Effective logframes for international development

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  • Alternative Fomulations of the Logical Framework System Although the logical framework system most commonly used is a matrix of 16 cells, there are some alternative formulations. These include: • A training manual produced by USAID in 1980 described eight possible variations in the logical framework system such as additional columns for verifying assumptions and for specific quantified targets and additional rows for intermediate outputs and subsector goals. • A training manual produced by FAO in 1986 with Activities as a row between Input and Output, creating a matrix with 5 rows and 4 columns. • ZOPP replaced Inputs by Activities in the bottom row (GTZ, 1988). They saw activities as a crucial feature of the logical framework whereas inputs could be specified elsewhere in the project documentation. • The NORAD matrix has only three columns - the middle column combines a description of indicators with the means of verification. Although they differ in detail, these alternatives all maintain the matrix layout of the logical framework system as developed by PCI. USAID (1980). Design and Evaluation of Aid-Assisted Projects. Training and Development Division, Office of Personnel Management, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington DC.
  • It is also useful to standardize the way in which the hierarchy of project objectives is described. A useful convention to follow in this regard is: for the Overall Objective to be expressed as ‘To contribute to…..`; the Purpose to be expressed in terms of benefits to the target group being ‘Increased/improved/ etc……….’, Results to be expressed in terms of a tangible result ‘delivered/produced/conducted etc’, and Activities to b e expressed in the present tense starting with an active verb, such as ‘Prepare, design, construct, research …..’.
  • If means (inputs) are provided then activities will be produced If activities are undertaken then outputs will be produced If outputs are produced then component objectives will be achieved If component objectives are achieved then the project purpose will be supported If the project purpose is supported this should then contribute towards the overall goal Each level thus provides the rationale for the next level down. The goal helps define the purpose, the purpose the component objectives; and so on…
  • During the Conceptual Design stage the plan for the project or program is being formulated in general terms and, normally, detailed indicators are not yet formulated at this stage. Nevertheless, indicators already play a crucial role in getting more precise information on the context of the intervention and on the problems to be tackled. During this identification stage, organizations will try to reinforce the quality of the situational analysis by using specific indicators. When completing the logical framework indicators formulated at the level of results, purpose and overall goal, will be the starting point for monitoring and evaluation. However, during implementation, managers will also be interested in other aspects of the intervention, like depletion of budget or specific bottlenecks caused by external factors. In this context, some organizations distinguish input indicators, output indicators, etc. referring basically to the type of monitoring for which they are used.
  • Column 2 provides the objectively verifiable indicators (OVIs) for the overall goal, project purpose and outputs. OVIs are criteria for assessing project progress at the different levels. OVIs must be objectively verifiable – this means that two independent observers should come to the same conclusion. OVI enable project managers both to see whether the project has achieved what it set out to achieve at each level and to have a measure of its achievement.
  • Activity – based on the statements provide in slide 12, develop some illustrative OUTPUT indicators for the Delta River case
  • Activity – based on the statements provide in slide 12, develop some illustrative OUTPUT indicators for the Delta River case
  • Activity – based on the statements provide in slide 12, develop some illustrative OUTPUT indicators for the Delta River case
  • Together with the indicators, the sources where to find the information referred to in the indicator, are also identified. Identification of these SoVs at this stage is highly recommended, since discussions on where to find the information or how to collect it, often lead to reformulation of the indicator. In the worst case that the information referred to in the indicator cannot be obtained, the indicator becomes useless and a new one should be formulated.
  • Effective logframes for international development

    1. 1. Welcome to a 1-day course “Understanding and Producing Effective Logframes” 28 th January 2011 NIDOS Training Programme, Edinburgh www.nidos.org.uk
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>9.30 Registration </li></ul><ul><li>10.00 Introductory Session </li></ul><ul><li>10.20 Background on logframes </li></ul><ul><li>10.40 The logframe explained </li></ul><ul><li>11.00 Break </li></ul><ul><li>11.15 The logframe explained (cont) </li></ul><ul><li>11.40 Building a logframe </li></ul><ul><li>1.00 Lunch </li></ul><ul><li>2.00 Small Group work </li></ul><ul><li>3.15 Break </li></ul><ul><li>3.30 Round up and final tips </li></ul><ul><li>4.15 Final questions and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>4.45 Close </li></ul>
    3. 3. Aims of the day <ul><li>To enable all attendees to understand the terminology used in a basic logframe. </li></ul><ul><li>To expose each attendee to at least 3 example logframes, with an opportunity to help critique these logframes by the end of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>To give each attendee the opportunity to input directly into developing a logframe (i.e. from problem tree analysis to final completion of a logframe) </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure all attendees are made aware of some of the advantages and disadvantages of the logframe approach, and show evidence of being able to apply these to their own work context. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Session 2 <ul><li>Firstly, some background..... </li></ul>
    5. 5. A logframe can look something like this…. Objectives & activities Purpose Goal Outputs Activities Means Indicators Means of verification Assumptions Cost
    6. 6. … Or can include different terms. Don’t over-focus on the language and the variations in the various logframe models. Just use the format which the donor/NGO requires. The important lesson is to learn to think through projects using the logic model, and not to focus on the differences in terminology too much.
