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Region 9   zamboanga peninsula

Region 9 zamboanga peninsula



region 9

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  • Temporary Crops - crops which are grown seasonally and whose growing cycle is less than one year and which must be sown or planted again for production after each harvest.Permanent Crops - crops which occupy the land for a long period of time and do not need to be replaced after each harvest such as fruit trees, shrubs, nuts, etc.  These crops may be productive, which have already borne fruits or capable of bearing fruits or non-productive.The increase in coconut production by 1.74 was mainly due to the increase of number of trees harvested in Zamboanga del Norte The 11.86 percent increase in abaca production was partly attributable to the stripping machines provided by the Fiber Industry Development Authority (FIDA) in some provinces which encouraged the farmers to produce more. The 2.92 percent increase in banana production was due to the increase of tree bearing fruits in Zamboanga del Norte. The increase of 8.28 percent in mango was likewise due to the increase in trees induced due to demand in Zamboanga del Norte.
  • Temporary Crops - crops which are grown seasonally and whose growing cycle is less than one year and which must be sown or planted again for production after each harvest.Permanent Crops - crops which occupy the land for a long period of time and do not need to be replaced after each harvest such as fruit trees, shrubs, nuts, etc.  These crops may be productive, which have already borne fruits or capable of bearing fruits or non-productive.
  • Temporary Crops - crops which are grown seasonally and whose growing cycle is less than one year and which must be sown or planted again for production after each harvest.Permanent Crops - crops which occupy the land for a long period of time and do not need to be replaced after each harvest such as fruit trees, shrubs, nuts, etc.  These crops may be productive, which have already borne fruits or capable of bearing fruits or non-productive.
  • Aquaculture - rearing or raising under controlled conditions of aquatic products such as fish, oysters, seaweeds and other aquatic resources in sea, lakes, rivers and swamps and other bodies of water like fishponds, fish pens, and seaweed cultures.
  • Eclampsia - A condition in which one or more convulsions occur in a pregnant woman suffering from high blood pressure, often followed by coma and posing a threat to the health of mother and baby.
  • Mining – writ of Kalikasan (legal remedy designed for the protection of one's constitutional right to a healthy environment): temporary env’t protection order

Region 9   zamboanga peninsula Region 9 zamboanga peninsula Presentation Transcript

  • Region 9: Zamboanga Peninsula
  • Zamboanga del Norte,
    Zamboanga del Sur,
    Zamboanga Sibugay,
    Isabela City,
    Zamboanga City
    16,823 km2 (6,495.4 square miles)
    Total Area.
  • Maps
  • Physiographic Map
  • * The Zamboanga Peninsula lies between the MORO GULF, part of the CELEBES SEA, and the SULU SEA.
    Surrounded by bodies of water, the region has, thus, relied on fishing as one of its major industries.
    Bays: Sindangan, Sibuco, Sibuguey, Dumanquilas, Maligay, Taguite & Pagadian
    Rivers: Kumalarang, Sibuguey, Dinas & Labangas
  • The peninsula is connected to the main part of Mindanao through an isthmus situated between PANGUIL BAY and PAGADIAN BAY.
    The boundary between the peninsula and the mainland is artificially marked by the border between the provinces of ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR and LANAO DEL NORTE.
  • ZAMBOANGA RANGE – forms the backbone of the Zamboanga Peninsula stretching from Mt. Dabiakin Zamboanga del Norte and arching to Zamboanga City in the Southwest
    No active volcanoes
    • Zamboanga del Norte – hilly & mountainous with plains along the coastlines
    • Zamboanga del Sur – flat coastal plain with interior mountains
  • Climate Map
  • Type III (RED) – Seasons are not very pronounced; relatively dry from November to April, wet during the rest of the year.
    Type IV (YELLOW) – Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed through the year.
    These areas are partly sheltered from trade winds but are open to Habagat and sometimes experience tropical cyclones .
    These areas have a mild and moderate climate.
