has created the need toshow how people use media and made them content providers. 21
  22. 22. So today companies have to realize (and largest firms do so) that the consumers shape their onlinebrand and image in the online environment also and this is where they have to focus, examining notonly the consumers behavior, but their strategy in the customers online communities. What changes in the companies’ online imageSome decades ago, businesses bought advertisement space and size, a giant poster for example, inorder to be visible in larger audience and from distance. This habit is going back, because peoplehave more time online and in more places so there are more ways for companies to be visible fromtheir audience.In additional, the number of devices that are connected to the internet increases the number of onlineusers and online time that people spend. People can be online when they could not some years ago,for example before they sleep from their bed by their smartphone, tablet or ipad. So companies haveto consider also this change of time (people spend more hours online) and adopt their messages andtarget audience, since the medium changes (a personal pc versus a mobile device).Instant interaction of digital mediaWhat firstly changes in social media is the use. User can watch and share- transmits the informationflow instantly via a pc, laptop, του νέου tablet, mobile phone or any application. Content andinformation travel everywhere with the user. Real time information is the most important factor andthe main characteristic of online media. Another option is the exclusion of non related content. Usercan now ban content that does not like or approve, an option that did not have before. He can alsorate and evaluate content, something that cannot be done with the traditional media, so companies’strategies do not any longer exist. Changes for the companies strategyPeople do not really ever care about advertisement or brands so the companies have to take a newrole. They have to become medium themselves. So a company has to adopt a pull strategy and notonly a push strategy. Repeated messages have to stop and companies must differentiate and be moreauthentic, unique and out of the box in order to engage customers. It is obvious that the changingconsumer behavior (from trends, demand) creates a real need for companies to have a real timeonline strategy. 22
  23. 23. ConclusionE-commerce encourages business development with accessibility, cooperation, functionality andflexibility while the familiarity level of the users online is increasing and consumers now havepower.Competition online and consumers’ profit form the online sales are becoming more intense, since theonline comparison is simple and free. So tourism businesses have to be more consumers centric inorder to have sales and keep their repeated customers. They focus on customers using realtime. Marketing strategies have to be updated so as to match with the online trends and currentconsumer usage patterns. Users have change patterns regarding to travel planning and booking.Today the success of a travel business depends mostly on how good adopts the technology. Ecommerce and tourism are complementary industries and competition offers better and variety ofservices for the modern traveler.SYNOPSISThe survey in the basic terms and modern trends that was presented leads to some basic conclusionsthat are related to the research goals and led this essay. This first part is the basic chapter so as therest will follow it.In particular it became clear how technology affects tourism first with the changes in informationsystems and mobile and web applications and with the interaction of digital and information systems(geo-locations and geo-reference)Due to rapid changes, user re –adjusts his behavior to new systems and applications are updated tothis behavioral change and tourism stakeholders in order to be competitive have to update theironline strategy. So the fast changing conditions require a very well planned e presence.Even some parts in this essay will be out of date in some months.In the next chapter the essay focuses on the next part, which is the presentation and classification ofdestination websites. There are the research case studies, used for creating a model at the last chapterfor the destination we study, Olympia Greece. 23
  24. 24. REFERENCESAvlonitis, G. J. and Gounaris, S. P. 1997. Marketing Orientation and Company Performance.Baxter, A. (2007), Board your flight by mobile phone. Financial Times. London (UK): May 14, 2007Bulkart, Medlik, Tourism: Past, Present and Future, Heinemann, London (1981)Cooper and al., (1999) Tourism: Principles and Practice, second edition, Longman, New York, (p.102)Cooper and al., Tourism: Principles and Practice, second edition, Longman, New York, 1999 (p.102)Constantinos Giannoulis, Modeling Business Strategy For Business-IT Alignment, p.10, Stockholm 2011Kouremenos Athanasios , (2000), «Tourism Marketing Research, University of Piraeus, (in Greek)Mc Intosh, R.W, (1981) Tourism, Principles, Practices, Philosophies, Wiley C.R., Ohio, 1984Mc Intosh, R.W, Tourism, Principles, Practices, Philosophies, Wiley C.R., Ohio, 1984Moyd, Ellison, Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship, 2007Tsartas Paris, Social and economic impact of the tourism development in Cyclades islands during 1950-1980»,ΕΚΚΕ, Athens, 1989 (in Greek)Xinran, L., Dae-Yong, K. and Alastair, M. (2006). The effect of prior destination experience on onlineinformation search behavior. Tourism and Hospitality Research; Feb. 24
  25. 25. 2nd CHAPTERDigital strategy Qualitative research (Case Studies) 25
