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The challenge of managing water

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Presentation at Lausanne University, 3. June 2013

Presentation at Lausanne University, 3. June 2013

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    The challenge of managing water The challenge of managing water Presentation Transcript

    • The challenge of managing water (andland) in the Ethiopian highlands (Abbaybasin)Catherine Pfeifer, consultant for the international livestock researchinstitute
    • Objective• Give insights to the relevant water issues inthe Ethiopian Blue Nile basin• Presenting research for developmentapproaches
    • Todays presentation• Setting the scene for the study area in theEthiopian Blue Nile Basin (Abbay basin)• The known solution : rainwater management• A short description of Research for Development :Nile Basin Challenge Program• Creating tools for better targeting and scaling out• Conclusion on water for food and some food forthoughts
    • Todays presentation• Setting the scene for the study area in theEthiopian Blue Nile Basin (Abbay basin)• The known solution : rainwater management• A short description of Research for Development :Nile Basin Challenge Program• Creating tools for better targeting and scaling out• Conclusion on water for food and some food forthoughts
    • What is the average yearly rainfall inSwitzerland, and for Lausanne?
    • What is the average yearly rainfall inSwitzerland?Lausanne 1150 mmGeneva 954 mmSion 598 mmSantis 2701 mmAverage Switzerland1530 mm
    • And what about Ethiopia?
    • Rainfall patterns in Ethiopia050100150200250300350400450500J F M A M J J A S O N DMonthly rainfall in Bahir DarRainfall
    • Woreta in July
    • Maksegnit in June
    • The Ethiopian Blue Nile (Abbay) BasinIt is thewater towerof AfricaPotentiallycould feedthe world
    • Challenges in the Blue Nile Basin• Distribution of water not the availability• Land erosion• Even more extreme weather conditions due to climatechanges• Very high population pressure (more than 250 person/SqkmCH=195)• Mostly rural population living below the 1usd povertyline, depending on an unreliable rainfed agriculture and insome case on food aid• Direct foreign investment in drier areas
    • Todays presentation• Setting the scene for the study area in theEthiopian Blue Nile Basin (Abbay basin)• The known solution : rainwater management• A short description of Research for Development :Nile Basin Challenge Program• Creating tools for better targeting and scaling out• Conclusion on water for food and some food forthoughts
    • Rainwater management as a knownsolutionObjective : increase the resilience of smallholders by keeping the water as long aspossible where it comes and make it available for agricultural production• increase water infiltration = reduce erosion• In-situ water conservation• ex-situ water conservation• Increase water efficiency
    • Rainwater managementpractices, Maksegnit
    • Rainwater management in Zefie
    • Rainwater management in Anjeni
    • Rainwater management practicesShambu (Oromia)
    • Rainwater management in Diga
    • Rainwater management in Diga
    • So what’s the issue?• Solutions are well known but donot reach the ground Lack of targeting (believe in the onefor all solution) Missing approaches to combinebottom up and top down solutions Lack of markets and credits Difficulty to increase the capacity ofthe extension service (high turnover) Lack of initiatives from thesmallholders
    • Todays presentation• Setting the scene for the study area in theEthiopian Blue Nile Basin (Abbay basin)• The known solution : rainwater management• A short description of Research forDevelopment : Nile Basin Challenge Program• Creating tools for better targeting and scaling out• Conclusion on water for food and some food forthoughts
    • A research for development program : the Nile BasinDevelopment Challenge (NBDC)• It aims to improve the resilience of rural livelihoods in theEthiopian highlands through a landscape approach torainwater management.• The Nile Basin Development Challenge (NBDC) is funded by theCGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF).• Strong focus to involve local partner to reach change on theground23
    • Partners of NBDC•International Livestock Research Institute,•International Water Management Institute,•World Agroforestry Centre,•Oversees Development Institute•Nile Basin Initiative•Ethiopian Economic Policy Research Institute•Catholic Relief Services – Ethiopia•Oromia Regional Research Institute,•Amhara Agricultural Research Institute•Ethiopian Water Harvesting Association•Bahir Dar University•Ambo University,•Nekemte University,•the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development•the Ministry of Water Resources24
