DEMOCRACY Cathlyn Telebrico World History 4th 12 / 11 / 2009 TIMELINE GREECE – ROME – ENGLAND – RENAISSANCE – ENLIGHTENMENT – FRANCE
Draco 621 B.C. Draco created the first Athenian law code. He was harsh, but he made laws public. Judges applied to all classes
Solon 599 B.C. He abolished debt slavery. He extended citizenship to skilled workers
Clisthenes 508 B.C.
All citizens were able to participate in the assembly
He introduced ostracism, or banishment.
He was called, “The Founding Father of Democracy.”
His ideas revolutionized the way of thinking in Greece.
Socrates 407 B.C. – 389 B.C.
He wrote the book Peri Psyches – know thyself.
The oracle said he was the wisest of them all, because he knew how little he knew.
He created the Socratic method – questioning and answers.
He was condemn to death for, ‘corrupting youth.’
He believed in education rather than indoctrination.
Plato 427 B.C. – 347 B.C.
Plato was Socrates’ best student.
He wrote The Republic.
He believed tyrants were bad because they would do anything to maintain their power.
“A tyrant has too much freedom, they do what they want above the law.”
Aristotle 384 B.C. – 322 B.C He was Plato’s best student. He believed humans were with the rest of nature but were separated by their ability to reason. He also believed that the future of the empire depended on the education of the youth,
JuliusCaesar 44 B.C. He was a successful politician, general, orator and writer. He formed the first triumvirate. He destroyed the republic and started a dictatorship. He granted land to the poor, gave citizenship outside of Italy, and raised pay to soldiers. 44 B.C. – named himself “dictator for life.” Brutus organized his death on March 15, 44 B.C.
AugustusCaesar 27 A.D. – 14 A.D. He started the beginning of the empire. He formed the second triumvirate with Marc Antony and Lepidus. He won the Civil War. After his reign, the Pax Romana started – 200 years of Roman peace.
King William 1028 – 1087 A.D. He was the duke of Normandy, France. He was named, “King William the Conqueror.” He was most famous for the Domesday Book. It counted up all of what people owned. King could now tax based upon one’s wealth King had his own money to raise his own army.
Battle of Hastings 1066 A.D. It was held on October 14, 1066. It was fought between King William of Normandy and the English army, led by Harold II. King William the conqueror came out victorious, because Harold II was killed in battle. This unified England, and all of England’s allegiance went to King William.
King Henry II 1154 – 1189 A.D. He created royal courts with judges that traveled the country. The royal courts replaced the federal courts A federal court is trial by pain. If you were able to survive, you would be considered innocent.
King Henry VIII 1509 – 1567 A.D. He wanted a male heir but could not conceive a baby with his wife, so he wanted a divorce. The church refused to divorce, so the Parliament voted to end the Pope’s power in Europe. King was in charge of the new Church of England – Anglican Church – a political church. In 1620 A.D., about 100 puritans separated from the church, and traveled on the Mayflower. He is indirectly responsible for finding America
Magna Carta 1215 A.D. King John was losing the war against France so he raised taxes on barons. King John was forced to sign the Magna Carter – also called, “The Great Charter.” This is the first time the divine right was challenged, limiting the royal power. It had 63 clauses (diff. points) 1. Cannot tax people without the consent of the parliament. 2. Due process - trial by jury.
King Charles 1621 A.D. King Charles was forced by the Parliament to sign the Petition of Right Once he got money, he ignored the petition, and disbanded from the Parliament for 11 years Scotland invaded England forcing him to call in the Parliament again in 1640 A.D. He is the first King to be beheaded.
English Civil War 1642 – 1651 A.D. Tension between King Charles and the Parliament increased, leading to the civil war. The English Civil war was separated into two groups; the Royalists and the Antiroyalists. Parliament wins. King Charles is beheaded. This is the first time the monarch is killed by its own people.
Restoration 1660 A.D. Parliament invites the son of King Charles to be king. Charles II accepts and becomes king. Parliament promises he would have power from the Magna Carta and the Petition of Right Habeas Corpus – cannot be randomly arrested (due process)
KingJamesII 1685 A.D. He is the son of King Charles – the brother of King Charles II. He was a Roman Catholic who believed in Divine Right of the kings. Parliament withdrew support because they were afraid he would repeat Divine Right. They offered the thrown to King William and Queen Mary.
GloriousRevolution 1684 A.D. King James left. This was a bloodless revolution. Once and for all, without a doubt, Parliament is in charge. Never again will a monarch of England claim Divine Right. Parliament is supreme.
English Bill of Rights 1689 A.D. Monarch cannot make laws, suspend laws, levy taxes, or maintain an army without the consent of Parliament. Monarch may not interfere with debates in Parliament. Parliament must meet frequently. Monarch must be Anglican in religion.
Gutenberg’s Press 1455 A.D. Gutenberg’s Press was invented by a German named Johannes Gutenberg. This was a moveable type of printing. Book could now be made cheaper, quicker, and in quantities. It increased the common person’s access to books. It impacted the religious and secular world.
Leonardo Da Vinci 1452 – 1519 A.D. He was from Florence, Italy. He was considered a renaissance man. He was a scientist, writer, musician, architect, painter, sculptor, and more. He represented the ideas of the Renaissance with glorification of the human spirit.
Michelangelo 1475 – 1564 A.D. He was the most important renaissance artist. He sculpted David and Moses. He also painted the Sistine Chapel. He helped design St. Peter’s. His art applied the ideas of humanism – a perspective common to a wide range of ethical stances that attaches importance to human dignity, concerns, and capabilities, particularly rationally.
Machiavelli 1469 – 1527 A.D. He wrote The Prince. He wrote it while he was in exile with hopes of being freed. It was about the guide in gaining and holding power. “Stability and order is the main goal of government.” “The end justifies the means.” “A ruler rather be feared than loved.”
