Why Supported Employment?<br />Stephen Beyer<br />Welsh Centre for Learning Disabilities<br />Cardiff University<br />Wale...
Percentage of people with a learning disability in paid work<br />Estimates  of people in paid work<br />Scotland- 12.1% 2...
Percentage of people with a learning disability in paid work<br /><ul><li>  Biased towards people with a mild learning dis...
Percentage of people working 16+ hours per week<br /><ul><li>  Overall, biased towards small hours from PSA group
  WORKSTEP primarily over 16 hours</li></ul>National Survey 2003/04<br />
Problems of awareness and definition<br />There is little shared definition across social care and employment services of:...
Key problems of moderate and severe learning disabilities<br />Majority of people will have problems with: <br />speech an...
Key problems of moderate and severe learning disabilities<br />Ability to understand verbal instruction and to provide inf...
Why supported employment for people with learning disabilities?<br />Effective task training research going back into 1970...
What works for people with a learning disability learning jobs?<br />Severe<br />Moderate<br />Mild<br />Training on the j...
What works in finding jobs?<br />Severe<br />Moderate<br />Mild<br />Greater use of support to find & plan<br />Families<b...
Outcomes from supported employment<br />Shafer et al. (1990)<br />27 states- 1,400 SE programs<br />People with a learning...
Outcomes from supported employment<br />Schalock, Mcgaughey and Kiernan (1989) <br />1629 vocational services<br />wages p...
North Lanarkshire<br />Generated significant interest because of reported high levels of employment of people with learnin...
North Lanarkshire<br />North Lanarkshire Supported Employment (NLSE) operates within a framework of a Supported Employment...
NLSE Process<br />Referral visit (7 days)<br />An assessment to ensure that the agency’s criteria are met<br />Home visit ...
NLSE Process<br />Job finding (Meet 1-2 hours per week)<br />Registering person with Job Centre Plus<br />Pursuing employe...
NLSE Process Validation<br />Average hours provided to a sample of young people with learning disabilities in transition<b...
North Lanarkshire Day Services<br />2005/06 Day Services in North Lanarkshire composed of 5 Day Centres<br />Registered po...
Jobs<br />2007-143 jobs (138 people, 5 with 2 jobs)- 114 people with learning disabilities; 21 with mental health issues; ...
Jobs<br />Unemployment was 6.9% in the area compared with 4.7% for Scotland and 5.4% for the UK (ILO definition)<br />Full...
Hours<br />Mean Hours= 24.2 hours per week<br />&gt;16 hours= 91.3% all (89.8% LD)<br />
Welfare Benefit Before (LD)<br />The mean total income from Welfare Benefits before people entered <br />employment was £1...
Impact of benefits advice<br />There was a small increase in take-up of DLA at this point from 93% to 98%. <br />Mean tota...
Welfare Benefit After (LD)<br />
Benefit changes<br />Overall, Welfare Benefits represented:<br />99.4% of income before employment (98.7% LD)<br />100% af...
Wage income<br />The average salary earned in employment was £134.29 per week (£129.60 for LD)<br />The average hourly rat...
“Better off”<br />Overall, average total gross income from all sources after employment was £256.34 per week per person (£...
Tax?<br />No better off data net of Tax and National Insurance, as North Lanarkshire does not collect this data<br />Using...
Costs to LA<br />The annual costs of SE in North Lanarkshire, based on 2007/2008 budget was £4,304 per person per year, ba...
Full Cost:Benefit Analysis?<br />Missing: Access to Work, Grants<br />Included: Workstep payments (6 places)<br />
Change in Net Saving over time<br />0.60<br />0.50<br />Saving<br />0.43p<br />0.40<br />per<br />0.30<br />£1<br />spent<...
Full Cost:Benefit Analysis?<br />
Conclusions<br />North Lanarkshire have been successful in placing people from the general Social Work Services population...
Conclusions<br />Skilled job coaching and investment in a staff group of sufficient size is important, and it is likely th...
Reference<br />Beyer, S. (2008) An evaluation of the outcomes of supported employment North Lanarkshire (2007). Motherwell...
