Culture & Tourism - Dr Ebru GUNLU- Dr Gurhan AKTAS

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Culture & Tourism
Dr Ebru GUNLU
Dr Gurhan AKTAS
DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY
IZMIR, TURKEY
IEMA TOURISM SUMMER SCHOOL 2012
Olympia, Greece

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  • Goffman
  • Cultural shock refers to the totality of reactions to new people and settings which result in ineffective behaviors. Cultural shock may be experienced by either visitors or their hosts. Cultural hostility is a form of cultural rejection or denial, often associated with anger and aggression. Cultural arrogance is defined as the continued practice of following one’s own cultural rules while disregarding the feelings and perspectives of the host community. Tourist behaviors that breaking known morale, religious or social codes are example of continuing arrogance on the part of the visitors. Displaying superficial local traditions and customs to tourists is a form of cultural arrogance. Designing international hotels in Western styles and showing little respect and appreciation for the local traditions is another example of cultural arrogance Culture change occurs as a result of : evolutionary changes occurring within a society, changes in the way people live, and contact between societies and groups from different cultures (e.g., hosts and visitors).
  • Economic inequality Many tourists come from societies with different consumption patterns and lifestyles than what is current at the destination, seeking pleasure, spending large amounts of money and sometimes behaving in ways that even they would not accept at home. One effect is that local people that come in contact with these tourists may develop a sort of copying behaviour, as they want to live and behave in the same way. Especially in less developed countries, there is likely to be a growing distinction between the 'haves' and 'have-nots', which may increase social and sometimes ethnic tensions. In resorts in destination countries such as Jamaica, Indonesia or Brazil, tourism employees with annual salaries of US$ 1,500 spend their working hours in close contact with guests whose yearly income is well over US$ 80,000. In many Muslim countries, strict standards exist regarding the appearance and behaviour of Muslim women, who must carefully cover themselves in public. Tourists in these countries often disregard or are unaware of these standards, ignoring the prevalent dress code, appearing half-dressed (by local standards) in revealing shorts, skirts or even bikinis, sunbathing topless at the beach or consuming large quantities of alcohol openly. Besides creating ill-will, this kind of behavior can be an incentive for locals not to respect their own traditions and religion anymore, leading to tensions within the local community. The same types of culture clashes happen in conservative Christian communities in Polynesia, the Caribbean and the Mediterranean. In developing countries especially, many jobs occupied by local people in the tourist industry are at a lower level, such as housemaids, waiters, gardeners and other practical work, while higher-paying and more prestigious managerial jobs go to foreigners or "urbanized" nationals. Due to a lack of professional training, as well as to the influence of hotel or restaurant chains at the destination, people with the know-how needed to perform higher level jobs are often recruited from other countries. This may cause friction and irritation and increases the gap between the cultures. Even in cases where tourism "works", in the sense that it improves local economies and the earning power of local individuals, it cannot solve all local social or economic problems. Sometimes it substitutes new problems for old ones.
  • Cultural diffusion refers to the spread of cultural elements such as ideas, styles, food, religions, technologies, etc., between individuals and groups within a single culture or from one culture to another The effect of culture diffusion is changing local cultural features (dressing, styles, food) and traditions; creating new products, services, and jobs; changing beliefs and ideas and improving the quality of life. Cultural borrowing occurs when two cultures come into contact and borrow each other’s traditions, customs or values. As a result of cultural borrowing in developing countries, the original culture of the host societies becomes weaker (they develop a Western style of society) and the culture of the tourist societies becomes stronger. Cultural drift refers to a temporary and random cultural change. A good example of cultural drift is a temporary change in language; over time, pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling and even grammar can change Acculturation ‘‘results when groups of individuals from different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, which causes changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups. Acculturation ‘‘results when groups of individuals from different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, which causes changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups. Cultural adaptation refers to adaptation of elements of other culture. Hosts need to adapt some elements of tourist culture in order to meet tourists’ needs. Host communities are usually pro-active and adapt to different categories of tourists despite stereotypes . honeymoon stage, hostility stage, integration/ acceptance stage, and home stage assimilation occurs when a person fully adapts mainstream values of a new culture and gives up his/her cultural heritage Conflicts arise because those in contact (individuals or groups) are from different cultures. Culture is a major factor in culture conflict.