Protestant Reformation 1500 – 1600 A.D.
People believed the Catholic church was corrupt and broke away from the Catholic church.
Church spent money on the arts and personal pleasures.
They fought in wars, had children, and involved themselves in worldly affairs.
Indulgence – The church mad the people pay for their sins and gave the pope money.
The new sects that broke away from Catholic church were called Protestant religion.
They did not believe that the priest was needed to communicate and interpret God’s message.
Martin Luther 1483 – 1546 A.D. He became a monk in 1505 A.D. He led the reformation and the first protestant church. He wrote 95 theses and posted them on the church door on October 31, 1517. Salvation is based on faith alone, not good works. Bible is the authority, not the pope or church. All people with faith were equal, they did not need a priest.
Thomas Hobbes 1588 – 1679 A.D. He wrote The Leviathan. “Without a government, life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.” (state of nature) To prevent this, they needed a strong ruler. People gave up their rights in return for security and order. Social contact theory – people create their own governments. He believed in absolute rulers – would not have agreed to a president.
John Locke 1632 – 1679 A.D. He defended the Glorious Revolution. He believed people had natural rights – life, liberty, and property. He believed that people from the government were their to protect these rights (consent of the people) If these rights are violated, the people had a right, and a responsibility, to rebel.
Montesquieu 1689 – 1755 A.D. He is French. He wrote The Spirits of Laws. He believed that the abuse of power was the biggest threat to liberty. To prevent it, he separated powers into 3 branches. Executive, legislative, and judicial. Checks and balances on each other, too.
Voltaire 1694 – 1778 A.D. He fought for tolerance, reason, and freedom of religion. He opposed censorship. “I may not agree with what you have to say, buy I will defend to the death, your right to say it.”
Rousseau 1712 – 1788 A.D. He wrote The Social Contract. People were free and equal when living in a state of nature – absolutely free. Civilization allowed the strongest to force all to obey unjust laws – “survival of the fittest.” “General will,” – direct democracy, gave up some freedoms for the common good
King Louis XIV 1643 – 1715 A.D. He became king at the age of 5 and he had the longest reign in French History. He was nicknamed the, “Sun King,” because of his beauty and splendor of reign. He gained power by forcing nobles to live in Versailles. He ruled in absolute monarch – Heavy taxation helped create discontent
King Louis XVI 1774 – 1792 A.D. He became king in 1774. The economic woes in 1780’s were the cause of high taxes, bad crops, and rising bread prices during the Enlightenment He borrowed money to help the American Revolution. He was a weak leader.
National Assembly 1789 A.D. 3rd estate was locked out of the Estates – General. Estates – General (E.G.) King Louis needed money and called a meeting of E.G. 1st and 2nd estate would outvote the 3rd estate. 3rd estate wanted the voting to be changed. On June 17th, 3rd estate voted to form the National Assembly. They broke away from the Estates – General. They met on a tennis court after being locked out of the meeting room, and they said they would not disband until a new constitution is complete.
Storming of the Bastille 1789 A.D. The king brought Swiss guards to Paris because he did not trust French Soldiers. He rumors army to massacre people. On July 14th, “Bastille Day,” the 3rd estate stormed the Bastille. This was the symbolic act of the beginning of the revolution.
The Great Fear 1789 A.D. Rebellion spread to the country sides. Some nobles were killed and feudal due papers were burnt. On October 12, 1789, 6000 men and women marched to the Palace of Versailles and took the kin and queen to Paris. They were angry at the king and queen’s luxurious lifestyles.
Declaration of the Rights of Man 1789 A.D. The national Assembly is now in control. They took away the privileges of the 1st and 2nd estate and tax exemptions. Declarations of the Rights of Man: All men are free and equal. All men had the right to liberty, property and security. All men had the right to vote Right to freedom of speech, press, and religion.
French Constitution 1791 A.D. King Louis tries to escape from Paris but he is captured and returned back to Paris and he fully loses the support of the people. Another French Constitution is made in 1792 A.D. France was now a limited Monarchy. The legislative assembly would make the law, kings would enforce. New Government splits Disagreed on pace and the amount of changes in the government Radicals, Moderates, and Conservatives.
National Convention 1789 – 1795 A.D. France was losing the wars and the citizens were afraid that the nobles would seize power, again. 1,000 nobles were massacred in the prisons. The constitution was set aside, the king deposed, and a new government, called the, ‘National Convention,’ was created. France won battles, and stopped advancing armies. King Louis XVI killed. Radicals were lead by the Jacobin (later named the Committee of Public Safety), and they believed in executing enemies of the revolution. National convention declared France a republic and abolished the monarchy. The king was tried, and found guilty of treason.
Robespierre 1755 – 1794 A.D. Robespierre led the Jacobin. He wanted to wipe out all traces of France’s nobility and monarchy. People changed their names, streets, and cards were changed. He decided who were enemies of France. 5,000 killed in Paris, up to 42,000 in all. (85% were peasants) Robespierre’s death symbolizes the end of the reign of terror.
Napoleon 1769 – 1821 A.D. He was 5’3”. He emerged as a general and saves France from the invasion of Austria and Prussia. He protected the National Convention. He lost to the British in Egypt, but kept defeat out of the press. Napoleon seized power on November 9, 1799. The 4th constitution was written to give all power to Napoleon.
Napoleon (Continued..) 1769 – 1821 A.D. Napoleon Reforms He reformed the tax collection, established a national bank, fired the corrupt government officials, and created government run schools. He created a uniform set of laws (Napoleonic Code) He declares himself emperor in 1804. He had the empire, loses it, come back, loses it again, and dies in 1821.