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Steve Beyer S Presentation Supported Employment 20 Oct 09

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Steve Beyer S Presentation Supported Employment 20 Oct 09

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Why Supported Employment?<br />Stephen Beyer<br />Welsh Centre for Learning Disabilities<br />Cardiff University<br />Wales, UK<br />
  3. 3. Percentage of people with a learning disability in paid work<br />Estimates of people in paid work<br />Scotland- 12.1% 2007 <br />17% - English National Survey 2003/04<br />7.5% - English Local Authorities, Commission for Social Care Inspection 2007/08<br />WORKSTEP - about a third of people placed 2008<br />Pathway to Work pilots- about 2%<br />New Deal- about 3%<br />Access to Work- about 4%<br />We do not know what hours people are working<br />
  4. 4. Percentage of people with a learning disability in paid work<br /><ul><li> Biased towards people with a mild learning disability</li></ul>Mean<br />17%<br />National Survey 2003/04<br />
  5. 5. Percentage of people working 16+ hours per week<br /><ul><li> Overall, biased towards small hours from PSA group
  6. 6. WORKSTEP primarily over 16 hours</li></ul>National Survey 2003/04<br />
  7. 7. Problems of awareness and definition<br />There is little shared definition across social care and employment services of:<br />Learning disabilities<br />“Mild, moderate or severe”<br />Awareness of their work potential, and support needs, is low among:<br />Families<br />People with learning disabilities<br />DEAs<br />Some employment providers<br />Social workers and social care staff<br />
  8. 8. Key problems of moderate and severe learning disabilities<br />Majority of people will have problems with: <br />speech and language<br />memory<br />cognitive processing<br />More people with severe learning disabilities are are likely to experience additional:<br />sensory and physical impairments<br />poor vision<br />measurable hearing loss<br />epilepsy<br />
  9. 9. Key problems of moderate and severe learning disabilities<br />Ability to understand verbal instruction and to provide information<br />Cue dependency creates difficulty transferring tasks learned here (training) to there (job)<br />Small changes can lead to the person being unable to do a well known task :<br />Changes in task sequence<br />Changes in work machinery<br />Changes in work materials<br />Changes in a co-worker role<br />Changes in workplace environment<br />All this weakens the relevance of pre-training<br />
  10. 10. Why supported employment for people with learning disabilities?<br />Effective task training research going back into 1970s<br />Complex & dangerous tasks<br />Matching “ecology” of workplace to person’s wishes, talents and specific strengths researched in 1980/90s<br />“Zero reject” vocational profiling in use since the mid 1980s instead of “work/can’t work” testing<br />Training in a specific workplace crucial to this client group<br />Put together, these techniques were called “supported employment” and success with people with learning disabilities demonstrated in US University evaluations in 1980 and 90s<br />
  11. 11. What works for people with a learning disability learning jobs?<br />Severe<br />Moderate<br />Mild<br />Training on the job- <br /> Systematic Instruction<br />Job coach support on-site<br />Breaking tasks into steps<br />“Chaining” tasks together<br />Hierarchy of cues<br />Physical guidance<br />Gestures<br />Verbal prompts<br />Job adaptation if needed<br />Managing praise and reinforcement more closely<br />Specific social training strategies<br />Work-based accreditation of skills demonstrated<br />Pre-employment training is possible<br />Verbal instruction & demonstration<br />Simple language<br />Greater time to learn<br />Use of naturally occurring praise and re-inforcement through:<br />Supervisors, work-mates<br />Ordinary pay incentives<br />Managing work pressure/ productivity demands<br />Shaping social contact through co-workers<br />Qualifications for job and career development<br />
  12. 12. What works in finding jobs?<br />Severe<br />Moderate<br />Mild<br />Greater use of support to find & plan<br />Families<br />Job coaches<br />Extended Vocational Profiling/ Discovery<br />20+ hours in various environs?<br />Interests and what good at<br />Relevant experiences<br />Work types and environments<br />Days and schedules<br />Welfare benefit planning<br />Use of practical job tryouts to aid decision-making<br />Aided CV and support planning<br />Proactive and specific job finding and matching jobs to people<br />Employer presentation and negotiation<br />Adaptation of interview and induction<br />Greater independent action<br />More use of generic help to identifying strengths, interests and experience<br />Use of more generic sources for vacancies<br />Greater use of courses, “job clubs”<br />CV development<br />Job search<br />Writing applications<br />More use of mainstream job application & interviewing and induction processes<br />
  13. 13. Outcomes from supported employment<br />Shafer et al. (1990)<br />27 states- 1,400 SE programs<br />People with a learning disability most frequent participants <br />157% increased participating individuals during the study period<br />Individual placement superior to other models<br />West et al. (1992)<br />42 states- 74,960 individuals in SE <br />People with a learning disability 62.8% of all participants<br />30.4% classified moderate, 8.7% as severe or profound <br />Individual placement model dominant model<br />