  • Culture & Tourism - Dr Ebru GUNLU- Dr Gurhan AKTAS

    1. 1. Summer School s - Olympia, 2012Culture & Tourism Dr Ebru GUNLU Dr Gurhan AKTAS DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY IZMIR, TURKEY 29 JULY 2012
    2. 2. Bodrum 1970s Summer Schools - 2012
    3. 3. Bodrum 2010s Summer Schools - 2012
    4. 4. WHAT IS CULTURE? A GROUP OF PEOPLE Summer Schools - 2012
    5. 5. WHAT IS CULTURE?COMMANALITIES & DISTINCTIVENESS Summer Schools - 2012
    6. 6. WHAT IS CULTURE?A GROUP OF PEOPLE IN A CERTAIN AREA? Summer Schools - 2012
    7. 7. CULTUREDEFINITION BY EC“CULTURE IS A SET OF ATTITUDES, BELIEFS, CUSTOMS, VALUES AND PRACTICES, WHICH ARE COMMONLY SHARED BY A GROUP.THE “GROUP” MAY BE DEFINED IN TERMS OF POLITICS, GEOGRAPHY, RELIGION, ETHNICITY OR SOME OTHER CHARACTERISTICS.” Summer Schools - 2012
    8. 8. Summer Schools - 2012
    9. 9. CULTURE AS A TOURIST PRODUCT Heritage sites and monuments All forms of arts Crafts Architecture and design Sports Agriculture & Gastronomy Religion Intangible heritage Cultural events Creative activities Summer Schools - 2012
    10. 10. CULTURE AS A TOURIST PRODUCT Street life in Cuba Summer Schools - 2012
    11. 11. CULTURE AS A TOURIST PRODUCT European Capital of Culture Summer Schools - 2012
    12. 12. CULTURE AS A TOURIST PRODUCT Harvest Festival in India Summer Schools - 2012
    13. 13. CULTURE AS A TOURIST PRODUCT Glass making in Italy Summer Schools - 2012
    14. 14. CULTURE AS A TOURIST PRODUCT Re-creational Culture? Staged Authenticity? St Auguistine / USA Summer Schools - 2012
    15. 15. CULTURE AS A TOURIST PRODUCT Accommodation in Kenya Summer Schools - 2012
    16. 16. CULTURE AS A TOURIST PRODUCT Supplementary Product? Summer Schools - 2012
    17. 17. CULTURAL TOURISM Richards, G., 2001. Summer Schools - 2012
    18. 18. Criticism of Tourism Summer Schools - 2012
    19. 19. DEMAND Cultural Tourism accounts for 40% of international tourism In the US, 30% of domestic toursts are influenced in their choice of destination by a specific art, cultural or heritage event or activitiy Summer Schools - 2012
    20. 20. DEMAND Summer Schools - 2012
    21. 21. DEMAND Educated and sophicticated market Eager to learn about others’ lifestyles High-income earners Not extremely young Special packaged-tours for long-distance destinations vs independent holidays to mid- and short-distance destinations Usually are on longer holidays than short-breaks Those with special interests are likely to become repeat visitors Summer Schools - 2012
    22. 22. Defining Society and Impacts Society refers to impacts of tourismimpacts refers SocialCultural the socio-cultural impacts of tourism The term patterns of socialchangesto lives arts, refers to changes resident’s everyday to refers to changes in thein the experiences, as well as to their values, of people of wayin destination and and artistic living of life, and intellectual organization and artifacts, customs, rituals, communities. within communities.of a people. architecture products Summer Schools - 2012
    23. 23. Factors Related to Individual Perceptions of Tourism Residents who are likely to benefit are more likely to support People with greater of involvement in and knowledge tend to support Communities which have had little contact with outsiders have greater difficulty than those with a longer history of dealing with other cultures. Media portrayals influence host perceptions by providing information which is used in the social construction of reality and which influence public opinion. Summer Schools - 2012
    24. 24. Summer Schools - 2012
    25. 25. Summer Schools - 2012
    26. 26. Summer Schools - 2012
    27. 27. Pollution... Summer Schools - 2012
    28. 28. Summer Schools - 2012
    29. 29. Summer Schools - 2012
    30. 30. Summer Schools - 2012
