Region 9 zamboanga peninsulaPresentation Transcript
Region 9: Zamboanga Peninsula *
Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay, Isabela City, Zamboanga City 16,823 km2 (6,495.4 square miles) * Total Area.
* The Zamboanga Peninsula lies between the MORO GULF, part of the CELEBES SEA, and the SULU SEA. Surrounded by bodies of water, the region has, thus, relied on fishing as one of its major industries. Bays: Sindangan, Sibuco, Sibuguey, Dumanquilas, Maligay, Taguite & Pagadian Rivers: Kumalarang, Sibuguey, Dinas & Labangas Physiography
The peninsula is connected to the main part of Mindanao through an isthmus situated between PANGUIL BAY and PAGADIAN BAY. The boundary between the peninsula and the mainland is artificially marked by the border between the provinces of ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR and LANAO DEL NORTE. Physiography
ZAMBOANGA RANGE – forms the backbone of the Zamboanga Peninsula stretching from Mt. Dabiakin Zamboanga del Norte and arching to Zamboanga City in the Southwest No active volcanoes
Zamboanga del Norte – hilly & mountainous with plains along the coastlines
Zamboanga del Sur – flat coastal plain with interior mountains
Type III (RED) – Seasons are not very pronounced; relatively dry from November to April, wet during the rest of the year. Type IV (YELLOW) – Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed through the year. These areas are partly sheltered from trade winds but are open to Habagat and sometimes experience tropical cyclones . These areas have a mild and moderate climate. Climate
2007 Population Census: 88,574,614 Population Distribution
ZAMBOANGA CITY – (dark brown) High population density – 6th most populous in the country - highly urbanized and center of economic activity in Mindanao MOST POPULOUS Provinces: Zamboanga del Sur (25th), Zamboanga del Norte (26th), Zamboanga Sibugay (36th) Population Distribution
Dapitan City Dipolog City Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay Zamboanga City Provinces & Chartered Cities *** Isabela City Political Map
ISABELA CITY continues to be under the jurisdiction of Basilan for the administration of provincially-devolved services and functions. But for the administration of regional services, the city is part of the Zamboanga Peninsula Region despite the rest of Basilan being under the authority of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Political Division
Dipolog City Pagadian City Ipil Isabela City Provincial Capitals Political Map
Majority of the roadways pass along the coastlines of the region, implying greater human activity there. -AIRPORT Road Map
Cultivated Land Principal Crops: R – RICE N - COCONUT Commercial Forest Zamboanga 1970’s: Cultivated land and Commercial forest are evenly distributed. Land Utilization Map
Cultivated, perennial crop Open forest, broadleaved Cultivated, annual crop Natural, grassland Wooded grassland Closed forest, broadleaved Zamboanga del Norte 2002: Only few patches of untouched/natural land remain in the province. Land Cover
Natural, barren land Cultivated, perennial crop Natural, grassland Mangrove Forest Cultivated, annual crop Built-up area (PAGADIAN CITY: urban area) Zamboanga del Sur 2002: Large parts of the province are already cultivated land with few patches of grasslands. Land Cover
Closed forest, broadleaved Open forest, broadleaved Cultivated, perennial crop Cultivated, annual crop Wooded grassland Zamboanga Sibugay 2002: Cultivated land takes up most of the province. Over-harvesting is a potential problem. Land Cover
Agriculture and Fisheries
Agriculture and Fisheries Total agricultural land area comprised almost half (45.2%) of the entire land area. Due to the increase in the no. of farms and area planted over 1991 estimates, the average farm size increased from 2.87 ha. (per farm) to 3.11 ha. in 2002. Area harvested likewise increased by 5.8%. ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE has the highest number of farms. The total farms for the province accounted for 41.2 % of the total farms in the region.
Agriculture and Fisheries The number and size of farms in each province increased in the span of a decade, implying greater efficiency, growth and reliance on the agricultural sector within the region, despite ongoing commercialization. This was achieved through the Dept. of Agriculture’s interventions such as the distribution of organic fertilizers in Zamboanga del Sur.
Agriculture and Fisheries
PALAY is the major temporary crop in the region. Total palay production increased by 2.62%.
