NIDOS Log frames training 14th March 2013 - Jill Gentle

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  • Alternative Fomulations of the Logical Framework System Although the logical framework system most commonly used is a matrix of 16 cells, there are some alternative formulations. These include: • A training manual produced by USAID in 1980 described eight possible variations in the logical framework system such as additional columns for verifying assumptions and for specific quantified targets and additional rows for intermediate outputs and subsector goals. • A training manual produced by FAO in 1986 with Activities as a row between Input and Output, creating a matrix with 5 rows and 4 columns. • ZOPP replaced Inputs by Activities in the bottom row (GTZ, 1988). They saw activities as a crucial feature of the logical framework whereas inputs could be specified elsewhere in the project documentation. • The NORAD matrix has only three columns - the middle column combines a description of indicators with the means of verification. Although they differ in detail, these alternatives all maintain the matrix layout of the logical framework system as developed by PCI. USAID (1980). Design and Evaluation of Aid-Assisted Projects. Training and Development Division, Office of Personnel Management, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington DC.
  • It is also useful to standardize the way in which the hierarchy of project objectives is described. A useful convention to follow in this regard is: for the Overall Objective to be expressed as ‘To contribute to…..`; the Purpose to be expressed in terms of benefits to the target group being ‘Increased/improved/ etc……….’, Results to be expressed in terms of a tangible result ‘delivered/produced/conducted etc’, and Activities to b e expressed in the present tense starting with an active verb, such as ‘Prepare, design, construct, research …..’.
  • If means (inputs) are provided then activities will be produced If activities are undertaken then outputs will be produced If outputs are produced then component objectives will be achieved If component objectives are achieved then the project purpose will be supported If the project purpose is supported this should then contribute towards the overall goal Each level thus provides the rationale for the next level down. The goal helps define the purpose, the purpose the component objectives; and so on…
  • During the Conceptual Design stage the plan for the project or program is being formulated in general terms and, normally, detailed indicators are not yet formulated at this stage. Nevertheless, indicators already play a crucial role in getting more precise information on the context of the intervention and on the problems to be tackled. During this identification stage, organizations will try to reinforce the quality of the situational analysis by using specific indicators. When completing the logical framework indicators formulated at the level of results, purpose and overall goal, will be the starting point for monitoring and evaluation. However, during implementation, managers will also be interested in other aspects of the intervention, like depletion of budget or specific bottlenecks caused by external factors. In this context, some organizations distinguish input indicators, output indicators, etc. referring basically to the type of monitoring for which they are used.
  • If means (inputs) are provided then activities will be produced If activities are undertaken then outputs will be produced If outputs are produced then component objectives will be achieved If component objectives are achieved then the project purpose will be supported If the project purpose is supported this should then contribute towards the overall goal Each level thus provides the rationale for the next level down. The goal helps define the purpose, the purpose the component objectives; and so on…
  • During the Conceptual Design stage the plan for the project or program is being formulated in general terms and, normally, detailed indicators are not yet formulated at this stage. Nevertheless, indicators already play a crucial role in getting more precise information on the context of the intervention and on the problems to be tackled. During this identification stage, organizations will try to reinforce the quality of the situational analysis by using specific indicators. When completing the logical framework indicators formulated at the level of results, purpose and overall goal, will be the starting point for monitoring and evaluation. However, during implementation, managers will also be interested in other aspects of the intervention, like depletion of budget or specific bottlenecks caused by external factors. In this context, some organizations distinguish input indicators, output indicators, etc. referring basically to the type of monitoring for which they are used.
  • Column 2 provides the objectively verifiable indicators (OVIs) for the overall goal, project purpose and outputs. OVIs are criteria for assessing project progress at the different levels. OVIs must be objectively verifiable – this means that two independent observers should come to the same conclusion. OVI enable project managers both to see whether the project has achieved what it set out to achieve at each level and to have a measure of its achievement.
  • Column 2 provides the objectively verifiable indicators (OVIs) for the overall goal, project purpose and outputs. OVIs are criteria for assessing project progress at the different levels. OVIs must be objectively verifiable – this means that two independent observers should come to the same conclusion. OVI enable project managers both to see whether the project has achieved what it set out to achieve at each level and to have a measure of its achievement.