  26. 26. 2ND CHAPTER DIGITAL STRATEGY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH -CASE STUDIES CHAPTER OVERVIEWIn the previous first chapter the basic terms were presented that are related to tourism, web andstrategy. In the second chapter a qualitative research takes place, where 5 case studies are analyzed(not in depth) and finally they are categorized in order to be easier to create a model. Thecategorization that was made is about the online goal of each destination website and the tools thatare used in every case.So the target of this chapter is to present some tangible examples and also easy to understand. Theselection was made by the author, trying to find the most well known and websites with differentapproaches to online promotion. The case studies are a global campaign website (Australia andQueensland), a DMO of a cultural destination website (Genoa, Italy), a destination website that ismore related to the web 2.0 trends and applications (Holland Tourism Board)– and not a campaign-and last a company online application that promotes a destination- Berlin and Adidas.The online destination matrix is also created by the author, in order to present something concrete,and it is just a proposal to research. 26
  27. 27. 2.1 INTRODUCTIONThere are many paradigms of digital strategy that have been implemented from tourism stakeholders,both businesses and organizations. All of them are aware of the fact that online presence is more thannecessary. Travelers are online and that is where destinations should focus on. 2.2 DESTINATION ONLINE PRESENCE AND VIRTUAL TOURIST: USING DIGITAL IMAGE FOR PROMOTING DESTINATIONThe importance of a destination’s digital presence is high because there are quite few opportunitiesfor someone to visit a place without making before an online search about it. Today traveler cansearch all interesting related information21 from home and decide for the place is going to visit- tochoose a lifetime experience. Ideally traveler will gather all online information and then make hisdecision, for places that offer uniqueness and authenticity. Destinations should be online andmaintain an online presence just for this reason.Hereby are the five categories that destinations are promoted online- classified by their online goal. Α) destinations with basic online presence (many paradigms) Β) destinations with an online management services (DMO) (e.g. Genoa, Italy) Γ) destinations with an online consumer centric approach (mobile, user friendly, applications (e.g. Holland) ∆) destinations that create online campaigns (e.g. Australia) Ε) destinations that are used from companies as a part of their online promotion strategy (e.g. Adidas)This classification was made for this essay aim and it was necessary in order to be more specific inthe final proposal about the destination this essay is about- Olympia.21 THE VIRTUAL TOURIST: USING THE VIRTUAL WORLD TO PROMOTE THE REAL ONEDavid C. Wyld, ACR Vol.18 (1&2), 2010 27
  28. 28. 2.2.1. DESTINATIONS WITH ONLINE PRESENCEIn the Web 2.0 era, Gibson (2007) noticed that is important to remember the recent character androle of the internet, stating: «internet is a new human activity and cities where a new human activityat the past… and they change until today and new things come in order to make cities. Internet wasevolution, value, innovation”. So the connection of destinations with the internet technology issomething new and crucial at its beginning.There are many examples of destinations that have a digital presence. That means a website, that aremany for some destinations, or a presence in video games, online games, such as Second Life. Manycountries have digital embassies as info point, but for different reasons. This simple presence isconsidered to be as one category in this essay. 2.2.2 DESTINATIONS WITH ONLINE DMO (GENOVA-ITALY) A DIGITAL STRATEGY FRAMEWORK IN A CULTURAL HERITAGE DESTINATION. 22 GENOA , ITALYGenoa in Italy is a very good example of a destination that uses e services for its promotion and notonly. In the Genoa municipality website, there are information about the mayor and the city services,but there are also online services, online library and tourism information website, that opens in a newpage. It is a complete DMO website, offering e services to the traveler and to the local community,having social media pages and travel networks information.Genoa is also an established and a cultural heritage destination and there should be an approach tocultural destination as well and the e- DMO possibilities.22 http://www2.comune.genova.it/index.jsp 28
  29. 29. Genoa Landing page website 2.2.3 URBAN DESTINATIONS AND CULTURAL HERITAGEUrban destinations are considered to be a combination of products, infrastructure and services thatconsist of the whole tourism product for the traveler experience (Buhalis 2003), and because of theircomplexity are becoming difficult to manage. Cultural heritage is a main tourist Source, especially inthe European cities and can be a real value for the destination in terms of cultural experience, theplace identity and long term sustainability.Cultural heritage as a definition can be monuments, sites of archaeological or historical importance,architecture and lifestyle, arts, masterpieces, handcrafts, traditions and local custom and values. Asthese, they are local elements that they have to be enriched and be enjoyed by tourists and locals aswell. (Scott 2004).In the information age ICT has brought a huge potential to the exploration of possibilities of onlineaccess to heritage. Users can interact with the local cultural heritage resources through thedestination management organizations -DMOs. These destination management organizations canhelp tourists get into the place culture and promote the destination. 29