  • 2007 Population Census: 88,574,614
    Population Distribution
  • ZAMBOANGA CITY – (dark brown) High population density – 6th most populous in the country - highly urbanized and center of economic activity in Mindanao
    MOST POPULOUS Provinces: Zamboanga del Sur (25th), Zamboanga del Norte (26th), Zamboanga Sibugay (36th)
    Population Distribution
  • Dapitan City
    Dipolog City
    Zamboanga del Norte
    Zamboanga del Sur
    Zamboanga Sibugay
    Zamboanga City
    Provinces & Chartered Cities
    *** Isabela City
    Political Map
  • ISABELA CITY continues to be under the jurisdiction of Basilan for the administration of provincially-devolved services and functions. But for the administration of regional services, the city is part of the Zamboanga Peninsula Region despite the rest of Basilan being under the authority of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
    Political Division
  • Dipolog City
    Pagadian City
    Isabela City
    Provincial Capitals
    Political Map
  • Majority of the roadways pass along the coastlines of the region, implying greater human activity there.
    Road Map
  • Cultivated Land
    Principal Crops:
    R – RICE
    Commercial Forest
    1970’s: Cultivated land and Commercial forest are evenly distributed.
    Land Utilization Map
  • Cultivated, perennial crop
    Open forest, broadleaved
    Cultivated, annual crop
    Natural, grassland
    Wooded grassland
    Closed forest, broadleaved
    Zamboanga del Norte
    2002: Only few patches of untouched/natural land remain in the province.
    Land Cover
  • Natural,
    barren land
    Cultivated, perennial crop
    Natural, grassland
    Mangrove Forest
    Cultivated, annual crop
    Built-up area (PAGADIAN CITY: urban area)
    Zamboanga del Sur
    2002: Large parts of the province are already cultivated land with few patches of grasslands.
    Land Cover
  • Closed forest, broadleaved
    Open forest, broadleaved
    Cultivated, perennial crop
    Cultivated, annual crop
    Wooded grassland
    Zamboanga Sibugay
    2002: Cultivated land takes up most of the province. Over-harvesting is a potential problem.
    Land Cover
  • Statistics
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    Total agricultural land area comprised almost half (45.2%) of the entire land area.
    Due to the increase in the no. of farms and area planted over 1991 estimates, the average farm size increased from 2.87 ha. (per farm) to 3.11 ha. in 2002.
    Area harvested likewise increased by 5.8%.
    ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE has the highest number of farms.
    The total farms for the province accounted for 41.2 % of the total farms in the region.
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    The number and size of farms in each province increased in the span of a decade, implying greater efficiency, growth and reliance on the agricultural sector within the region, despite ongoing commercialization.
    This was achieved through the Dept. of Agriculture’s interventions such as the distribution of organic fertilizers in Zamboanga del Sur.
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • PALAY is the major temporary crop in the region. Total palay production increased by 2.62%.
    • COCONUT is the dominant permanent crop.
    • All provinces have the same top three crops namely, COCONUT, RUBBER & BANANA both in 2002 and 1991.
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Zamboanga City showed the highest improvement in palayproduction.
    • Yet, Zamboangadel Sur had the highest production during the year.
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    • Top Crops: Coconut, banana and rubber
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    Individual system of irrigation is common in the region. Farms planted with temporary crops benefited most from these irrigation facilities.
    Hog raising dominated the livestock raising activity. (But considerably less than in 1991)
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    Raising of chicken is the primary poultry raising activity. (Zamboanga del Sur contributed most.)
    Other agricultural activities:
    • Ornamental & flower gardening (excluding orchid) are more common.
    • High percentage increases in mushroom culture & sericulture/silk/cocoon activity
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    Male operators dominated the agricultural operation. (30-54 age group)
    • Implies that gender stereotypes persist within this region.
    Majority of the household members engaged in agricultural activity were working in their own holding.
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    Coastline is about 43% of Mindanao's total coastline.
    Major sea products include tuna, herring sardines, anchovies and mackerel. Shrimps, prawns, lobsters, crabs, squid and cuttlefish also abound.
    Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone and Freeport Authority (ZamboEcozone)
    • Only freeport in Visayas & Mindanao
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    Summary of Aquaculture Production by Culture Environment & Region, 2009
    247,634 metric tons
    21,650 metric tons
    2,477,392 metric tons
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    Zamboanga City showed a large increase in fishery production, which offset the declines in other provinces.