  • During the Conceptual Design stage the plan for the project or program is being formulated in general terms and, normally, detailed indicators are not yet formulated at this stage. Nevertheless, indicators already play a crucial role in getting more precise information on the context of the intervention and on the problems to be tackled. During this identification stage, organizations will try to reinforce the quality of the situational analysis by using specific indicators. When completing the logical framework indicators formulated at the level of results, purpose and overall goal, will be the starting point for monitoring and evaluation. However, during implementation, managers will also be interested in other aspects of the intervention, like depletion of budget or specific bottlenecks caused by external factors. In this context, some organizations distinguish input indicators, output indicators, etc. referring basically to the type of monitoring for which they are used.
  • Column 2 provides the objectively verifiable indicators (OVIs) for the overall goal, project purpose and outputs. OVIs are criteria for assessing project progress at the different levels. OVIs must be objectively verifiable – this means that two independent observers should come to the same conclusion. OVI enable project managers both to see whether the project has achieved what it set out to achieve at each level and to have a measure of its achievement.
  • During the Conceptual Design stage the plan for the project or program is being formulated in general terms and, normally, detailed indicators are not yet formulated at this stage. Nevertheless, indicators already play a crucial role in getting more precise information on the context of the intervention and on the problems to be tackled. During this identification stage, organizations will try to reinforce the quality of the situational analysis by using specific indicators. When completing the logical framework indicators formulated at the level of results, purpose and overall goal, will be the starting point for monitoring and evaluation. However, during implementation, managers will also be interested in other aspects of the intervention, like depletion of budget or specific bottlenecks caused by external factors. In this context, some organizations distinguish input indicators, output indicators, etc. referring basically to the type of monitoring for which they are used.
  • During the Conceptual Design stage the plan for the project or program is being formulated in general terms and, normally, detailed indicators are not yet formulated at this stage. Nevertheless, indicators already play a crucial role in getting more precise information on the context of the intervention and on the problems to be tackled. During this identification stage, organizations will try to reinforce the quality of the situational analysis by using specific indicators. When completing the logical framework indicators formulated at the level of results, purpose and overall goal, will be the starting point for monitoring and evaluation. However, during implementation, managers will also be interested in other aspects of the intervention, like depletion of budget or specific bottlenecks caused by external factors. In this context, some organizations distinguish input indicators, output indicators, etc. referring basically to the type of monitoring for which they are used.
  • During the Conceptual Design stage the plan for the project or program is being formulated in general terms and, normally, detailed indicators are not yet formulated at this stage. Nevertheless, indicators already play a crucial role in getting more precise information on the context of the intervention and on the problems to be tackled. During this identification stage, organizations will try to reinforce the quality of the situational analysis by using specific indicators. When completing the logical framework indicators formulated at the level of results, purpose and overall goal, will be the starting point for monitoring and evaluation. However, during implementation, managers will also be interested in other aspects of the intervention, like depletion of budget or specific bottlenecks caused by external factors. In this context, some organizations distinguish input indicators, output indicators, etc. referring basically to the type of monitoring for which they are used.
  • NIDOS Log frames training 14th March 2013 - Jill Gentle

    1. 1. Welcome toa 1-day course“Understanding andProducing Good Logframes”14th March 2013NIDOS Training Programme, GlasgowJill Gentlewww.nidos.org.uk
    2. 2. Aims of the day To enable all attendees to understand the terminology used in a basic logframe (mainly using DFID/SG format) To expose each attendee to at least 3 example logframes. To give each attendee the opportunity to input directly into developing a logframe (i.e. from problem tree analysis to final completion of a logframe) To ensure all attendees are made aware of some of the advantages and disadvantages of the logframe approach.