  30. 30. In order to do that, urban destinations in Europe need to adopt innovation approaches, models,processes and tools that allow users a promotion of cultural heritage with open e- services. CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS AND ICTEven though the increasing number of the cultural institutions that use ICT for cultural heritagepreservation and digitalization (so do many tourism organizations), only few organizations approachcultural heritage and tourism as the only force of a long term strategic local development. (EuropeanCommission, 2002).The majority of the tourism businesses that have as aim the promotion of tourism, arts and attractionsare mostly not for profit organisations (Buhalis 2003).Besides that the existing internet applications that have as subject the interactive heritage usuallyfocus on the restoration and the promotion of cultural places. They also focus on the increase ofawareness, value promotion and the appreciation for communities and the increase of localcommunities’ participation (Torres et al.2006).As Paskaleva-Shapira and Azorın (2008) claim, the few studies that connect digital cultural heritagewith tourism, do not take advantage of the integrated e services possibilities for the tourismpromotion. That happens also because the current promotion of cultural heritage is passive. Exceptthat, the DMO’s that are responsible for the tourism development and they use ICT for theimprovement of the management systems or promotion do not include cultural attractions in theiroffers.In short, the weak and non-interactive information systems for tourism are incapable in strengtheningthe cultural tourism that needs active tourists and the municipality to be a part in a interactive andchanging system of processes and structure among the many interested stakeholders. So it is difficultof the communities to be a part of the discussion about cultural heritage and be a part of the citiessustainable development. (Ciborra and Lanzara 1999). ICT offer the opportunity for shift but shiftrequires new knowledge, skills and the willingness from the destination stakeholders to use them. 2.2.5 DIGITAL MANAGEMENT FOR DESTINATION PROMOTIONSo the main question of the destination management is clear: the challenge is about the complexrelations of the interested parties; the inhabitants, tourists, local business, public sector and theintermediaries (Buhalis 2003).Regarding the tourism promotion, Palmer (2005) claims that destinations are likely to be the mostdifficult products to sell. Especially e-tourism destination, such as Miguens and Corfu suggest 30
  31. 31. (2008), are characterised from a high level of complexity and it is an “independent network ofbusiness, attractions and public organisations that have their own marketing department via theinternet”. In this framework, one of the main challenges of e destinations is the constant access andcooperation with interested parties that participate in a cooperative process. The development ofefficient and effective tools with an innovative framework for the modeling of the better attraction ofurban areas is something that can make change easier.But in order the change to happen both ICT development and the e -services in the destination arerequired. Destinations use more and more the ICT on the center of their promotion and managementstrategies (Buhalis and Pistidda 2008).At the same time, as Miguel and Corfu claim (2008), digital marketing is important and crucial forthe development of the tourism destination because potential visitors base their decisions only ontoinformation on the web that are produced by the destination.This suggests that as Teichmann and Zins (2008) claim, the official destination website offersrelative information for the potential visitors and serve the promotion and the marketing of country,region, city. So the ICT usage and especially the webpages that are relative to ICT usage are a part ofthe image recreation in the way that destinations are being promoted until today.This fact also reinforces the content importance and the belief that access to it is crucial- it has to beattractive and useful for the users.For that reason, constant innovation is so necessary in theory and practice for the creation ofintegrated strategic promotion that has to be not only efficient and effective, but also able to satisfythe needs of the destination in total. For example, most of existing research examine the functionalrole of the internet as an information source, instead of focusing in the hypothesis if the content of awebsite is really helpful for the user- which are the important characteristics and which role needs tohave for the creation of an interactive profile- interface with the user (Teichmann and Zins 2008).Destination promotion has to move from the simple information transmission and allow theinteraction of the users with the webpage content and other users. This will give the destinationsorganizations information relative with user preferences and afterwards custom communicationforms and services that could be promoted to selected target markets. (Dooling et al. 2002).ConclusionHaving this theoretical background, the analytical approach for the value that comes for the ICT useby cultural heritage destinations finds two main variables: 31
