An integrated curriculum assists in the authenticity of the learning and provides a wider range of opportunities to scaffold , build upon and strengthen questioning and thinking skills of learners.
Teachers designing and reflecting on teaching and learning activities that:
further questioning, thinking and solution seeking.
Create a “Culture of Thinking and Questioning” (adapted from Pohl, M. 2000).
EXPLICIT teaching and modelling of effective thinking/questioning skills, tools, strategies and opportunities that prepare and improve students’ thinking/questioning in all areas of learning .
Shift to a Question Focus Find out about Dr Suess What influenced the writings of Dr Suess? Study our local town What makes our town a great place to live? Living in …….? What are the attractions and how do they enhance your town? How can we promote …. as a great place to live? Project on trucks / cats / dogs ….. How do zoos promote healthy living conditions for their animals? The Titanic In what ways did the sinking of the Titanic affect the shipbuilding industry? The life and work of Thomas Edison. How has the work of Thomas Edison impacted on our lives? What is your opinion of the story “Holes”? Different personality traits are exposed in the story “Holes”. What impact did imprisonment have on each character?
Responding Strategies (Adapted from Clements and Godinho, 2003) Think Time Wait Time Strategy Description Application Sustaining the Question Use probes that encourage the clarification, extension or elaboration of a response. Does anyone have a different opinion? Could you tell us a little more about your idea? Can you provide some evidence to support your point of view? Allowing wait time Learn to be comfortable with the silences, so that wait time is extended. Use affirmative non-verbal signals (such as facial expression, a nod, eye contact or sitting forward) that show engagement and provide encouragement. Minimising feedback Affirm student responses, but avoid excessive praise, which may silence alternative responses. That’s an interesting perspective. Yes, that’s one way. Thank you for that idea. Sharing the floor Encourage the group to respond to each other. Break the habit of T initiating the question, S responds, T responds to the S – so that student dialogue develops. Would anyone like to respond to that idea? How consistent is this response with your thinking? Can someone summarize what has been said? Peter how do you feel about this?
Our learners need a toolbox of thinking/questioning tools, strategies and approaches to draw from:
Weiderhold’s Question Matrix
Six Thinking Hats (De Bono)
Thinking Maps (David Hyerle)
Bloom’s / Anderson’s Revised Taxonomy
Thinkers’ Keys (Tony Ryan)
(Just to name a few)
uestion Matrix Q Which When Who Where Why What How is/was ………………………? did …………….………………? can………….…………………? would ……………………….? will ……………………………? might ……………………….? have ………………………….? should….……………………? does ………………………….? do ….………………………….? do you suppose….…….? shall ………………………….?
*** OR WHAT ABOUT THESE STARTERS FOR GOOD OPEN QUESTIONS? If you could/were ……. Can there/you…? If …….then how …….? Why do some/we/you …..? What if? What kinds of …..? What changes ………? In what ways will/are …..? I wonder how/why/who/when/where/what……?
Weiderhold’s Question Matrix http://www.ltag.education.tas.gov.au/effectteach/Thinking/matrix.htm The questions in the top rows of the matrix are knowledge and information questions and the lower rows are questions that require analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Purpose? Event Situation Choice Person Reason Means Present What is? Where / When is? Which is? Who is? Why is? How is? Past What did? Where / When did? Which did Who did? Why did? How did? Possibility What can? Where / When can? Which can? Who can? Why can? How can? Probability What would? Where / When would? Which would? Who would? Why would? How would? Prediction What will? Where / When will? Which will? Who will? Why will? How will? Imagination What might? Where / When might? Which might? Who might? Why might? How might?
Wonder Wall Questions in a New Entrant Class (Te Uku School)
Provide students with problem-solving strategies which they should
try out before asking for help: Provide the scaffolding ……
Input > Process > Output
Reading the problem aloud - "What is the problem here?"
Drawing, charting, graphing, creating a model - "What would this look like in a picture, drawing, in another form, in the form I like best?"
Identifying the problem - "What am I stuck on? What do I need to know?"
Breaking the problem into manageable parts - "What are the smallest pieces I can break this down into and still have it make sense?"
Trial and error (guess and test) - "What might work? What can I try?"
Listing of alternatives - "What are all the things I could do?"
Considering similar problems from the past - "What do I know about that is like this?"
Problem-Solving KWL PMIS
Provide the scaffolding Questions: Facts/Suggestions "What is the problem here?" "What would this look like in a picture, drawing, in another form, in the form I like best?" "What am I stuck on? What do I need to know?" "What are the smallest pieces I can break this down into and still have it make sense?" "What might work? What can I try?" "What are all the things I could do?" "What do I know about that is like this?"