COCONUT is the dominant permanent crop.
All provinces have the same top three crops namely, COCONUT, RUBBER & BANANA both in 2002 and 1991.
Agriculture and Fisheries
Zamboanga City showed the highest improvement in palayproduction.
Yet, Zamboangadel Sur had the highest production during the year.
Agriculture and Fisheries
Top Crops: Coconut, banana and rubber
Agriculture and Fisheries Individual system of irrigation is common in the region. Farms planted with temporary crops benefited most from these irrigation facilities. Hog raising dominated the livestock raising activity. (But considerably less than in 1991)
Agriculture and Fisheries Raising of chicken is the primary poultry raising activity. (Zamboanga del Sur contributed most.) Other agricultural activities:
Ornamental & flower gardening (excluding orchid) are more common.
High percentage increases in mushroom culture & sericulture/silk/cocoon activity
Agriculture and Fisheries Male operators dominated the agricultural operation. (30-54 age group)
Implies that gender stereotypes persist within this region.
Majority of the household members engaged in agricultural activity were working in their own holding.
Agriculture and Fisheries Coastline is about 43% of Mindanao's total coastline. Major sea products include tuna, herring sardines, anchovies and mackerel. Shrimps, prawns, lobsters, crabs, squid and cuttlefish also abound. Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone and Freeport Authority (ZamboEcozone)
Only freeport in Visayas & Mindanao
Agriculture and Fisheries Summary of Aquaculture Production by Culture Environment & Region, 2009 247,634 metric tons 21,650 metric tons 2,477,392 metric tons
Agriculture and Fisheries Zamboanga City showed a large increase in fishery production, which offset the declines in other provinces. Region 9 makes up 10% of aquaculture production in the country. (2nd among regions)
Total Aquaculture (Philippines): 2,477,392
Total Aquaculture (Region 9): 247,634
Agriculture and Fisheries #1 in Commercial Fish Production: 357,124.70 mt. SARDINES CAPITALof the Philippines
i.e. With companies such as Mega Fishing Corporation based in the region
Supplies 70% of the Philippine domestic requirements for DRIED FISH
Total of 104 big dried fish processors in the region
Agriculture and Fisheries Dipolog City in Zamboanga del Norte is renowned for pioneering the production of in-glass or bottled sardines in the country. Region 9 ranks third in terms of seaweeds production contributing roughly 12% of the total national output.
Business and Industry
Business and Industry Wholesale & Retail Trade - Most number of establishments & highest employment total (1994)
Mirrors most regions in the Philippines
Mining & Quarrying – least
Recently, was petitioned against by many NGO’s.
Business and Industry Year 2000’s: Similar scenario as in 1994
Business and Industry Distribution of Establishments by Region & Firm Size (2009) 7th lowest (among regions) – number of business establishments
Business and Industry While it fares better than other poorer regions, it still seems to lack economic and industrial growth, comparable to more developed areas.
Business and Industry Zamboanga City registered the most number of business names at 34% - implying it has more business opportunities
Business and Industry ZAMBOANGA FREEPORT AUTHORITY (Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority) - Conceptualized to be an economic hub that is designed to generate local economic activities that will serve as a springboard for the promotion of trade, investments, and ecology tourism not only in Zamboanga City but also throughout the region.
Construction & Housing
Construction and Housing Majority of construction projects are for residential purposes. Directly related to small number of business establishments. Also directly contributing to pace of region’s economic growth.
Construction and Housing Total number of building construction projects in Zamboanga Peninsula was recorded at 327 units or valued at Php234,695,000 in the third quarter of 2010. Among the provinces, Zamboanga del Norte was noted to have the most number of building constructions which was recorded at 272 units, followed by Zamboanga del Sur and Isabela City at 53 and 2 units, respectively.
Construction and Housing The region spends 9.6% of total family expenditures on housing – only a percentage higher than the even poorer regions of CARAGA and SOCCSKSARGEN.
Education & Mass Media
Education and Mass Media A functionally literate person can read, write and compute and/or comprehend.
Persons who completed high school or a higher level of education are also considered functionally literate.