  32. 32. (1) Users (the number and type of persons involved or are affected by the product and servicesdevelopment) and (2) the e-services (holistic and interactive services that allow citizensparticipation in content creation and decision-making).These services have to cover all the phases (before, during and after the visit) and be accessible fromeverywhere (using mobile functions of info points is the destination) from both community and theDMO management team (with the public sector support and the cultural heritage managers).After this part, the next in Holland case study, with Social media and Mobile applications. 2.3 ONLINE DESTINATIONS WITH CONSUMER CENTRIC APPROACH- HOLLAND TOURISM BOARDHolland Tourism Organization presents many innovative applications aiming clearly to the modernmobile- traveler.Webpages contentThe webpage includes useful information for the Netherlands, with cities information,accommodation, activities, transport, newsletter, social media page (a Facebook page), videos andphotos- a real online and mobile interactive environment. Its most innovation part is the applicationsthat offers to the users. 32
  33. 33. Landing webpage of Holland tourism AUGMENTED REALITY AND TRAVEL APPLICATIONSA modern tool for promoting tourism images is augmented reality: a GPS application that combinedwith a Smartphone camera can “see” things for the traveler and where they are located in the nearbyarea of the destination. This creates an interactive information tool for the traveler. Lonely Planetstarted publishing augmented reality guides since 200923 and currently uses android platform to offerservices online24.Destinations have started using to take advantage of the augmented reality. Holland Tourism Boardstarted using25 the application called «Holland-layer26» using the Layar27 browser technology. Thecontent covers 17.000 Points Of Interest around the country; there is also an Iphone28 and Android29application available targeting all segments (Source: Holland.com).23 http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/lonely_planet_launches_augmented_reality_apps.php24 http://www.lonelyplanet.com/apps-and-ebooks/android/25 http://www.holland.com/global/26 http://www.holland.com/global/digitalholland/hollandlayerapp/27 http://www.layar.com/28 http://www.holland.com/global/digitalholland/hollandiphoneapp/29 http://layar.com/download/layar-on-your-android/ 33
  34. 34. 2.4 DESTINATIONS WITH TARGETED ONLINE CAMPAIGNS -QUEENSLAND - AUSTRALIA «BEST JOB IN THE WORLD»The organization of Tourism Queensland30 promoted its campaign for “Best Job in the World”. Thejob title was caretaker for an Australian tropical island for six months, and the winner’s jobdescription was to take care of the reef and report to the employee- the Queensland TourismOrganization.STRATEGYThe contest organizers created a main website with the related info about the job and they engagedusers online by asking them to create and share their own content- video about the job in order toapply. Social media made the campaign go viral and paid advertisements in traditional printed mediainformed the people about the job offer.Landing page «The Best Job in the World» The Campaign continues in blog (2011) – social media page- facebook30 http://www.tq.com.au/ 34
  35. 35. CAMPAIGN RESULTSCampaign managed global media coverage (CNN stories, BBC documentaries, Time magazine). Theestimate campaign cost at about 400 million dollars and the audience reach is estimated at about 3billion viewers. 34,684 people applied, be sharing a minute long video from 197 countries. Theorganisers claimed that at least one person per country applied. The webpage states were 8,465,280unique visitors, 55,002,415 page views and average stay in page 8.25 minutes, too high for stay. 2.5 COMPANIES THAT PROMOTE DESTINATIONS THROUGH DIGITAL STRATEGYADIDAS AND BERLINOn March 2009, Adidas Urban Art Guide31, was the first art guide for mobile phones for the city ofBerlin, Germany. The guide has much information related to urban street art. Users can downloadthe application free and gain access to a Berlin map with the art location."Find artworks nearby" provides users information on a map with street art around them"Tour guide" a walk tour guide"Gallery" users can search and find their favorite locations on the mapUsers can click on the images and see more information about the artists, the art and more referencesImage 4.3 adidas Urban Art GuideA year later the city of Hamburg was the second German city that was presented in adidas Urban ArtGuide.31 www.urbanartguide.com 35
  36. 36. 2.6 ONLINE STRATEGY DESTINATION MATRIXForm all the before mentioned paradigms, it is quite clear that the e services DestinationManagement System is the most difficult and multiple system for the destination stakeholders tofollow and use. An online strategy is the used at the last stage of a destinations’ e services approach.It requires commitment from the local community and businesses and also a long term investment.The online strategy options that this essay finds and proposes are five that are show in the matrixbelow.Combining the marketing research findings, the internet tools and the destinations different strategicgoals, the essay proposes a matrix that connects all the above elements.In the horizontal axis the five case studies are shown: digital simple presence, e services DMO(Genoa- Italy), web and mobile page and applications (Dutch Tourism Organization), an onlinecampaign (Queensland, Australia) and company promotion (Berlin -Adidas). 32 ONLINE STRATEGY DESTINATION MATRIXonline strategy basic online Online companies online consumer Online DMOwebsite/ tools presence campaign online centric management promotion approach e-services strategyMobile ΜΚΤpresenceSEO-SEMEmail mktOnlinesponsorshipsSocial mediaGroups/ eventsDisplayadvertisingGeoTagging/LocationSmartphoneappsContent/BloggingTable 4.4 digital strategy destination matrix32 This matrix is a thought of the author, trying show the differences in the destinations strategy. 36