  14. 14. Outcomes from supported employment<br />Schalock, Mcgaughey and Kiernan (1989) <br />1629 vocational services<br />wages per hour in SE double those in sheltered work<br />average full-time hours higher in SE<br />Confirmed by Lewis et al. 1992; Noble et al, 1991 <br />Beyer et al. (1996) UK less positive wage outcomes <br />over half of workers increasing income by less than 60%<br />only 2% of workers more than doubled their income<br />17% experienced no change in income<br />
  15. 15. North Lanarkshire<br />Generated significant interest because of reported high levels of employment of people with learning disabilities for 16 hours per week or more<br />Significant financial benefits to the people reported<br />Noted for challenging the view that the &apos;benefits trap&apos; is the biggest problem restricting movement into employment<br />An opportunity arose to examine in detail the North Lanarkshire experience and to analyse their data.<br />
  16. 16. North Lanarkshire<br />North Lanarkshire Supported Employment (NLSE) operates within a framework of a Supported Employment Partnership from 1999<br />By 2007:<br />Two bases- Motherwell & Aidrie- one more planned<br />One service co-ordinator<br />Two senior support officers<br />16 job coach posts (often not all filled)<br />2 care and support workers<br />LD clients mainly, but people with mental health issues and acquired brain injury also served since 2005<br />
  17. 17. NLSE Process<br />Referral visit (7 days)<br />An assessment to ensure that the agency’s criteria are met<br />Home visit (within 6 weeks)<br />Explain the service<br />Check on Welfare Benefits with Welfare Rights Officer if needed<br />Vocational profiling (8-12 weeks)<br />Agree person’s preferences and conditions the person wants, jobs and specific employers<br />Twice per week for 2-3 hours per session<br />Meeting 1:1 in a variety of settings, at different times, and involving different activities, including social outings<br />Information also sought from family, professionals and relevant others<br />Period includes 2 short job tasters, supported by a job coach<br />
  18. 18. NLSE Process<br />Job finding (Meet 1-2 hours per week)<br />Registering person with Job Centre Plus<br />Pursuing employers<br />Assisting person in job search<br />Interview preparation<br />Further work placements as needed<br />Job coaching (as long as needed)<br />Providing training at work and fading support<br />Mentoring and evaluation (agreed with person/employer)<br />Agreeing criteria and monitoring success of placement from employer and employee perspectives<br />Career development (No timescale)<br />Updating Vocational Profile<br />Taking action to improve current, or change, job<br />
  19. 19. NLSE Process Validation<br />Average hours provided to a sample of young people with learning disabilities in transition<br />
  20. 20. North Lanarkshire Day Services<br />2005/06 Day Services in North Lanarkshire composed of 5 Day Centres<br />Registered populations for these 5 day centres was higher at 332 places/264 people<br />By 2007/08 a system of 5 community-based locality day services had been developed to replace traditional day centres (+ 1 opening)<br />Registered population 334 places/295 people<br />
  21. 21. Jobs<br />2007-143 jobs (138 people, 5 with 2 jobs)- 114 people with learning disabilities; 21 with mental health issues; and 3 with brain injury<br />All people with a learning disability “either came from day centres or had an eligibility to attend the same”<br />
  22. 22. Jobs<br />Unemployment was 6.9% in the area compared with 4.7% for Scotland and 5.4% for the UK (ILO definition)<br />Full data existed for 104 people in work at 2007 (96%), of which:<br />88 were people with learning disabilities<br />15 mental health issues<br />1 person with brain injury<br />Data presented relates to these 104 people for whom we have data, with sub-analysis for 88 people with learning disabilities<br />
  23. 23. Hours<br />Mean Hours= 24.2 hours per week<br />&gt;16 hours= 91.3% all (89.8% LD)<br />
  24. 24. Welfare Benefit Before (LD)<br />The mean total income from Welfare Benefits before people entered <br />employment was £137.60 per person (£139.51 for LD)<br />
  25. 25. Impact of benefits advice<br />There was a small increase in take-up of DLA at this point from 93% to 98%. <br />Mean total income from Welfare Benefits after maximisation was £141.93 per person, an average increase of 3% on the pre-employment income.<br />Income actually increased only for 9 people (7 for LD)<br />Average increase in income from Welfare Benefits being 91%, or £50.03 per week (94% and £50.83 for LD)<br />Range of individual increases being from 6% to 306% (same for LD)<br />
  26. 26. Welfare Benefit After (LD)<br />
  27. 27. Benefit changes<br />Overall, Welfare Benefits represented:<br />99.4% of income before employment (98.7% LD)<br />100% after maximisation (100% LD)<br />48.5% when in employment (49.7% LD)<br /> Reduction in Welfare Benefits from:<br /> a mean of £137.60 per person before (£139.51 for LD)<br />to a mean of £122.05 per person (£122.65 for LD)<br />a fall of 11.3% (12.1% for LD)<br />This represents a total saving to the taxpayer of per year £84,032 for the total group of clients (£77,168 for LD).<br />