In 1994, the highest proportion of out-of-school youth (OSY) was observed in the ZamboangaPeninsula (18.7 %). More OSYs in the rural areas noted – Financial capacity is more likely prioritized.
Education and Mass Media Basic literacy is somewhat at par with other regions. But relatively lower functional literacy rates compared to others
Education and Mass Media In 2003, female functional literacy rate (70.8%) was higher than the males’ (69.8%) – Men are likely compelled to work, rather than attend school. Those of ages 15 to 29 years old have a relatively higher functional literacy rate in the region. (2003) – Mostly high school and college students are included in this range.
Education and Mass Media A large percentage of the population only completed until the elementary level. Also emphasizing probably substandard education or lack of financing in the region.
Education and Mass Media Reasons for Not Attending School Factors contributing to these negative indicators were the increasing cost of education and the demands for the students to provide extra hand in the farm especially during planting and harvesting time for those living in the rural areas.
Education and Mass Media Isabela City reported a very ideal ratio of 1:21 for both school years in the elementary, while Dapitan City led in the secondary level for a ratio of 1:29.
Education and Mass Media
Education and Mass Media The number of graduates in 2009 sharply decreased as compared to the reported number in 2008. A total of 9,279 college students graduated in 2009 as against 14,506 in 2008 or down by 36.0%
Education and Mass Media Proportion of Households by Ownership of Radio, TV, VCR & PC Most households prefer owning a radio in this region. (1994) Similar data for urban and rural households. This kind of medium is also the most relied on for information on current events/issues. Portable and less expensive, especially when living circumstances are considered.
Energy In 1995, kerosene and electricity were the most widely used types of fuel. – Kerosene is usually employed in the fishing industry, which co-dominates the region’s economic activities.
Energy In 1995, fuelwoodwas the most widely consumed, especially for cooking and food preparation. – Electricity may not have been accessible to everyone yet.
Energy Region 9 Power Demand (2009) Zamboanga City led among the other electric cooperatives in terms of power demand with 85,084 KW ZANECO – Zamboanga del Norte Electric Cooperative ZAMBSURECO I - Zamboanga del Sur Electric Cooperative ZAMSURECO II - Zamboanga del Sur II Electric Cooperative (ZamboangaSibugay) ZAMCELCO - Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative PNOC-MCC – PhilippineNational Oil Company – Malangas Coal Corporation
Energy Region 9 Power Consumption (2009) Residential consumer remained the largest user of electricity with 337,491,012 kw used or around 45.35% share BASELCO - Basilan Electric Cooperative
Energy Number of Energized Barangays (2009) As of December 2009, the region has an energization rate of 99.86% for barangays with only three (3) barangays not energized, one each in ZANECO, ZAMSURECO I and ZAMSURECO II.
Energy Number of Energized Households (2009) On the other hand, energization rate for households is at 57.62% only. BASELCO was far behind its target.
Health Crude Birth Rates (2008) Isabela City listed the highest birth rate. 94.51% of total births, weighed more than 2,500 grams, which is considered the weight of a healthy new born baby.
Health Life Expectance at Birth by Sex (2005-2010) Relatively low life expectancy in the region. Especially for males
Health Leading Causes of Morbidity (2008) In 2008, there were 385,424 persons who received medical treatment from the health care facilities due to illnesses or a morbidity rate of 11,710.21 per 100,000 population. Leading Cause: Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI)/Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) or (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and the common cold)
Health Leading Causes of Mortality (2008) A total of 11,860 deaths were reported in 2008, of which, pneumoniatopped the list of leading causes of deaths. Implies possibly poor provision of health services, lack of education and unsanitary environments
Health MATERNAL MORTALITY In 2008, a total of 63 mothers were reported dead in before, during and after delivery or 91.56% per 100,000 live births from all causes. Eclampsia topped the list of the 10 leading causes of maternal deaths. The program on Pre-Natal and Post-Natal Care is meant to address the problems of maternal mortality, however, with the report of maternal deaths, this implies the need for an intensive campaign on the program.
Health INFANT MORTALITY The number of infant deaths in 2008 was reported at 564, registering an 8.2% infant mortality rate per 100,000 live births from all causes. The #1 cause of infant deaths was pneumonia with 120 deaths. Children who died young were not able to receive complete & timely immunization. Lack of implementation: DOH’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)
Health Health Manpower There is a need for additional nurses (49), nutritionists (153) &sanitary inspectors (23) in order to satisfactorily meet the demand of the population.