  37. 37. In the veritical axis there are the tools/ solutions that can be used in each case:Mobile MKT: a creation of a mobile version of the webpageSEO-SEM: search engine optimization –marketing tacticsEmail MKT: mass email to recipientsOnline sponsorships: a type of online adsSocial media: Facebook, twitter usageGroups/ events: targeted eventsDisplay advertising: banner placement in webpagesGeotagging : georeference tools usage (google maps, bing, foursquare etc)Apps: applications creation to support smartphone usersBlogging: blog creation and content publishmentTick in every box means the per ce use of every tool. Social media are essential in every case thou.Conclusion33The best combination of options is the one that characterizes the online strategy. For example socialmedia (Facebook page - Campaign are important to promotion, but everyone has to use them. TheSEO/SEM is more necessary when the admin knows what the consumer is searching online and thewebpage offers its product directly eg hotel website. The mobile applications are more far moreuseful while traveling so they are more important for promoting events and activities in thedestination. Also a destination website should have a geo reference tool for locations. So in everycase, different tools can be used, depending on the goal. CHAPTER SYNOPSISIn this chapter there is the destination online matrix presented that can help the final proposal forOlympia destination. It is obvious that this matrix is just a classification of the tools and the goals ofdestinations.In the next chapter the primary research to Olympia destination visitors are presented. Thisquantitative research was conducted in the Summer of 2009 in Olympia Museum.33 It is more than obvious that much more things could be analysed in this chapter, in order to relate more thetools and the strategy. 37
  38. 38. REFERENCESTHE VIRTUAL TOURIST: USING THE VIRTUAL WORLD TO PROMOTE THE REAL ONE, David C.Wyld ACR Vol.18 (1&2), 2010Au, W.J. (2008a, January 17). China plays duplicitous game with online gamers. GigaOM. etrieved April 2,2008, from http://gigaom.com/2008/01/17/china-plays-duplicitous- game-with-online-gamers/. Au, W.J. (2008b, March 12). All politics is virtual. The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2008, fromhttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/wagner-james-au/all-politics-is- virtual_b_91139.html. Bush, R., & Kisiel, K. (2007). Information & behavior exploitation in virtual worlds: An overview. A Reportfrom the Office of the Director of National Intelligence and the Intelligence Advanced Research ProjectsActivity. Retrieved April 13, 2008, fromhttp://blog.wired.com/27bstroke6/files/info_exploitation_in_virtual_worldsiarpanov071.pdf. Cummins, H.J. (2007, February 1). Second Life: Reality growing in the virtual world for business andgovernment. Government Technology. Retrieved December 19, 2007, fromhttp://www.govtech.com/gt/print_article.php?id=103707.Fondazione Sistema Toscana. (2007, August 27). Press release: Tuscany gets even bigger—on ―SecondLife‖! Five additional ―lands‖ added to the virtual territory. Retrieved January 3, 2008, fromhttp://www.intoscana.it/intoscana/vivere_in_toscana.jsp?id_categoria =1281&id_sottocate goria=1283&id=116927&language=en.Foster, P. (2007, June 30). Wimbledon fans get chance of a Second Life facing the stars. The Times ofLondon. Retrieved August 29, 2007, from http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/article2007872.ece.Gartner (2007, April 24). Press Release: Gartner says 80 percent of active Internet users will have a "SecondLife" in the virtual world by the end of 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2007, fromhttp://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=503861.Gibson, W. (2007). The novelty of being one step ahead. New Media Age, 3(28), 8-10.Kimban, D. (2007, November 19). Serbia has big plans for Second Life. Second Life News Network.Retrieved November 21, 2007, from http://www.slnn.com/article/serbia-island/.Llewelyn, G. (2007, December 28). Estonian embassy opens in Second Life. Gwynethllewelyn.net. Retrieved January 17, 2008, fromOMahony, P. (2007, May 22). Sweden trumped by Maldives in Second Life. The Local. Retrieved March 4,2008, from http://www.thelocal.se/7379/20070522/.Reeves, B., Malone, T.W., & ODriscoll, T. (2008). Leaderships online labs. Harvard Business Review, 86(5),58-66.Riley, D. (2007, December 5). You‘re not in the USSR any more: Estonia opens an embassy in Second Life.Tech Crunch. Retrieved December 15, 2007, from http://www.benchmarkcapital.com/news/sv/2007/12_05_2007.php.Talamasca, A. (2007, May 23). The Maldives virtual embassy. Second Life Insider. Retrieved July 30, 2007,from http://www.secondlifeinsider.com/2007/05/23 /the-maldives-virtual-embassy/.Villiger, N. (2007, October 24). Experience an Italian language lesson in Second Life. PRWeb. RetrievedApril 22, 2008, from http://www.prweb.com/releases/2007/10/prweb563705.htm.Yuen-C, T., & Hou, C.H. (2007, August 21). Govt agency buys island - in cyberspace. Singapore StraitsTimes. Retrieved September 10, 2007, from http://www.straitstimes.com/Free/Story/STIStory_150344.html.Zimmer, Linda (2007a, January 15). Galveston, (oh Galveston) CVB comes to Second Life. BusinessCommunicators of Second Life. Retrieved November 29, 2007, from http://freshtakes.typepad.com/sl_communicators/2007/01/galveston_oh_ga.html. Zimmer, Linda (2007b, March 13). Tuscany comes to Second Life on March 30. Business Communicatorsof Second Life. Retrieved November 29, 2007, from http://freshtakes.typepad.com/sl_communicators/2007/03/tuscany_comes_t.htmlDooling, B., Burgess, L., and Cooper, J., 2002. Evaluating the use of the Web for tourism marketing: a casestudy from New Zealand. Tourism management, 23 (5), 557‖561.Krassimira Paskaleva-Shapiraa, Enhancing digital access to local cultural heritage through e-governance:innovations in theory and practice from Genoa, ItalyGo, F.M., Lee, R.M., and Russo, A.P., 2003. E-heritage in the globalizing society: enabling cross- culturalengagement through ICT. Information technology and tourism, 6 (1), 55-68. 38