    3. 3. Agenda 9.30 Registration 10.00 1. Introductory Session 2. Background on logframes 3. The logframe explained 11.00 Break The logframe explained (cont) 4. Building a logframe from scratch 1.00 Lunch 2.00 Building a logframe from scratch and 5. Small Group work 3.15 Break 3.30 6. Round up and final tips 7. Final questions and evaluation 4.45 Close
    4. 4. My experience includes..... Sierra Leone Cameroon Senegal Mali Chad Niger Liberia Ivory Coast Kenya Uganda Tanzania Ethiopia Angola Brazil Bolivia
    5. 5. Session 2Firstly, somebackground.....
    6. 6. A logframe can look something like this…. Means of Verification Objectives & (or data relating to Indicators baseline, milestones Assumptions activities and targets). Impact Outcome Outputs Means Cost Activities 6
    7. 7. What is a project? Project = “A time-bound intervention that is carried out to meet established objectiveswithin cost and schedule, and is a collection of one or more activities and usually involves asingle sector, theme or geographic area. It may involve multiple stakeholders and institutions”. (World Vision, 2008)
    8. 8. …Or can include differentterms. Don’t over-focus on the language and the variations in the various logframe models. Just use the format which the donor/NGO requires. The important lesson is to learn to think through projects using the logic model, and not to focus on the differences in terminology too much.
    9. 9. Background on the logframe Also known as the ‘logical framework matrix’ or ‘approach’ (LFA). Started in 1960s by USAID. Now used by most major donors. Whether we realise it or not, we often work and think in ‘projects’ and every project can benefit from a clear plan, goal, aim, etc. The skeleton. The backbone. The nuts and bolts. The front page. Presents the project information in a systematic and logical way. Gives a clear, simple and concise summary of what the project will achieve. Provides a basis for monitoring and evaluation, over the project lifetime. Will help to see if the targets are being achieved. Write the logframe first. Test the logic and ensure a good design before completing an entire funding application. The marmite factor - People often love logframes or hate logframes.
    10. 10. Logframes should not be… …Written by one person.  “A major advantage of the LFA, if used properly, is that it encourages a harmonised approach with partners and other donors”. (DFID, 2011) …Full of jargon that no one understands …Written just to keep the donor happy …Covered in dust. Tip - Keep it a living document, i.e. review and amend it regularly and use it to monitor project progress from start to end. Remember, it is tool primarily to help the project (and all the staff), not to help the donor.
    11. 11. Logframes should be… …Written with input from stakeholders and beneficiaries, using a lively and interesting process. …Useful from the start to the end of the project. …Understandable by all involved and able to incorporate the view of all stakeholders. …Interesting to write. …Concise. Tip – Don’t exceed 3 sides of A4 in Word. SG/DFID guidance is… “don’t exceed 155 spreadsheet lines in excel”. (That’s a lot of lines). …Easy and understandable for anyone to read, who picks it up for the first time. Simple, logical, clear, concise and free of jargon. Tip – give your final draft to a colleague/friend to read, who has not seen it previously, before sending it to the donor.
    12. 12. Disadvantages of the logframe In some cultures, the logframe can be seen as too wordy, too academic, too difficult and too ‘Western’. Risk of applying the framework too rigidly and losing creativity and innovation. It can seem impossible to capture all things in an excel table and ‘box’ format. It can be time-consuming and seem like a box-filling exercise to please the donor. 12
    13. 13. To summarise, why a training on ‘logframes’? 9 out of 10 donors prefer them! It is just one tool which enables good analysis of the problem, with an opportunity for all involved to agree on terminology, activities and methodology. It is a tool which helps to organise all ideas and plans of the project, in a clear way. “Clear objectives and stakeholder commitment drive successful projects.” World Bank
    14. 14. Activity Time
    15. 15. Session 3The logframe explained.....
    16. 16. What information should I include in a LF? Firstly, think of your project in terms of ... THE IMPACT: Explain the bigger picture that your project will contribute towards YOUR PROJECT OUTCOME: Specifically,PLAN explain what your project will achieve, by when, where IMPLEMENT and who will be affected. Contribute to MDGs (GPAF) YOUR PROJECT OUTPUTS: List the impact/results which your project will have. YOUR PROJECT ACTIVITIES List the activities which your project will actually do. We only do the activities – all of the above will follow.