Health Hospital Bed Capacity The total hospital bed capacity was 2,681(1 bed:1,228 patients), short by 228, following the government standard ratio of 1:1,000. However, the four cities of Dipolog, Pagadian, Isabelaand Zamboanga had enough hospital beds to meet the government standard ratio.
Health ACCESS TO QUALITY HEALTH CARE The decrease in the number of hospitals was due to closure of private hospitals as a result of absence of doctors and financial problems for family-owned hospitals. An increase of 26 accredited RHUs was reported in 2009 as a result of the expansion of membership enrolment under the Sponsored Program
Health Prevalence of Malnutrition among School Children The number of underweight school children was still pronounced in 2009, although a reduction in the prevalence rate was noted in the region.
Income and Poverty
Income and Poverty Poverty Data Poverty incidence of families (or proportion of families with per capita income falling below the annual per capita poverty threshold) in Zamboanga Peninsula accelerated by 2.4% from 34.2% in 2006 to 36.6% in 2009 with a magnitude of poor families of 224,378 in 2006 and 242,285 in 2009.
Income and Poverty Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence Increase in Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold Increase in poverty incidence
Income and Poverty Number of Families and Family Receipts by Income Decile Large percentage of income came from entrepreneurial activities. (Not from wages and salaries) Other sources of income came in 2nd – possibly under-the-table dealings
Income and Poverty Average Annual Family Income (‘03 & ‘06) Relatively low average annual family income – further indicating the high poverty incidence in the region
Income and Poverty Annual average family income, expenditure & saving all increased. Yet, the magnitude of poor families in Zamboanga del Norte increased by about 8.1% Zamboanga del Sur’s and ZamboangaSibugay’spoverty incidence accelerated by about 2.3% and 9.1%, respectively.
Income and Poverty GROSS REGIONAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT(GRDP) GRDP of Region 9 increased by 7.5% or by 13,064,995 between 2008-2009.
Income and Poverty PER CAPITA GROSS REGIONAL DOMESTIC PRODUCT 2008 and 2009at current prices Only 4th among 7 regions in Mindanao Increased by 2,800 or by 5.41%
Income and Poverty Probable Causes of High Poverty Incidence… Lack of livelihood opportunities Illiteracy or lack of education Government inefficiency Inequality in the distribution of wealth and access to resources Peace and order situation Failure to gain access to credit, technological and market information and other services. IRONICALLY… Zamboanga Peninsula economy improves as AFF accelerates Strong performance of the Agriculture, Forestry & Fishery (AFF) sector Economyof the region posted an accelerationof 6.8% in 2009 from 2.0% in 2008.
Labor and Employment
Labor and Employment Very slight increase in the unemployment rate during the 1st quarter of 2011 Considerable increase in overseas employment from ‘07-’08
Labor and Employment
Labor and Employment Among all regions, Zamboanga Peninsula recorded the 3rd highest employment rate in 2009 at 96.4%. While underemployment rate decreased slightly from 23.7% to 23.6%, the region stayed higher than the national average of 19.1% and maintained its position with the 7th highest underemployment rate in the country. (2008-2009) Labor force participation rate (LFPR) increasedfrom 65.7% to 66.8%, which is again higher than the national average of 64%. (2008-2009)
Labor and Employment Agriculture accounts for about 50% of employment in Region 9. Except for Zamboanga City, wherein employment is heavily concentrated in the Services Sector Major concentration of employment for the rest of the provinces is in agriculture. 45.5% are Own-Account Workers, in which 38.2% comprise self-employed persons and 7.32 are employers. Wage and Salaried Workers comprise 36.5% of those employed, and more than 18% are Unpaid Family Workers.
Population & Demography
Population and Demography In the latest census count of 2007, the total population of Region 9 reached 3.230 million, up from 2.831 million recorded in census year 2000. Yearly average increase of 57,000 people Region IX accounts for 15% of Mindanao’s population and about 3.6% of the national population of 88.6 million. 1.83% average annual growth rate Population will reach 3.487 million in 2010 and 4.205 million by 2020.