  39. 39. Scott, A.J., 2004. Cultural-products industries and urban economic development: prospects for growth andmarket contestation in global context. Urban affairs review, 39 (4), 461-490.Teichmann, K. and Zins, A.H., 2008. Information elements on DMO-websites: alternative approaches formeasuring perceived utilities. In:P.O’Connor, W. Ho ¨pken and U. Gretzel, eds. Information andcommunication technologies in tourism 2008. Vienna: Springer, 209-219.Innes, J.E. and Booher, D.E., 1999. Consensus building and complex adaptative systems. A framework forevaluating collaborative planning. American Planning Association journal, 65 (4), 412-423.Linaza, M.T., Lo ¨ lho ¨ ffel, F., Garcia, A., Lamsfus, C., Alzua-Sorzabal, A., and Lazkano, A., 2008. Mash-upapplications for small destination management organizations websites. In:P.O’Connor, W. Ho ¨pken and U.Gretzel, eds. Information and communication technologies in tourism 2008.Vienna: Springer, 130-40.Torres, L., Pina, V., and Acerete, B., 2006. e-Governance development in European Union cities: reshapinggovernment’s relationship with citizens. Governance: an international journal of policy, administration andinstitutions, 19 (2), 277-302.Arezza, A., Paskaleva-Shapira, K., Mitsche, N., Wolf, E., Riganti, P., and Koomen, E. 2007. ISAAC userrequirements for e-services and architecture, EU FP6 ISAAC project report ISAAC/WP2/TXT/ D2.1 [online].Available from: http://www.isaac-project.eu/publications.asp# [Accessed 24 April 2008].Buhalis, D., 2003. eTourism: information technology for strategic tourism management. Harlow: PearsonEducation.Buhalis, D. and Pistidda, L., 2008. The impact of WiMAX on tourist destinations. In:P.O’Connor, W. Hopkenand U. Gretzel, eds. Information and communication technologies in tourism 2008. Vienna: Springer, 383-394.Palmer, A., 2005. The Internet challenge for destination marketing. In: N. Morgan, A. Pritchard and R. Pride,eds. Destination branding: creating the unique destination proposition. Oxford: Elsevier, 128-140.Paskaleva-Shapira, K. 2008. New paradigms in city tourism management: redefining destination promotion.Journal of travel research, 46 (1), 108-114.Paskaleva-Shapira, K., and J. Azorı ´n 2008. Developing integrated e-services for cultural tourism e-destinations. International journal of services technology and management (IJSTM), Special Issue on Progressin Tourism Service and Sustainable Development, in press.Paskaleva-Shapira, K., Lombardi, P., and D. Giaffi 2007. E-tourism services for cultural heritage in cities: ane-governance approach and evaluation. In: P. Cunningham and M. Cunningham, eds.Ciborra, C. and Lanzarra, G.F., 1999. The transaction costs analysis of the customer‖supplier relationships inproduct development. In: A.B. Baskin, G. Kovacs and G.K. Jacucci, eds. 39
  40. 40. 3RD CHAPTERQuantitative Research in Ancient Olympia Quanitative research to Olympia tourism product and results 40
  41. 41. 3RD CHAPTER QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH IN ANCIENT OLYMPIACHAPTER OVERVIEWAfter understanding the basic terms and created a structure of online goals of destination websites, inthis chapter we move forward to a tourism marketing research, to Olympia visitors. The goal is tounderstand Olympia visitor in order to create a marketing strategy just for him, for benefit of thedestination stakeholders.This research included a primary research in the visitors, about tourism demand and the image of thedestination from the user search. The primary research ends with the tourists profile, travel patternsand the evaluation findings of services and value.3.1 THE NEED FOR A PRIMARY RESEARCHThe development of an online strategic plan cannot be without an in depth research into the Olympiavisitor34.3 .2 METHODOLOGYThe research methodology follows an approach using a combination of primary and secondaryresearch findings. The research main target is the collection of the tourists’ perceptions andexperience for the destination parameters and dimensions. It has specific parts:1st part: online search present statusAt the first part there is the online content search for Olympia and the search in online travel guides.2nd part tourist research methodology and data analysisAt the second part, the examination of visitors’ perceptions and stances takes place, through aprimary research, of all nationalities. The specific targets are:• Learn the tourist profile- nationalities, ages, genre, education level and income.• The report of activities in the area during their stay, their problems and impressions.• Destination Services evaluation (attractions, nearby area, accommodation, transport, purchases)34 The research methodology followed the research procedure and questionnaire that was developed by Zouni-Kouremenos in the framework of Zouni Doctoral research. 41