    31. 31. Summer Schools - 2012
    32. 32. Summer Schools - 2012
    33. 33. Factor associated with Tourism Positive Impacts Negative ImpactsThe use of culture as a tourist attraction Increased support for traditional cultures Changes to traditional activities and arts to and displays of ethnic identity. suit production for tourists. Enhanced program of cultural and social Loss of traditional crafts and industries events Disruption and crowding of traditional Contribution to conservation of an area’s activities. cultural heritage Commodification Instilling a sense of pride in local residents Reconstructed ethnicity Cultural erosion Standardization Loss of authenticity Staged authencityDirect contact between residents and Breakdown of negative stereotypes. Enhancement of negative stereotypes.tourists Increased social opportunities. Distortion of local customs Increased commercialism. Meeting new people and learning about Introduction of diseases. different cultures Demonstration effects Strengthening communities Fragmentation of communities Tourist areas may develop large communities of second home owners and expatriates Alterations to religious codesChanges in jobs and economic structure New economic and social opportunities Community conflict and tensionresulting in changes in social roles which decrease social inequity. Increased social inequity Employment creation, income redistribution Loss of native language and poverty alleviation.Development of tourist facilities Increased recreational opportunities Loss of access to places and recreational activities. Formation of more sports and leisure facilitiesIncrease population from tourists and Tourism as a force for peace Crowding and congestion increased crimeassociated development. Summer Schools - 2012 e.g.fraud, prostitution, sex tourism drug Support for medical, educational and other
    34. 34. Obstacles to Socio-cultural Understanding Cultural shockjust for laughs Culture Shock - YouTube Cultural hostility Cultural arrogance Summer Schools - 2012
    35. 35. Cultural Clashes Economic inequality Irritation due to tourist behaviour  Elephant Trunk Hit Knocks Out Annoying Tourist. He Had it Coming lol. So Funny - Y Job level friction Summer Schools - 2012
    36. 36. WHAT MIGHT BE THE STREATEGIES TO COPE WITH THE ISSUE? Summer Schools - 2012
    37. 37. Strategies to Manage Socio-cultural Impacts Pre-travel information On-site interpretation Societal marketing practices Facility design A range of culture contact opportunities Explanation of tourism issues Community involvement in tourism planning Developing conflict resolution skills Summer Schools - 2012
    38. 38. It is all about CULTUREEEEECultural diffusionCultural borrowingCultural driftCultural adaptation / adjustmentCultural conflictAcculturationAssimilation Summer Schools - 2012
    39. 39. CHALLENGES IN RESEARCHCulture is difficult to measureNot easy to split cultural resources and attractions from othertourism products and services existing in a destinationCultural resources are often taken granted by authoritiesDifficult to conduct “culture” studies in multi-culturalenvironments. Multi-disicpline approach is required.Difficult to reach universally generalisable conclusions, or touse same methodology to conduct research in differentdestination settings Summer Schools - 2012
    40. 40. REFERENCESATLAS Cultural Tourism Project (2006), www.tram- research.com/atlas.Anadolu University Publishing, 3rd International Tourism Cartoon Competition, 2011Georgia Tech, Economic Development InstitutionLecture 3: Social and Cultural Aspects of TourismRichards, G. (2001), Cultural Attractions and European Tourism, CABI, Wallingford.OECD (2009), The Impact of Culture on Tourism, OECD, Paris. Summer Schools - 2012

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