  28. 28. Wage income<br />The average salary earned in employment was £134.29 per week (£129.60 for LD)<br />The average hourly rate was £6.11 per hour (£6.09 per hour for LD), 14% above the adult National Minimum Wage of £5.35 in place for 2006/07<br />On its own, salary was slightly lower than both the average pre-employment and the maximised Welfare Benefit incomes before employment<br />However, 40.4% of the workers had a higher gross income from salary alone, than their maximised Welfare Benefit income before employment (34.1% for LD)<br />
  29. 29. “Better off”<br />Overall, average total gross income from all sources after employment was £256.34 per week per person (£252.25 for LD)<br />Better off by +113.2%, based on 104 people for who we have all data (+94.8% for 88 people with LD)<br />Most common increase 51% and 75%<br />A slightly greater proportion of people from other client groups (mental health, brain injury etc.) in the 200%+ better off group<br />People with learning disabilities showed the full range of better off outcomes<br />
  30. 30. Tax?<br />No better off data net of Tax and National Insurance, as North Lanarkshire does not collect this data<br />Using Tax Benefit Model Tables for 2007 (DWP 2007) can estimate the tax paid <br />On average people would pay £16.91 tax/NI per week (£9.80 for LD)<br />This would reduce income in employment to an average net figure of £239.43 per week per person (£242.45 for LD)<br />Percentage better off in employment, net of tax/NI reduced slightly to +102.7% (+86.8% LD)<br />
  31. 31. Costs to LA<br />The annual costs of SE in North Lanarkshire, based on 2007/2008 budget was £4,304 per person per year, based on “actual capacity”- 202 people<br />Equivalent Locality Support Service, which catered for 295 people on a full- and part-time basis with an annual cost of £14,998<br />Using the average number of people in jobs 122 (ranging from 109 Jan. to 129 Dec. 2007) the cost per employed person of SE rises to £7,126 per job. <br />This still represents 47.5% of the cost of a LSS place<br />
  32. 32. Full Cost:Benefit Analysis?<br />Missing: Access to Work, Grants<br />Included: Workstep payments (6 places)<br />
  33. 33. Change in Net Saving over time<br />0.60<br />0.50<br />Saving<br />0.43p<br />0.40<br />per<br />0.30<br />£1<br />spent<br />0.20<br />0.10<br />0<br />1 2 3 4 5 5+<br />Years in operation<br />
  34. 34. Full Cost:Benefit Analysis?<br />
  35. 35. Conclusions<br />North Lanarkshire have been successful in placing people from the general Social Work Services population of people with learning disabilities in employment of 16 hours per week or more <br />This has been with relatively unfavourable unemployment levels locally.<br />It is likely that this can only be achieved with this client group if the key approaches used in North Lanarkshire are replicated, particularly the focus on 16+ hours per week.<br />Any reduction of cost:benefit ratios is cumulative and must be assessed across the body of people shifted from day service to employment<br />Year 1 costs are much higher than year 9 costs<br />Any “saving” in costs related to day service can only be redeemed if there is a strategy of shifting resources from day service to employment outcomes<br />
  36. 36. Conclusions<br />Skilled job coaching and investment in a staff group of sufficient size is important, and it is likely that replication would require:<br />Investment at a significant level to provide enough job coach and Welfare Rights Advice and management resources effective training in the process<br />Replication of the intensive SE process, and including expert Welfare Rights Advice<br />Monitoring to ensure the process is delivered to an adequate level of intensity<br />There remain some uncertainties in the cost analysis that would benefit from a more detailed costing of the full package of support for supported employees and day service alternatives for future workers<br />
  37. 37. Reference<br />Beyer, S. (2008) An evaluation of the outcomes of supported employment North Lanarkshire (2007). Motherwell: North Lanarkshire Council.<br />Beyer, S. Goodere, L. and Kilsby, M. (1996) The Costs and Benefits of Supported Employment Agencies: Findings from a National Survey. Employment Service Research Series, No. 37. London: Stationery Office.<br />Beyer, S., Grove, R., Schneider, J., Simons, K., Williams, V., Heyman, A., Swift, P., and Krijnen-Kemp, E. (2004) Working lives: The role of day centres in supporting people with learning disabilities into employment. London: Department of Work and Pensions.<br />Beyer, S., Kaehne, A., Grey, J., Sheppard, K. and Meek, A. (2008) What works?- Transition to employment for young people with learning disabilities. Chippenham: Shaw Trust.<br />DoH (2001) Valuing People:
A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century. London: The Stationery Office.<br />DWP (2005) Improving the life chances of disabled people. Sheffield: Department for Work and Pensions.<br />
  38. 38. Acknowledgement<br />We are grateful to:<br />Duncan Mackay and George McInally of North Lanarkshire Social Work Services for being prepared to share their time and their experiences with others<br />Maureen Cook, Margaret Gavan, and Margaret Wilson for background to the services<br />the NLSE team for producing the original updated data, to Ruby Stewart for compiling the data<br />Patrick McAviney for providing comparative financial data. <br />Simon Whitehead of the Valuing People Support Team for his support and VPST and CSIP<br />

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