    17. 17. Completing the first column of the LF ProjectDescriptionImpact The ‘big picture’ to which this project will contribute, i.e. normally at national or sector level. This will not be achieved solely by this project. One statement: Use wording such as “To contribute to, to reduce, to improve…” “To contribute to a reduction in population growth.” or “To reduce extreme poverty in Burma”Outcome The overall purpose of this project. In one sentence, state what will ‘come out’ of the project, i.e. a summary of what will change and who will benefit. One statement (<250 letters): Project purpose. Use wording such as “Increased, Improved.. ”Effective use of modern contraceptives by eligible groups in village x increased” ”EffectiveOutputs The specific and direct deliverables of the project, after activities have been carried out. These are under the control of the project. Max 6 statements: Use wording such as “...delivered/produced/changed, etc.” “Primary health care clinics are equipped and functioning. Clinic staff are keeping regular records”Activities The tasks that need to be carried out to deliver the above. We only ‘do’ the activities – the rest will follow if the logic is correct. List activities under each outcome: Use wording (verbs) such as “Prepare, design, construct, research…, etc.” “Train clinic staff in record keeping. Renovate clinic”.
    18. 18. Test the ‘if and then’ logic… then the project will contribute towards the if the IMPACT PROJECT OUTCOME is achieved then the PROJECT OUTCOME if OUTPUTS will be achieved are produced then OUTPUTS will be produced if ACTIVITIESStart are undertakenhere
    19. 19. Start to build a logframeWe will use the DFID/SG format (see over…)
    20. 20. SG/DFID Logframe – The 1st page (in excel)
    21. 21. SG/DFID Logframe – The 2nd page is called the Activity Log (in excel)
    22. 22. In reality, it is never quite as simple as that. There are certain assumptions we are basing our project success on (final column)
    23. 23. Adding Assumptions
    24. 24. What do we mean by ‘assumptions’?• These are external conditions/factors required for the success of the project, i.e. They are beyond the control of the project.• Think about relevant and probable factors which could jeopardize the success of the project, at each level.• Assumptions are worded positively, because they describe circumstances required to achieve certain objectives, e.g. Children have time to participate in programme, HIV/AIDS is recognised as a problem that people want to address, peaceful elections.• If an assumption is essential for the success of the project but is unlikely to come to pass, it is called a ‘killer assumption’ – either redesign the project or abandon the project!• On the other hand, if an assumption is almost certain, don’t include it.• Use the next diagram to help you... 24
    25. 25. The assessment of assumptions
    26. 26. Some examples of AssumptionsExample of Assumptions for the Outcome Level (not required by all donors at Impact level)– Peaceful elections (e.g. Political)– Stable economy (e.g. Economic)Example of Assumptions for Output and Activity Level– Management will be able to recruit skilled staff (e.g. personnel issues).– Government will sign contract in a timely manner (e.g. legal or administrative issues)– Participation of stakeholders in maintaining the clinic (e.g. people issues!)– Rainy season will finish by early May (e.g. seasonal factors)– Seeds and tools will be delivered on time (e.g. export/import factors) 26
    27. 27. Again….test the ‘if and then’ logic then the project will contribute towards the if the IMPACT PROJECT OUTCOME is achieved and the assumptions hold true then the PROJECT OUTCOME if OUTPUTS will be achieved are produced and the assumptions hold true then OUTPUTS will be produced if ACTIVITIESStart are undertaken and thehere assumptions hold true
    28. 28. Now build theassumptions on your logframe...