    Region 9 makes up 10% of aquaculture production in the country. (2nd among regions)
    • Total Aquaculture (Philippines): 2,477,392
    • Total Aquaculture (Region 9): 247,634
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    #1 in Commercial Fish Production: 357,124.70 mt.
    SARDINES CAPITALof the Philippines
    • i.e. With companies such as Mega Fishing Corporation based in the region
    Supplies 70% of the Philippine domestic requirements for DRIED FISH
    • Total of 104 big dried fish processors in the region
  • Agriculture and Fisheries
    Dipolog City in Zamboanga del Norte is renowned for pioneering the production of in-glass or bottled sardines in the country.
    Region 9 ranks third in terms of seaweeds production contributing roughly 12% of the total national output.
  • Business and Industry
  • Business and Industry
    Wholesale & Retail Trade - Most number of establishments & highest employment total (1994)
    • Mirrors most regions in the Philippines
    Mining & Quarrying – least
    • Recently, was petitioned against by many NGO’s.
  • Business and Industry
    Year 2000’s: Similar scenario as in 1994
  • Business and Industry
    Distribution of Establishments by Region & Firm Size (2009)
    7th lowest (among regions) – number of business establishments
  • Business and Industry
    While it fares better than other poorer regions, it still seems to lack economic and industrial growth, comparable to more developed areas.
  • Business and Industry
    Zamboanga City registered the most number of business names at 34% - implying it has more business opportunities
  • Business and Industry
    ZAMBOANGA FREEPORT AUTHORITY (Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority) - Conceptualized to be an economic hub that is designed to generate local economic activities that will serve as a springboard for the promotion of trade, investments, and ecology tourism not only in Zamboanga City but also throughout the region.
  • Construction & Housing
  • Construction and Housing
    Majority of construction projects are for residential purposes.
    Directly related to small number of business establishments.
    Also directly contributing to pace of region’s economic growth.
  • Construction and Housing
    Total number of building construction projects in Zamboanga Peninsula was recorded at 327 units or valued at Php234,695,000 in the third quarter of 2010.
    Among the provinces, Zamboanga del Norte was noted to have the most number of building constructions which was recorded at 272 units, followed by Zamboanga del Sur and Isabela City at 53 and 2 units, respectively.
  • Construction and Housing
    The region spends 9.6% of total family expenditures on housing – only a percentage higher than the even poorer regions of CARAGA and SOCCSKSARGEN.
  • Education & Mass Media
  • Education and Mass Media
    A functionally literate person can read, write and compute and/or comprehend.
    • Persons who completed high school or a higher level of education are also considered functionally literate.
    In 1994, the highest proportion of out-of-school youth (OSY) was observed in the ZamboangaPeninsula (18.7 %).
    More OSYs in the rural areas noted – Financial capacity is more likely prioritized.
  • Education and Mass Media
    Basic literacy is somewhat at par with other regions.
    But relatively lower functional literacy rates compared to others
  • Education and Mass Media
    In 2003, female functional literacy rate (70.8%) was higher than the males’ (69.8%) – Men are likely compelled to work, rather than attend school.
    Those of ages 15 to 29 years old have a relatively higher functional literacy rate in the region. (2003) – Mostly high school and college students are included in this range.
  • Education and Mass Media
    A large percentage of the population only completed until the elementary level.
    Also emphasizing probably substandard education or lack of financing in the region.
  • Education and Mass Media
    Reasons for Not Attending School
    Factors contributing to these negative indicators were the increasing cost of education and the demands for the students to provide extra hand in the farm especially during planting and harvesting time for those living in the rural areas.
  • Education and Mass Media
    Isabela City reported a very ideal ratio of 1:21 for both school years in the elementary, while Dapitan City led in the secondary level for a ratio of 1:29.