Ohaupo School Juniors – deciding on how to set up their shop
4. What is the conclusion? 3. What are the alternatives? 2. What do we know about the situation? 1. How do we feel? 2. What are the difficulties and dangers? 1. What are the good points? Emotions Evaluation 2. What are the difficulties and dangers? 1. How do we feel about this? 2. Can we summarize the good points? 1. What are the good points? Direct Action Quick Assessment 2. What are the possible explanations? 1. What do we know about the situation? 3. What ideas can we think of? 2. What do we know about the situation? 1. What is the thinking task? Explanation First Ideas 2. How can we overcome them? 1. What are the weaknesses? Improvement Six Thinking Hats Simple Sequences SIX HAT SEQUENCES -1 Hawker Brownlow Education #2525 Teaching Thinking Skills in the Primary Years
to show a plan for Exciting Writing (Te Uku School) Brace Map
ANDERSON’S TAXONOMY – Verbs, Materials/situations that require this level of thinking, Potential Activities & Products REMEMBERING UNDERSTANDING APPLYING ANALYSING EVALUATING CREATING Hats VERBS Tell, List, Describe, Relate, Locate, Write, Find, State, Name, Identify, Label, Recall, Define, Recognise, Match, Reproduce, Memorise, Draw, Select, Write, Recite Explain, Interpret, Outline, Discuss, Distinguish, Predict, Restate, Translate, Compare, Describe, Relate, Generalise, Summarise, Put into your own words, Paraphrase, Convert, Demonstrate, Visualise, Find out more information about Solve, Show, Use, Illustrate, Construct Complete, Examine Classify, Choose Interpret, Make Put together, Change, Apply, Produce, Translate, Calculate, Manipulate, Modify, put into practice Analyse, Distinguish, Examine, Compare Contrast, Investigate Categorise, Identify Explain, Separate Advertise, Take apart Differentiate, Subdivide, deduce, Judge, Select, Choose, Decide, Justify, Debate, Verify, Argue, Recommend, Assess, Discuss, Rate, Prioritise, Determine, Critique, Evaluate, Criticise, Weigh, Value, estimate, defend Create, Invent, Compose, Predict Plan, Construct Design, Imagine Propose, Devise Formulate, Combine, Hypothesize, Originate, Add to, Forecast, MATERAILS SITUATIONS Events, people, newspapers, magazine articles, definitions, videos, dramas, films, textbooks, television programs, recordings, media presentations Speech, stories, drama, cartoons, diagrams, graphs, summaries, outlines, analogies, posters, bulletin boards. Diagrams, sculptures, illustrations, dramatisations, forecasts, problems, puzzles, organisations, classifications, rules, systems, routines. Surveys, questionnaires, arguments, models, displays, demonstrations, diagrams, systems, conclusions, reports, graphed information Recommendations, self-evaluations, group discussions, debates, court trials, standards, editorials, values. Experiments, games, songs, reports, poems, speculations, creations, art, inventions, drama, rules. POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES & PRODUCTS Make a list of the main events . Make a timeline of events. Make a facts chart. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember. List all the …in the story. Make a chart showing.. Make an acrostic. Recite a poem Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event. Illustrate what you think the main idea was. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Retell the story in your own words. Paint a picture of some aspect you like. Write a summary report of an event. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events. Make a colouring book. Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work. Make a diorama to illustrate an important event. Make a scrapbook about the areas of study. Make a papier-mache map to include relevant information about an event. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point. Make up a puzzle game showing the ideas from an area of study. Make a clay model of an item in the area. Design a market strategy for your product. Dress a doll in costume. Paint a mural. Write a textbook outline. Design a questionnaire to gather information. Write a commercial to sell a new product. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a point of view. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Make a jigsaw puzzle. Make a family tree showing relationships. Put on a play about he study area. Write a biography of the study person. Prepare a report. Arrange a party and record as a procedure. Review apiece of art including form, colour and texture Prepare a list of criteria to judge a ……..show? Remember to indicate priorities and ratings. Conduct a debate about a special issue. Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as important to convince others. Form a panel to discuss views. Write a letter to .... advising on changes needed at … Write a half yearly report. present your point of view. Invent a machine to do a specific task. Design a building to house your study. Create a new product, give it a name and then devise a marketing strategy. Write about your feeling sin relation to … Design a record, book or magazine cover. Sell an idea. Devise a way to … Compose a rhythm or put new words to an old song.
Using the story “Goldilocks and The Three Bears” Knowledge List the items used by Goldilocks while she was in the bears’ house. Comprehension Explain why Goldilocks liked Baby Bear’s chair the best. Application Demonstrate what Goldilocks would use if she came to your house. Analysis Compare this story to reality. What events could not really happen? Synthesis Propose how the story would be different if it were Goldilocks and the Three Fish. Evaluation Judge whether Goldilocks was good or bad. Defend your opinion.
Tony Ryan’s Thinker’s Keys X 20 Different Uses Alphabet Brainstorming Disadvantages Reverse What if?
How will we know? Questioning Rubric Next steps in learning Assessment WALT 1 Novice 2 Beginner 3 Apprentice 4 Practitioner 5 Expert We are learning to develop effective questions. I can make a statement. I need help to ask a question. I can ask and answer a simple closed question. I can ask an open question and attempt to find answers using key words. I can sort questions into groups according to set criteria. I can use the Matrix to create a variety of question types on any given theme to suit the intended purpose.
"Once you have learned how to ask questions - relevant and appropriate questions - you have learned how to learn and no one can keep you from learning whatever you want or need to know." Postman and Weingartner (1969) Where to for you?