    29. 29. Question:How are we going to measure the success of our project? Answer: The Famous Five(i)Indicators(ii)Baseline(iii)Milestones(iv)Targets(v) Source (From 2nd column onwards) 29
    30. 30. (i) Add Indicators (1st) • Describe only what you are going to measure. • Don’t include targets or set direction for progress. Neutral! • Ask the question – “What will you measure?” not “What will be achieved or what is the target of this project?” • Disaggregate by gender (DFID advice) • If the information referred to in the indicator cannot be obtained, the indicator becomes useless and a new one should be formulated. Examples: • Primary enrolment rate for boys and girls • Existence of child- friendly chairs in justice courts. • Women as a % of refugee camp management. • Number of new training centres open to women • Poverty rate in female- headed households • Policy on use of common grazing land • See standard list on CD
    31. 31. Tips on writing indicators Indicators can also be called OVIs (Objectively Verifiable Indicators) Normally, indicators are completed at the level of the impact, outcome and output only (but check donor guidelines first) Keep it simple! Write only 1-3 indicators for each output and purpose Measure progress towards the achievement of the output (i.e. don’t just repeat the completed activities!) Tip: Avoid reinventing the wheel – use indicators which exist. Participatory M and E – use data which can be collected by stakeholders and/or beneficiaries. Tip: DFID have a list of suggested indicators. “Where they fit neatly with the work you are undertaking, we would prefer them to be used” (DFID, 2011) (included on course CD) Include qualitative and quantitative indicators (see over…)
    32. 32. Quantitative Indicators: Expressed through numbers Units – the number of staff that have been trained Proportions – the proportion of the community that has access to the service Rates of change – the percentage change in average household income over the reporting period Ratios – the ratio of teachers to pupils in a school Scoring and ranking – the score out of five given by the project participants to rate the quality of service they receive
    33. 33. Qualitative Indicators: Expressed through narrative description Satisfaction – how participants describe their levels of satisfaction with the project’s activities Standards – the extent to which training is recognised by the appropriate authorities Practices and behaviour – the way practice has changed since the completion of hygiene education Institutional change – the effect of new measures introduced to improve the NGO’s accountability to project users
    34. 34. Indicators at the 3 levels... Impact indicators: These help to measure impact. Normally collected at start/end of project only (e.g. at evaluation). Could also be measured at a mid-term evaluation. Use appropriate, already-existing sources such as Amnesty International, FAO, Transparency International, World Bank, UN, national government reports, HDI Index, etc. The project shouldn’t specifically measure this, but will take data from already-existing reports. Outcome indicators: Measure the “outcome” of the project, e.g. Not ‘number of health clinics renovated’ but ‘outpatient utilisation rate’. Keep asking ‘so what?’. What will change? Max 250 characters (DFID). Output indicators: Monitored regularly. Help to track if the activities are being completed on time. Include in routine reporting (e.g. Monthly, quarterly, semi-annual). “In previous versions of the logframe, the output level indicators were often the most poorly completed elements of the logframe” (DFID, 2011). Max of 3 indicators per output. See DFID standard indicators (on course CD), e.g. % of health facilities that offer
    35. 35. (ii) Add Baseline data (2nd)• Dictionary definition: A • “All projects should have minimum or starting point used baselines at all levels before for comparisons. they are approved” (DFID, 2011) • Use exist data, where possible, instead of carrying out new research, surveys, etc.
    36. 36. It’s important to collect baseline information...  “ In exceptional circumstances, projects may be approved without baseline data at output level, but only where this is justified in the project documentation and where there is sufficient evidence to support delayed inclusion of baseline data and where the project makes provision to obtain baseline data within first 6 months of the start date.”  (DFID, 2011)
    37. 37. (vi) Add Milestones (3rd)• Must be included where baseline data is available.• Should be disaggregated by sex, where appropriate, with dates.• “If you can measure it, you can manage it” (DFID, 2011)
    38. 38. (vi) Add a Target (4th)• Must be included where baseline data is available.• Should be disaggregated by sex, where appropriate.• Ask yourself; “What will life look like at the end of the project?” or “What will be different?”
    39. 39. Two examples ofIndicators, Baselines, Milestones and Targets “As in all cases of complex social change, care should be taken not to be too ambitious about what can be achieved over the lifetime of a project” (DFID) Indicator Baseline Milestone 1 Milestone 2 Target No. of people employed in 30 50 55 60 local fishing (20 male, (30 male, (32 male, (35 male, industry 10 female) 20 female) 23 female) 25 female) (2014) (2015) (2016) (2017) Existence of No policy Local A new Policy on use policy on use supports the government proposed of common of common use of common officials are policy is grazing land is grazing land grazing land by persuaded to outlined and adopted by project look into the sent out for local beneficiaries. issue, and consultation. government. There is no attend (2016) (2017) consensus on meetings to changes discuss. required. (2015) (2014)
    40. 40. (v) Add a Source (5th)• Where will you get the information from, in order to demonstrate the accomplishments made by the project?• Data could be collected by/from another agency or project staff.• Indicate when information will be collected, i.e. In annual reports, monthly interviews.