  • Education and Mass Media
  • Education and Mass Media
    The number of graduates in 2009 sharply decreased as compared to the reported number in 2008. A total of 9,279 college students graduated in 2009 as against 14,506 in 2008 or down by 36.0%
  • Education and Mass Media
    Proportion of Households by Ownership of Radio, TV, VCR & PC
    Most households prefer owning a radio in this region. (1994) Similar data for urban and rural households.
    This kind of medium is also the most relied on for information on current events/issues.
    Portable and less expensive, especially when living circumstances are considered.
  • Energy
  • Energy
    In 1995, kerosene and electricity were the most widely used types of fuel. – Kerosene is usually employed in the fishing industry, which co-dominates the region’s economic activities.
  • Energy
    In 1995, fuelwoodwas the most widely consumed, especially for cooking and food preparation. – Electricity may not have been accessible to everyone yet.
  • Energy
    Region 9 Power Demand (2009)
    Zamboanga City led among the other electric cooperatives in terms of power demand with 85,084 KW
    ZANECO – Zamboanga del Norte Electric Cooperative
    ZAMBSURECO I - Zamboanga del Sur Electric Cooperative
    ZAMSURECO II - Zamboanga del Sur II Electric Cooperative (ZamboangaSibugay)
    ZAMCELCO -  Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative
    PNOC-MCC – PhilippineNational Oil Company – Malangas Coal Corporation
  • Energy
    Region 9 Power Consumption (2009)
    Residential consumer remained the largest user of electricity with 337,491,012 kw used or around 45.35% share
    BASELCO - Basilan Electric Cooperative
  • Energy
    Number of Energized Barangays (2009)
    As of December 2009, the region has an energization rate of 99.86% for barangays with only three (3) barangays not energized, one each in ZANECO, ZAMSURECO I and ZAMSURECO II.
  • Energy
    Number of Energized Households (2009)
    On the other hand, energization rate for households is at 57.62% only.
    BASELCO was far behind its target.
  • Health
  • Health
    Crude Birth Rates (2008)
    Isabela City listed the highest birth rate.
    94.51% of total births, weighed more than 2,500 grams, which is considered the weight of a healthy new born baby.
  • Health
    Life Expectance at Birth by Sex (2005-2010)
    Relatively low life expectancy in the region.
    Especially for males
  • Health
    Leading Causes of Morbidity (2008)
    In 2008, there were 385,424 persons who received medical treatment from the health care facilities due to illnesses or a morbidity rate of 11,710.21 per 100,000 population.
    Leading Cause: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI)/Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) or (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and the common cold)
  • Health
    Leading Causes of Mortality (2008)
    A total of 11,860 deaths were reported in 2008, of which, pneumoniatopped the list of leading causes of deaths.
    Implies possibly poor provision of health services, lack of education and unsanitary environments
  • Health
    In 2008, a total of 63 mothers were reported dead in before, during and after delivery or 91.56% per 100,000 live births from all causes.
    Eclampsia topped the list of the 10 leading causes of maternal deaths.
    The program on Pre-Natal and Post-Natal Care is meant to address the problems of maternal mortality, however, with the report of maternal deaths, this implies the need for an intensive campaign on the program.
  • Health
    The number of infant deaths in 2008 was reported at 564, registering an 8.2% infant mortality rate per 100,000 live births from all causes. The #1 cause of infant deaths was pneumonia with 120 deaths.
    Children who died young were not able to receive complete & timely immunization.
    Lack of implementation: DOH’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)
  • Health
    Health Manpower
    There is a need for additional nurses (49), nutritionists (153) &sanitary inspectors (23) in order to satisfactorily meet the demand of the population.
  • Health
    Hospital Bed Capacity
    The total hospital bed capacity was 2,681(1 bed:1,228 patients), short by 228, following the government standard ratio of 1:1,000.
    However, the four cities of Dipolog, Pagadian, Isabelaand Zamboanga had enough hospital beds to meet the government standard ratio.
  • Health
    The decrease in the number of hospitals was due to closure of private hospitals as a result of absence of doctors and financial problems for family-owned hospitals.
    An increase of 26 accredited RHUs was reported in 2009 as a result of the expansion of membership enrolment under the Sponsored Program
  • Health
    Prevalence of Malnutrition among School Children
    The number of underweight school children was still pronounced in 2009, although a reduction in the prevalence rate was noted in the region.