  42. 42. 3rd part finding presentation and conclusions The completed and collected questionnaires data are inserted into the personal computer. With the help of SPSS and the use of variable tools the in depth analysis takes place. So after the third chapter and the conclusion the essay goes to the online proposal at the fourth chapter. ANCIENT OLYMPIA DESTINATION IMAGE THROUGH ONLINE SEARCH -DESK RESEARCH This desk research includes all the links that refer to Olympia destination with the keyword “Olympia Greece35”. From the 3.280.000 results we have here the first ten in visit rankings. In particular:.Olympia Greece http://www.olympia-greece.org/ A travel guide with information about the history, attractions and photosOlympia, Greece - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The official Wikipedia pagehttp://olympia.gr/ A political blog in GreekBest Western, Hotel Europa, Ancient Olympia Best Western Hotel Europa hotel in thehttp://www.hoteleuropa.gr/index.html destination.Current Weather Conditions at Αncient Olympia, Greece Weather conditions and data for the regionhttp://penteli.meteo.gr/stations/olympia/ from a Greek prognosis websitehttp://www.greeklandscapes.com/greece/olympia/index.html A travel guide for OlympiaOlympia High School Olympia high schoolhttp://web001.greece.k12.ny.us/olympia-high.cfmOlympia, Greece: Home of the Original Olympic Games Matt Barret (2009) travel guidehttp://www.greecetravel.com/olympia/A Walking Tour of Olympia Archaeology guide for the destination withhttp://archaeology.about.com/od/ancientgreece/ss/olympia_tour.htm relative contenthttp://www.tripadvisor.com/Tourism-g189487- A tripadvisor pageOlympia_Peloponnese-Vacations.html The official website of Ancient Olympia or International Olympic Academy do not show in the first top 10 results. (http://www.arxaiaolympia.gov.gr/, http://www.ioa.org.gr/ Also we studied Olympia online image in the most trusted online travel guides. 35 The research took place in February 2011 42
  43. 43. Α) www.tripadvisor.comTripadvisor.com is updated with many recorded experiences of the visitors. Most impressions aregood, but there are also negative comments, about bad services. Some hotels had repeated badreviews from travellers (dirty rooms, bad food and beds etc). There were very good comments forthe Museum and the theatre at Floka. It is also considered as a safe place. It is better to visit the areaduring high season. Also there is positive feedback about the green area and near beaches. The pricesare estimated as high.Β) www.greeka.comhttp://www.greeka.com/peloponnese/olympia/reviews/olympia-0.htmit is a very well informed website, especially of historical and archaeological importance. Regardingthe access, there is information about there are many means of transport (car, bus, ferry).Γ) www.facebook.comThere are some groups of the Greek Olympic Committee, the International Olympic Academy, theStadium, the Olympia Festival that provide information in social media.https://www.facebook.com/pages/Ancient-Olympia-Festival/https://www.facebook.com/ioaofficialhttps://www.facebook.com/pages/Hellenic-Olympic-Committee/∆) www.lonelyplanet.comLonely planet is one of the most famous travel guides in the world. But the information about ancientOlympia are few, just six. 43
  44. 44. Ε) www.flickr.comMaking the search “Olympia Greece” there are 15.563 φωτογραφίες, something that show thatOlympia is an attraction and also inspires. Most of the photos show museum exhibits, thearchaeological sites and nature. 44
  45. 45. PRIMARY RESEARCH IN TOURISTS3.3 EMPIRICAL PART OF THE STUDYResearch targetsThis chapter with issues related to the tourism product of Olympia that offers to its visitors. It mainlyfocuses on the stance and behaviour, as this is from the visitors’ research. Below the targets of theDescriptive research) are:• To map the tourist profile, according to their demographics• Examine their trip to Olympia details (type, transport, days of stay etc)• Discover the activities and interests of the tourists during their stagy (nearby destinations, attractions etc)• Discover their stance regarding accommodation, nutrition- food, transport, purchases in local shops and their daily expenses, and their image of the destination.These targets are examined in the questionnaire.TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH- SAMPLINGWith this study, that is a quantitative research by asking the visitor individually to reply to apersonal questionnaire that is printed in 6 languages.The languages where:1. English2. French3. German4. Italian5. Spanish6. GreekThe selection of the languages was made accordingly to the tourist groups that mostly visitOlympia. 45
  46. 46. Population definitionThe research tried to cover foreigners and Greeks over 15 years old that were at Ancient Olympia -element and visiting the Archeological Museum. -sampling unit.As for the research extent, was planned to cover people over 15 years. The time was July-September 2009.SAMPLING METHODThe sampling method was random selection of tourists that were visiting the Olympia Museum. Itis a subjective judgement sample, since the selection was made trying to find random the moreobjective evaluators’ of the destination36 . The questionnaire distribution was made with thefollowing criteria: a questionnaire every 15 minutes (average), during the period the OlympiaMuseum was open for the public, for 2-3 months (July- September 2009).InterviewsSo there were about 8 questionnaires per hour and the best number was at 256 questionnaires. Butthey had 350 questionnaires to be selected in order to overpass wrong questionnaires, somethingusual for travel destination, due to lack of time of the visitor.SAMPLE SIZEThe sample size was initially estimated to 256 people but finally in reached 271 people-questionnaires. At the table below the questionnaire variables follow.36 The proposed unit for research in destinations according to WTO Tourism Research Guide: “the samplingsize for destinations should be over 15 years of age, that should be selected by random process”. 46