Population and Demography 4th smallest region in terms of population in the Philippines Average of 5.0 persons per household – higher than country’s average of 4.8 Dependency ratio is 70.5% - higher than country’s 66%
Population and Demography Average Annual Growth Rates of Region 9 is DECELERATING. Although the region has the 6th fastest growth rate among all regions.
Population and Demography Census Population by Province and City Zamboanga City has the largest and fastest growing pop’n. (3.54% annually) Compared to nat’laverage, Region 9’s pop’ngrowth rate is slower at 1.83% from 2000 - 2007
Population and Demography Population density significantly increased from 179 persons per sq/km in 1995 to 225 persons per sq/km in 2007 IsabelaCity is the most densely populated city in the region owing to its small area (93 sq.km.) versus total pop’n.
Population and Demography If the pace of population growth continues, the region will be denser 294 persons/sq.km. in the year 2020. This will put pressure on the region’s natural resources and delivery of basic services.
Population and Demography More people reside in rural areas. There are slightly more males than females. People with ages 15-64 years old comprised a larger percentage of the population.
Prices Consumer Price Index (CPI) is an indicator of the change in the average prices of a fixed basket of goods and services commonly purchased by an average Filipino household relative to 2000 as base year. Significant increases in the CPI and the inflation rate between June 2010 and 2011. The Zamboanga Peninsula inflation rate in June 2011 slightly accelerated to 6.4 percent from 6.2 percent in May 2011.
Prices Food, beverages and tobacco group of commodities posted the highest inflation rate The absence of sharp surges in oil prices and expected favorable agricultural output helped stabilize consumer prices of Food Items.
Prices Regional inflation rates are relatively lower compared to the entire national average inflation rate. Significant increase in inflation rates between August 2009 and 2010.
Trade Exports for 2009 amounted to $191.18 million, or a decrease of 49% compared to those generated in the same period in 2008 in the amount of $284.44 million. ZamboangaSibugay and Zamboanga City registered increases of 60% and 28% respectively. Zamboanga del Sur registered the highest decrease.
Trade The reasons for the decrease in exports are the following: Indirect exports were included in 2008. The focus in 2009 was on those exports which the DTI Region 9 had direct interventions like market matching, trade fairs, trade missions and marketing consultancy. But the ZamboEcozone, on top of generous incentives granted to investors and locators, also guarantees free flow, entry ,and movement of machineries and other good tax free within its jurisdiction.
Trade There were decreases in all aspects of domestic trade. Likely due to trade barriers, poor product quality or increased transportation and/or production costs
Trade Roughly 40.0% of exports came from traditional items such as coco-oil, which is the biggest contributor, and rubber. The rest came from non-traditional items such as marine products and seaweeds. Coconut Oil – top export of the region – included in country’s top 5 exported products
Trade In June 2011, Coconut Oil, including crude and refined with export revenue of $67.42 million decelerated by 29.5%
Trade Japan is the country’s top trading partner: 13.7% of total trade USA: country’s second largest trading partner in 2010 with a total trade worth $13.446 billion or 12.6% of the total trade US is also the Philippines’ largest foreign investor, with foreign direct investment close to $6 billion at the end of 2009.
Vital Statistics Philippines Region 9 All data for Region 9 are relatively lower than the national averages. (Crude marriage rate, Crude birth rate, Crude death rate, Infant mortality rate and Crude rate of natural increase) i.e. The Zamboanga Peninsula registered a 16.1% decrease in its Crude Marriage Rate between 2003-04.
Indigenous Cultural Communities
Ethnic Composition SUBANON (“people of the river”) The Subanens are considered the aborigines of Zamboanga, settling in the city before the Spaniards occupied it. Subanen, derived from Suba (river), means People of the River. Form a single distinctive cultural and linguistic group and are mostly farmers who grow upland rice, root, and tree crops. Settlements today are thinly spread over southern Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur, stretching northward, then eastward to the hinterlands of the neighboring province of Misamis Occidental.