  • Income and Poverty
  • Income and Poverty
    Poverty Data
    Poverty incidence of families (or proportion of families with per capita income falling below the annual per capita poverty threshold) in Zamboanga Peninsula accelerated by 2.4% from 34.2% in 2006 to 36.6% in 2009 with a magnitude of poor families of 224,378 in 2006 and 242,285 in 2009.
  • Income and Poverty
    Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence
    Increase in Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold
    Increase in poverty incidence
  • Income and Poverty
    Number of Families and Family Receipts by Income Decile
    Large percentage of income came from entrepreneurial activities. (Not from wages and salaries)
    Other sources of income came in 2nd – possibly under-the-table dealings
  • Income and Poverty
    Average Annual Family Income (‘03 & ‘06)
    Relatively low average annual family income – further indicating the high poverty incidence in the region
  • Income and Poverty
    Annual average family income, expenditure & saving all increased.
    Yet, the magnitude of poor families in Zamboanga del Norte increased by about 8.1%
    Zamboanga del Sur’s and ZamboangaSibugay’spoverty incidence accelerated by about 2.3% and 9.1%, respectively.
  • Income and Poverty
    GRDP of Region 9 increased by 7.5% or by 13,064,995 between 2008-2009.
  • Income and Poverty
    PER CAPITA GROSS REGIONAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT 2008 and 2009at current prices
    Only 4th among 7 regions in Mindanao
    Increased by 2,800 or by 5.41%
  • Income and Poverty
    Probable Causes of High Poverty Incidence…
    Lack of livelihood opportunities
    Illiteracy or lack of education
    Government inefficiency
    Inequality in the distribution of wealth and access to resources
    Peace and order situation
    Failure to gain access to credit, technological and market information and other services.
    Zamboanga Peninsula economy improves as AFF accelerates
    Strong performance of the Agriculture, Forestry & Fishery (AFF) sector
    Economyof the region posted an accelerationof 6.8% in 2009 from 2.0% in 2008.
  • Labor and Employment
  • Labor and Employment
    Very slight increase in the unemployment rate during the 1st quarter of 2011
    Considerable increase in overseas employment from ‘07-’08
  • Labor and Employment
  • Labor and Employment
    Among all regions, Zamboanga Peninsula recorded the 3rd highest employment rate in 2009 at 96.4%.
    While underemployment rate decreased slightly from 23.7% to 23.6%, the region stayed higher than the national average of 19.1% and maintained its position with the 7th highest underemployment rate in the country. (2008-2009)
    Labor force participation rate (LFPR) increasedfrom 65.7% to 66.8%, which is again higher than the national average of 64%. (2008-2009)
  • Labor and Employment
    Agriculture accounts for about 50% of employment in Region 9.
    Except for Zamboanga City, wherein employment is heavily concentrated in the Services Sector
    Major concentration of employment for the rest of the provinces is in agriculture.
    45.5% are Own-Account Workers, in which 38.2% comprise self-employed persons and 7.32 are employers.
    Wage and Salaried Workers comprise 36.5% of those employed, and more than 18% are Unpaid Family Workers.
  • Population & Demography
  • Population and Demography
    In the latest census count of 2007, the total population of Region 9 reached 3.230 million, up from 2.831 million recorded in census year 2000.
    Yearly average increase of 57,000 people
    Region IX accounts for 15% of Mindanao’s population and about 3.6% of the national population of 88.6 million.
    1.83% average annual growth rate
    Population will reach 3.487 million in 2010 and 4.205 million by 2020.
  • Population and Demography
    4th smallest region in terms of population in the Philippines
    Average of 5.0 persons per household – higher than country’s average of 4.8
    Dependency ratio is 70.5% - higher than country’s 66%
  • Population and Demography
    Average Annual Growth Rates of Region 9 is DECELERATING.
    Although the region has the 6th fastest growth rate among all regions.