    41. 41. Source Questions to consider, when thinking of how to gather the data:  Do appropriate external sources already exist (e.g. national reports)  Are these sources specific enough?  Are they sources reliable and accessible?  Are the costs for obtaining the information reasonable?  As a last resort, should other sources be created? Try to use existing sources as much as possible If the information referred to in the indicator cannot be obtained, the indicator becomes useless and a new one should be formulated.
    42. 42. Now build the Famous Five on your own logframe...
    43. 43. And finally... Even more information is required Impact Weighting: Put a % value next to each output to show how much each output will contribute to the achievement of the outcome (total of 100%), i.e. Shows relative importance of each output Inputs. Divided into two parts: (i) Money (£) – an estimate of the proportion of the budget required for the delivery of each output and in total for the achievement of the outcome. (ii) Human Resources – estimate the proportional allocation of FTE (full time equivalent) inputs (for which DFID funding is requested) per output and overall. Complete the Activity Log separately. This is not normally sent for approval to DFID. Tip: Add another excel sheet, in the same document as the logframe, to ensure they are linked well to each other. In the Activity Log include the risks. Risks are shown at activity level only and rated at output level. Risk ratings need to be established for each output and should be recorded as Low, Medium or High (see next slide on risk analysis).
    44. 44. Carry out a ‘Risk Assessment’ How do we define ‘risk’?  When we speak of risk, we really mean risk severity, i.e. The probability that a risk will occur and the impact the risk will have on the project if it materialises. So, we want to find out...how severe is the risk if it happens?  DFID request a rating of low/medium/high. Alarm bells will ring if lots of risks are ‘high’. How do we measure risk severity? Give it a score out of 25  Risk Severity = (probability of risk occurring on scale of 1-5) x (impact of risk on scale of 1-5)  Probability score of 1 = Low probability of the risk occurring  Probability score of 5 = Very high probability of the risk occurring  Impact score of 1 = Low negative impact on the project if it materialises  Impact score of 5 = Very high negative impact on the project if it materialises. What is the difference between a risk and an assumption?  We expect that an assumption will probably happen, i.e. Rainy season will start in June, Government staff will attend meetings. It is likely that these things will happen.  A risk is the likelihood of a special event occurring which has a negative impact on the project. We anticipate that the risk won’t happen, but if it does happen, it could jeopardise the project success. Risks are crucial to identify, e.g. Tools delivered late, parents won’t attend meetings, etc. Ensure the majority of risks are ‘low’.
    45. 45. The order for normally completing the boxes is shown below….
    46. 46. Continue to build your own logframe
    47. 47. It’s time to put ourlearning into practice...
    48. 48. Session 4Building a logframe from scratch.....