Ethnic Composition KALIBUGAN from the Subanon community who submitted themselves to the practice of intermarriages and change of faith (Islam) Sama-Tausug slang which literally means "half breed” remain Subanon in speech and in their culture lack a distinctive political organization live their lives as subsistence farmers cultivating upland rice, roots, and tree crops
Ethnic Composition TAUSUG(“people of the current”) most politically dominant group in the Sulu Archipelago; formed the Sultanate of Sulu in the 15th century experienced sailors and are known for their colorful boats or “vintas;” superb warriors and craftsmen amalgam of different cultures and foreign influence that dates back to as early as the 13th century, when Sulu was trading with China, India, the East Indies, Arabia, and Japan. Fishing is one occupation many Tausugs are engaged in plant upland rice inter-cropped with cassava, coconut, abaca, and coffee
Ethnic Composition BAJAU (“sea gypsies”) nomadic, seafaring people, living off the sea by trading and subsistence fishing erect houses on stilts, and travel using “lepa-lepa,” handmade boats in which many lived Claims to religious piety and learning are an important source of individual prestige Originally expert horsemen & known for weaving and needlework skills ***often intentionally rupture their eardrums at an early age in order to facilitate diving and hunting at sea The SAMALS originated from this group
Ethnic Composition YAKAN descended from migrating Dayak from Northeast Borneo and Sama from Johore have Malay features, known as fierce warriors and are primarily farmers boast of their intricately designed hand-woven cloth no other tribe can imitate “Folk Islam" -- a combination of Islamic principles and traditional beliefs prominent person of each community is the Imam who combines birth religion and socio-political leadership culturally influenced in some respect by the Tausugs
Ethnic Composition OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS TIRURAY – with clear proto-Malayan features; classified into 3 groups based on subsistence orientation (riverine, coastal, mountain); artistic skill in basket weaving; animistic beliefs; traditionally use dry cultivation; retained religion in spite of proximity to Maguindanao MANOBO – traced to Malay people; primitive farming methods; patriarchal way of life; polygamy; animistic beliefs MARANAO – “people of the lake;” centered on Lake Lanao; largest Moro & cultural minority in the country; known for Sarimanok, exotic dances and artistry; Muslim; existence of feudal standings MAGUINDANAO – “people of the plains;” kulintang music; Muslim; carving and textiles
Languages and Dialects CHAVACANO: Spanish-based creole language (derived from the Spanish word "chabacano", meaning "poor taste," "vulgar," "common," "of low quality”) CEBUANO (Bisaya) ZAMBOANGUEÑO MAGINDANAON SAMA SUBANON (Tuboy-Salog; Kanluranin/Siocon; Lapuyan
Culture and Livelihood Hudyaka Festival – celebrate founding of Zamboanga del Norte Sibug-Sibug Festival – celebrate founding of ZamboangaSibugay Buklog Festival - thanksgiving festival of the Subanen Kinabayo Festival – held in DapitanCity, Zamboanga del Norte; colorful pageant re-enacting the Spanish-Moorish wars The Hermosa Festival or the Zamboanga La Hermosa Festival or popularly known as Fiesta Pilar(held each year in Zamboanga City)
Held in honor of the miraculous image of Our Lady of the Pillar, the patroness of Zamboanga City which is held every October 12
Megayon Festival - highlights the cultural diversity of the three groups of people that populate Zamboanga del Sur
Unique cultural dances, traditional costumes
Culture and Livelihood Art: weaving, basketry, metalwork, basketry Music: kulintang ensemble (gandingan, dabakan, etc.) Farming and fishing are the main economic activities of the region. It also has rice and corn mills, oil processing, coffee berry processing and processing of latex from rubber. Its home industries include rattan and furniture craft, basket making, weaving and brass work.
Significant Infrastructures Western Mindanao Power Corp. (diesel) - Sangali, ZamboangaCity Pasonanca Dam – Zamboanga City Zamboanga International Airport – Zamboanga City Zamboanga Freeport & Special Economic Zone – Zamboanga City Roll-on, Roll-off Port – Dapitan City, Zamboanga del Norte
Other Pressing Issues
Other Pressing Issues POVERTY (Squatting) SAFETY & SECURITY MILITANT GROUPS ARMED CONFLICTS MINING