  • Population and Demography
    Census Population by Province and City
    Zamboanga City has the largest and fastest growing pop’n. (3.54% annually)
    Compared to nat’laverage, Region 9’s pop’ngrowth rate is slower at 1.83% from 2000 - 2007
  • Population and Demography
    Population density significantly increased from 179 persons per sq/km in 1995 to 225 persons per sq/km in 2007
    IsabelaCity is the most densely populated city in the region owing to its small area (93 sq.km.) versus total pop’n.
  • Population and Demography
    If the pace of population growth continues, the region will be denser 294 persons/sq.km. in the year 2020.
    This will put pressure on the region’s natural resources and delivery of basic services.
  • Population and Demography
    More people reside in rural areas.
    There are slightly more males than females.
    People with ages 15-64 years old comprised a larger percentage of the population.
  • Prices
  • Prices
    Consumer Price Index (CPI) is an indicator of the change in the average prices of a fixed basket of goods and services commonly purchased by an average Filipino household relative to 2000 as base year.
    Significant increases in the CPI and the inflation rate between June 2010 and 2011.
    The Zamboanga Peninsula inflation rate in June  2011 slightly accelerated to 6.4 percent from  6.2 percent in May 2011.
  • Prices
    Food, beverages and tobacco group of commodities posted the highest inflation rate
    The absence of sharp surges in oil prices and expected favorable agricultural output helped stabilize consumer prices of Food Items.
  • Prices
    Regional inflation rates are relatively lower compared to the entire national average inflation rate.
    Significant increase in inflation rates between August 2009 and 2010.
  • Trade
  • Trade
    Exports for 2009 amounted to $191.18 million, or a decrease of 49% compared to those generated in the same period in 2008 in the amount of $284.44 million.
    ZamboangaSibugay and Zamboanga City registered increases of 60% and 28% respectively. Zamboanga del Sur registered the highest decrease.
  • Trade
    The reasons for the decrease in exports are the following:
    Indirect exports were included in 2008.
    The focus in 2009 was on those exports which the DTI Region 9 had direct interventions like market matching, trade fairs, trade missions and marketing consultancy.
    But the ZamboEcozone, on top of generous incentives granted to investors and locators, also guarantees free flow, entry ,and movement of machineries and other good tax free within its jurisdiction.
  • Trade
    There were decreases in all aspects of domestic trade.
    Likely due to trade barriers, poor product quality or increased transportation and/or production costs
  • Trade
    Roughly 40.0% of exports came from traditional items such as coco-oil, which is the biggest contributor, and rubber.
    The rest came from non-traditional items such as marine products and seaweeds.
    Coconut Oil – top export of the region – included in country’s top 5 exported products
  • Trade
    In June 2011, Coconut Oil, including crude and refined with export revenue of $67.42 million decelerated by 29.5%
  • Trade
    Japan is the country’s top trading partner: 13.7% of total trade
    USA: country’s second largest trading partner in 2010 with a total trade worth $13.446 billion or 12.6% of the total trade
    US is also the Philippines’ largest foreign investor, with foreign direct investment close to $6 billion at the end of 2009.
  • Vital Statistics
  • Vital Statistics
    Region 9
    All data for Region 9 are relatively lower than the national averages. (Crude marriage rate, Crude birth rate, Crude death rate, Infant mortality rate and Crude rate of natural increase)
    i.e. The Zamboanga Peninsula registered a 16.1% decrease in its Crude Marriage Rate between 2003-04.
  • Indigenous Cultural Communities
  • Ethnic Composition
    SUBANON (“people of the river”)
    The Subanens are considered the aborigines of Zamboanga, settling in the city before the Spaniards occupied it.
    Subanen, derived from Suba (river), means People of the River.
    Form a single distinctive cultural and linguistic group and are mostly farmers who grow upland rice, root, and tree crops.
    Settlements today are thinly spread over southern Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur, stretching northward, then eastward to the hinterlands of the neighboring province of Misamis Occidental.