    49. 49. How do we start to write a LF?A typical process could look like this:• Carry out a Situational Analysis, then...• Carry out a Stakeholder Analysis, then...• Do a Problem Tree Analysis, then...• Do a Objective Tree Analysis, then...• Write the Logical Framework Matrix and then...• Execute the project and...• Carry out Monitoring and Evaluation
    50. 50. Situational AnalysisA document is created which describes the situation surrounding theproblem. The source could be a feasibility study, a pre-appraisalreport, or be a compilation done specifically for the project designworkshop. Typically the document describes the potential problemsituation in detail, identifies the stakeholders and describes theeffects of the problems on them. “The best logframes are built upon clear stakeholder involvement. A participatory team approach is critical in developing a viable project proposal with a robust logframe” (DFID, 2011) 50
    51. 51. Stakeholder Analysis A stakeholder is any individual, group or organisation with an interest in the outcome of a programme/project. SA is an analysis of the people, groups, or organizations who may influence or be influenced by the problem or a potential solution to the problem. This is the first step to understanding the problem. Without people or interest groups there would be no problem. So to understand the problem, we must first understand the stakeholders. The objectives of this step are to reveal and discuss the interest and expectations of persons and groups that are important to the success of the project(chicken and egg) 51
    52. 52. Step by Step Guide to a Problem TreeStep 1: Identify a problem, e.g. one frequently mentioned by SHs, one which keeps getting raised in other projects reports. Tip: State an existing negative situation (e.g. Poor health provision), not the absence to a problem (e.g. No health centre)Step 2: In small groups, participants list all causes of this problem (not imaginary, but actual). Use one card for each cause. Tip: Divide into small groups of men, women, children, etc.Step 3: In small groups, participants list all effects of this problem (not imaginary, but actual). Use one card for each effect. Tip: Divide into small groups of men, women, children, etc. BUILD THE PROBLEM TREEStep 4: In one big group, jointly place the effects (branches) and causes (roots) on the ‘tree’ and group together similar cards.Step 5: Through facilitated discussion, identify the root causes and main effects, by asking ‘why’ or ‘what leads to...’ at least 5 times for each card, to understand fully the cause-effect heirarchy of the problem. Ensure everyone agrees when moving cards.
    53. 53. Problem Tree EFFECT CAUSE 53
    54. 54. The Problem Tree AnalysisTo work well, this relies on : Group-based inter-action e.g. workshop format Participation of key stakeholders, from all levels. Good facilitation of the process Agreed consensus on problems, causes and effects, with active involvement and participation. Division of men, women and children into separate groups.
    55. 55. From Problems to Objectives Transform the ‘problem tree’ into an ‘objective tree’. How? The problem statement converts into a positive statement to give the project outcome, e.g. ‘lack of sufficient water’ (problem) becomes ‘improve water supply’ (outcome). Tip: Turn the card over and write on the back. The branches (causes) show the end which is desired (i.e. convert effects to outputs). For example, ‘contaminated water’ to clean water’. The roots show the means to achieving the end (i.e. convert the causes to activities). For example, ‘lack of technical people’ becomes ‘train/employ more technical people’. Tip: The ‘problem tree’ is probably never going to be the same for different groups and at different times, so see it more a device to broaden thinking than a definitive project determinant. For example, ‘lack of sufficient water’ could either be a ‘cause’ or an ‘effect,’ depending on the situation and participating group, and the project objectives and tasks would be different for each. 55
    56. 56. The relationship between the problems tree and the objective treePROBLEM TREE OBJECTIVE TREE Focal problem Project Outcome Effects Output Causes Activities 56
    57. 57. PROBLEM TREE: BUS EXAMPLE Loss of Effects confidence in bus company Passengers hurt People are late or killed Frequent busCore problem accidents Drivers not Bad conditions of Bad road careful enough vehicles conditions Causes Vehicles too old No ongoing maintenance 57
    58. 58. OBJECTIVES TREE: BUS EXAMPLE Customers have aOutputs better image of the bus company Less Passengers passengers hurt arrive at scheduled time Frequency of bus accidents considerably reducedPurpose Drivers drive Keep vehicles in Improve road carefully and good condition conditions responsibly Replace old vehicles Regularly maintainActivities and check vehicles 58
    59. 59. So, what do we include in our logframe? As this process can result in projects which are too ambitious, it is therefore important to help the group focus on what can be achieved. Participatory Ranking can help to prioritise and focus project activities. Tip: Use stones, bottle tops or sticky dots. Participants are asked to place 4 stones on their top priority, 3 on their 2nd priority, 2 on their 3nd priority, etc, etc. Or place one dot on the most important issue to address, etc, etc. 59
    60. 60. What would you like to work on?1. Work on a logframe/project design you brought with you.2. In a small group, take an idea (from your job or a new yrs resolution) and design a new project, from problem tree to objective tree to logframe. Or just design a logframe. Practice makes perfect.3. Complete a logframe jigsaw.4. Write an action plan on how you will apply your learning when you get back to the office.5. Read some of the material available.6. Review your/any logframe using the DFID checklist.