    • A program with 3 “research” oriented projects25Project 2Research in 3 micro-catchement•Hydrologicalmeasurement•Local impactassessement onlivelihoods andenvironment•Small scalehydrological modellingCreate local innovationplateformsProject 3Up-scales resultsfrom N2 to the basin•Create suitability mapbased on bio-physicaland socio-economiccharacteristics totarget interventionsCreate a decision-making support tool topromote site-specificintervention to RMSProject 4Develops a basinwide hydrologicalmodel•To assessdownstreem impactsof new practices•Assesseconomic, social andenviromental impact ofinterventions•Runs scenarios fordifferent interventions
    • Todays presentation• Setting the scene for the study area in theEthiopian Blue Nile Basin (Abbay basin)• The known solution : rainwater management• A short description of Research for development :Nile Basin Challenge Program• Creating tools for better targeting and scalingout• Conclusion on water for food and some food forthoughts
    • A suite of tools for better targeting andscaling out• A new concept to combine rainwater managementpractices at landscape scale Modeling watershed integrated approaches Coming up with context specificcombinations, including socio-economic criterias• An open source GIS tool• A game : Happy Strategies
    • A concept for context specific rainwatermanagement at landscape scaleZoneLand useMain objective (examples)Cropland Grassland Degraded landUpslope Increase infiltrationAgroforestry, forestryIncrease the quantityand quality of fodderfor livestockover-sowing, limitinganimal movementsRehabilitatedegraded landforestryMidslope Control erosion, maintainsoil moistureSoil and waterconservationAgroforestryConservation agricultureLowslope More efficient use ofsurface or shallowgroundwaterWells, river diversion
    • Development and impact of theconcept• 3 focus stakeholder meetings (5-15 participants)• 1 broad stakeholder meeting (60 participants) forvalidation done with the Happy strategy gameTODAY All major stakeholders talk• in a context specific way about rainwatermanagement• of combinations of rainwater management practicesat farm and at landscape scale
    • Nile-Goblet : an open source GISsolution of suitability mapping• No prior GIS knowledge is required• Best-best practices are already modelled : expert can easily adjust the suitabilitycriteria based on their knowledge• A database of best bet rainwater management practices as well as freely availableGIS layers.• Integrates socio-economic constraints with “adoption maps” based on micro-economic models• Allows mapping rainwater management strategies at landscape scale• With some GIS knowledge can be fed for any technology in any location of the world• Works on windows 7 and below as well as linux (without GUI)
    • Nile Goblet
    • Impact of the Nile Goblet tool• Trainings for 40 multipliers (workers from the research institutes, extensionservice, NGOs)• Learning events for high level stakeholders• Linkage with the Water and Land Resource center in Addis Ababa (SDC)
    • Happy strategies game• A game to learn from each other on suitable context specific rainwatermanagement strategieswww.happystrategies.wikispaces.com• Used at different levels Large stakeholder meeting to validate the concept Training for practitioners to teach about rainwater management Local communities to validate maps and develop road maps for development
    • Some conclusions• Ethiopia could be feeding Africa• There is an urgency NOW to enable more productiveagricultural production through improved watermanagement = improved the resilience of smallholders• Solutions are well known but do not reach the ground Lack of targeting (believe in the one for all solution) Missing approaches to combine bottom up and top down solutions• Research for development aims at Changing the perception of key stakeholders Providing the tools to address the bottlenecks
    • Where to find more information• www.catherinepfeifer.blogspot.comActualities in rural developmentDescriptions the rural communities presentedAll outputs, including software and gameLinks to free GIS data• www.happystrategies.wikispaces.com• www.nilebdc.org
    • Wanna experience rural Ethiopia?• Join an inside travel trip• You will be able to participate in rural life andat a same time offer new opportunities torural communities to diversify their incomes• Develop Ethiopia through business ratherthan aid!www.insidetravel.ch