  • Ethnic Composition
    from the Subanon community who submitted themselves to the practice of intermarriages and change of faith (Islam)
    Sama-Tausug slang which literally means "half breed”
    remain Subanon in speech and in their culture
    lack a distinctive political organization
    live their lives as subsistence farmers cultivating upland rice, roots, and tree crops
  • Ethnic Composition
    TAUSUG(“people of the current”)
    most politically dominant group in the Sulu Archipelago; formed the Sultanate of Sulu in the 15th century
    experienced sailors and are known for their colorful boats or “vintas;” superb warriors and craftsmen
    amalgam of different cultures and foreign influence that dates back to as early as the 13th century, when Sulu was trading with China, India, the East Indies, Arabia, and Japan.
    Fishing is one occupation many Tausugs are engaged in
    plant upland rice inter-cropped with cassava, coconut, abaca, and coffee
  • Ethnic Composition
    BAJAU (“sea gypsies”)
    nomadic, seafaring people, living off the sea by trading and subsistence fishing
    erect houses on stilts, and travel using “lepa-lepa,” handmade boats in which many lived
    Claims to religious piety and learning are an important source of individual prestige
    Originally expert horsemen & known for weaving and needlework skills
    ***often intentionally rupture their eardrums at an early age in order to facilitate diving and hunting at sea
    The SAMALS originated from this group
  • Ethnic Composition
    descended from migrating Dayak from Northeast Borneo and Sama from Johore
    have Malay features, known as fierce warriors and are primarily farmers
    boast of their intricately designed hand-woven cloth no other tribe can imitate
    “Folk Islam" -- a combination of Islamic principles and traditional beliefs
    prominent person of each community is the Imam who combines birth religion and socio-political leadership
    culturally influenced in some respect by the Tausugs
  • Ethnic Composition
    TIRURAY – with clear proto-Malayan features; classified into 3 groups based on subsistence orientation (riverine, coastal, mountain); artistic skill in basket weaving; animistic beliefs; traditionally use dry cultivation; retained religion in spite of proximity to Maguindanao
    MANOBO – traced to Malay people; primitive farming methods; patriarchal way of life; polygamy; animistic beliefs
    MARANAO – “people of the lake;” centered on Lake Lanao; largest Moro & cultural minority in the country; known for Sarimanok, exotic dances and artistry; Muslim; existence of feudal standings
    MAGUINDANAO – “people of the plains;” kulintang music; Muslim; carving and textiles
  • Languages and Dialects
    CHAVACANO: Spanish-based creole language (derived from the Spanish word "chabacano", meaning "poor taste," "vulgar," "common," "of low quality”)
    CEBUANO (Bisaya)
    SUBANON (Tuboy-Salog; Kanluranin/Siocon; Lapuyan
  • Culture and Livelihood
    Hudyaka Festival – celebrate founding of Zamboanga del Norte
    Sibug-Sibug Festival – celebrate founding of ZamboangaSibugay
    Buklog Festival - thanksgiving festival of the Subanen
    Kinabayo Festival – held in DapitanCity, Zamboanga del Norte; colorful pageant re-enacting the Spanish-Moorish wars
    The Hermosa Festival or the Zamboanga La Hermosa Festival or popularly known as Fiesta Pilar(held each year in Zamboanga City)
    • Held in honor of the miraculous image of Our Lady of the Pillar, the patroness of Zamboanga City which is held every October 12
    Megayon Festival - highlights the cultural diversity of the three groups of people that populate Zamboanga del Sur
    • Unique cultural dances, traditional costumes
  • Culture and Livelihood
    Art: weaving, basketry, metalwork, basketry
    Music: kulintang ensemble (gandingan, dabakan, etc.)
    Farming and fishing are the main economic activities of the region.
    It also has rice and corn mills, oil processing, coffee berry processing and processing of latex from rubber.
    Its home industries include rattan and furniture craft, basket making, weaving and brass work.
  • Significant Infrastructures
  • Significant Infrastructures
    Western Mindanao Power Corp. (diesel) - Sangali, ZamboangaCity
    Pasonanca Dam – Zamboanga City
    Zamboanga International Airport – Zamboanga City
    Zamboanga Freeport & Special Economic Zone – Zamboanga City
    Roll-on, Roll-off Port – Dapitan City, Zamboanga del Norte
  • Other Pressing Issues
  • Other Pressing Issues
    POVERTY (Squatting)
  • END