  47. 47. QUESTIONNAIRE VARIABLES Questionnaire VariablesGeneral travel behaviour Group membership, length of stay, preparation time, source of information, influenceTravel pattern at the Previous/ next destinations, activities, reasons of visit, relation todestination nearby destinations, type of accommodation, daily expensesBehavioural intentions Revisit intention to country/ destination Revisit intention to the same hotel References to othersQuality assessment Attractions Accommodation Food Transport PurchasesSatisfaction Attractions satisfaction Accommodation satisfaction Food satisfaction Transport satisfaction Purchases satisfaction Overall satisfactionStance Stance towards destination Stance towards localsDemographics Age, genre, nationality, income, education levelTable 5.10: variables 47
  48. 48. Γ3. DATA EDIT FOR ANALYSISQuestionnaire editingIn a tourist market research it is expected from the researcher the return of questionnaire that are notcompleted 100%. In the case that was not completed, they were not used to analysis. For preventingthis, they were given 320 questionnaires, and they were used for analysis 271 (a 15% off).Γ4. BASIC FINDINGSTOURIST PROFILEThe sample was about 271 tourists, foreigners and Greeks that visited ancient Olympia. Regardingthe nationality, French were first with 17,4%, Greeks second, (15,9%) and Italians 14,3%. Fourthand last place over 10% were Germans with 13,2%. Women are more, 53,3% and men 46,7%.The majority of visitors are middle age 40 - 49 years old (28,6% ). The next target group is younger19 - 29 years old (23,9%) and the middle age group and group 30-39 years old follows (17,6%) with50-59 years old (16%). Just ¼ tourists are over 50 years of age.As it is expected for a cultural destination, the vast majority is high educated people. The graduatesare 33,2% and the master or second degree follow with 30%.Regarding the monthly income, the 28,8% of visitors belong to the high income group, monthly over5000 euros. After that the people in the previous group follow, those of Αµέσως 2000 -3000 euros(22,6%). 48
  49. 49. Demographics % repliesNationality French 17,4 Greeks 15,9 Italians 14,3 Germans 13,2 British 8,5 Americans 8,5 Spanish 3,5Gender Women 53,3 Men 46,7Demographics % repliesAge group 40-49 28,6 19-29 23,9 30-39 17,6 50-59 15,3 15-18 6,3Education level University degree 33,2 Master degree 30,0 Secondary education alumni 22,1 Students 13,4 Basic 1,4Average monthly income Over 5000 euros 28,8 3000 -5000 euros 13,6 2000 -2999 euros 22,6 1000 -1999 euros 19,8 Below 1000 euros 15,3Table 5.11: Olympia tourist profile 49
  50. 50. Here are the tables with specific details about nationality, genre, age, education level and monthlyincome follow.Diagram 5.4: nationalityDiagram 5.5: genre 50
  51. 51. Diagram 5.6: ageDiagram 5.7educational levelEducational level and income are high to the destination, that menans that they would prefere qualityservices at the destination. 51
  52. 52. Diagram 5.8: monthly incomeGENERAL TRAVEL PATTERNS1.1.1 IntroductionIn this section the general travel patterns are presented.1.2.1 Visit typeMore people travel to Olympia with their family 52
  53. 53. Diagram 5.9: travel compositionSo, the 41% also comes with their partner, (68 replies). It is important that in the second place theycome as couple (25,1%) and in the third place they come with (organized group) 17,3%. Justcompany comes to 13,7%, and travel alone people are about 3% - 8 persons.1.2.2 Package typeMost people that travel to Olympia prefer to buy services separately. So more that 2/3, that is 72,3%,replies that buys services individually, while all inclusive tourism packages buys ¼ that travel(26,9%).Diagram 5.10 preferred packagesActivities during their stay at the destinationHere the visitor was asked to rank the three more important activities. So the visit to historicalattractions was selected by the 57% of the tourist sample (155 persons). The half of them (85persons) said that the visit to historical attractions was no1 activity while travelling (1 out of 3, 31%). 53
  54. 54. Diagram 5.11 main activities when they travelThe contact with locals and their culture as an activity was selected by the 38% (102 persons). Forthem, the biggest majority (30%, 80 persons) defined as the 1st activity when they travel.The 35,8% of the tourists that replied to this question mentioned that like to meet new places as anactivity when he travels (96 persons). From them the 24% checked this answer as a first activity (65persons).Relaxation as an activity was selected from 74 persons (27%), while walking tour as an activity wasselected by the 21% (57 persons).Finally the fun and sports was selected by less than 5% (less than 20 persons).Previous visit to Greece/ OlympiaThe 55,9% of foreigner has visited Greece again while the 31,5% replied that has re visited thedestination (78 persons). Some of them are Greeks (36%) while Germans from foreigners followwith 18%. 54
  55. 55. Diagram 5.12 have visited the destination beforeAccommodation and stay at the destinationJust ½ visitors stay at the destination. (57%). From those first they come those who want to stayOlympia for a day, since the positive reply was from 114 persons- 42,2%. There is also a 11,5% thatwant to stay 2-3 days, (while a 3,3% willing to stay over 4 days). But on the contrary 116 visitors donot want to stay at Ancient Olympia (same day visitors- 43%).Diagram 5.13 length of stay at the destinationBooking patternThe 57,6% replied as an individual (without the help of travel agent etc) while the 32,6% repliedthat booked through a travel agents, and just the 9,5% replied that friends helped him to book. 55

×