    61. 61. Session 6Round up and final tips.....
    62. 62. Feedback from DFID CSCF grant submissions (2010) Although the project is clear on its poverty reduction and livelihood security aims, how women will participate in community and household decision-making processes remains vague
    63. 63. Feedback from DFID CSCF grant submissions (2010) The problem analysis is too broad identifying a range of issues leading to the exclusion and marginalisation of target communities and of youth in particular. It is not entirely clear how this relates to the proposed work and how certain activities (e.g. setting up agri-business and agroforestry projects) will contribute to improving livelihoods.
    64. 64. Feedback from DFID CSCF grant submissions (2010) The project approach is described as a series of 16 largely unrelated activities some of which are not clearly explained (e.g. activity 4: "awareness raising through different activities" or 13: "engagement of youth in extracurricular activities will promote positive energies").
    65. 65. Feedback from DFID CSCF grant submissions (2010) Budget includes £117,600 for national, regional and international advocacy but it is not clear from the narrative or the logframe as to what issues will be addressed or what policies or other frameworks will be targeted.
    66. 66. Feedback from donors... “The art to developing a good logframe is to make it specific and clear, but not too long”.  IFAD, 2002“We look for Clear hierarchy of and linking between impact, outcome, outputs and activities. Clear, concise and accessible statement of all key components of a project. Clarify on how the project is expected to work and what it will achieve.”  DFID , 2010
    67. 67. Logframes: Common problems from a donors perspective Confusion of impact and outcome More than one outcome statement No numbering No logical hierarchy within the logframe (activities should be linked to outputs, outputs linked to the outcome and the outcome contributes to the impact) Indicators which are not clear or measurable Narrative and logframe don’t match up Poor analysis of risk and assumptions and the hierarchy in relation to the intervention logic.  DFID , 2010
    68. 68. Other donor feedback... Activities are relatively few and do not convincingly lead to the outputs. The outcome is 3 statements. The outputs don’t have measurable indicators. Capacity building of partner is not addressed specifically. There is no clear indicator for policy change. No disaggregation by gender or other categories, e.g. disability. The outcome statement does not reflect the analysis in the narrative. Quote from DFID - “We are not fixated with formats (are you sure?!?!). If partners develop equivalent monitoring frameworks that include all the information required by DFID’s own format, we do not need to insist on using our own matrix. It is the information contained within it that is essential”. (2011)
    69. 69. More donor feedback... A large number of applicants did not provide sufficient detail about the findings of the needs analysis and did not show how the project will address these needs/problems. Some applicants didn’t understand the distinction between outputs and outcomes. Some proposals didn’t show enough detail on the activities. Only 35% of applicants designed coherent projects. Proposals that provided more detailed project plans generally scored better as this allowed assessors to understand the logic behind the project. In general, exit strategies were the weakest component of the proposals. It is important to complete all elements of the logframe. Some sections were incomplete, especially at outcome level. (Independent Assessment of Scottish Government Malawi and SSA Funds, July 2012, IOD Parc)
    70. 70. Guidance from DFID for GPAF logframes
    71. 71. Typical problems Beneficiaries not clearly identified Problems identified as important are not those of the intended beneficiaries Objective structure poorly developed Multiple project outcomes Assumptions not developed Indicators not developed
    72. 72. Practical hints Use reference numbers in the table Write clear statements Avoid just rephrasing statements at other levels Keep the statements short and concise Don’t complete the LF on your own Use post-it’s or cards, to move around Ask an outsider to test/review the logic on the final logframe (eg. Peer reviews). Engage with the donor in other ways too (see handout)
    73. 73. Supplement the logframe with the useof other tools, e.g. Project Timeline 84
    74. 74. Thanks for staying until the end. www.nidos.org.ukPlease don’t forget to hand in your evaluation forms. Contact details: Jill Gentle Independent Consultant Any final (specialising in project management, participatory tools, community development methodologies) questions?? writetojilluk@yahoo.co.uk 07773 016356 or 01908 316950

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