    7. 7. Background on the logframe <ul><li>Also known as the ‘logical framework matrix’. </li></ul><ul><li>Started in 1960s by USAID. Now used by most major donors. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether we realise it or not, we often work and think in ‘projects’ and every project can benefit from a clear plan, goal, aim, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The skeleton. The backbone. The nuts and bolts. The front page. </li></ul><ul><li>Presents the project information in a systematic and logical way. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a clear, simple and concise summary of what the project will achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a basis for monitoring and evaluation, over the project lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic logframe contains 16 cells (4 columns and 4 rows) </li></ul><ul><li>People often love them or hate them – what is your experience? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Logframes should not be… <ul><li>… Written by one person </li></ul><ul><li>… Full of jargon that no one understands </li></ul><ul><li>… Written just to keep the donor happy </li></ul><ul><li>… Covered in dust. Tip - Keep it a living document, i.e. review and amend it regularly. It is tool primarily to help the project, not to help the donor. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Logframes should be… <ul><li>… Written with input from stakeholders and beneficiaries, using a lively and interesting process. </li></ul><ul><li>… Useful from the start to the end of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>… Understandable by all involved and able to incorporate the view of all stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>… Interesting to write. </li></ul><ul><li>… Concise. Tip – Don’t exceed 2 sides of A4. </li></ul><ul><li>… Easy and understandable for anyone to read, who picks it up for the first time. Simple, logical, clear, concise and free of jargon. Tip – give your final draft to a colleague/friend to read, who has not seen it previously, before sending it to the donor. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Disadvantages of the logframe <ul><li>In some cultures, the logframe can be seen as too wordy, too academic, too difficult and too ‘Western’. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of applying the framework too rigidly and losing creativity and innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>It can seem impossible to capture all things in a 4x4 table. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be time-consuming. </li></ul>
    11. 11. To summarise, why a training on ‘logframes’? <ul><li>9 out of 10 donors prefer them! </li></ul><ul><li>It is just one tool which enables good analysis of the problem, with an opportunity for all involved to agree on terminology, activities and methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a tool which helps to organise all ideas and plans of the project, in a clear way. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clear objectives and stakeholder commitment drive successful projects.” </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Now it is time to write your own... </li></ul>
    13. 13. Session 3 <ul><li>The logframe explained..... </li></ul>
    14. 14. What information should I include in a LF? Firstly, think of your project in terms of ... PLAN IMPLEMENT THE WIDER GOAL: Explain the bigger picture that your project will contribute towards YOUR PROJECT PURPOSE: In specific terms, explain what your project will achieve, by when, where and who will be affected. YOUR PROJECT ACTIVITIES List the activities which your project will actually do. We only do the activities – all of the above will follow. YOUR PROJECT OUTPUTS: List the impact/results which your project will have .
    15. 15. Completing the first column of the LF The broad development impact or ‘big picture’ to which this project will contribute, i.e. normally a national or sector level achievement. Statement Wording: “To contribute to, to reduce, to improve…” “To contribute to a reduction in the national population growth by lowering the fertility rate from 6.0 to 5.6.” The overall purpose of this project. In one sentence, state the expected impact or effect on the target group, by when and where, of this project. Statement Wording: “To increase, To improve...” To increase , from 10% to 30%, the effective use of modern contraceptive by eligible groups in village x, over the project period..” The specific and direct results/impact that the project will deliver, after activities have been done. These are under the control of the project. Statement Wording: “...delivered/produced/changed, etc.” “Primary health care clinic renovated, fully equipped and functioning. Clinic staff keeping regular records” The tasks that need to be carried out to deliver the planned results. We only ‘do’ the activities – the rest will follow if the logic is correct. Statement Wording: “Prepare, design, construct, research…, etc.” Train clinic staff in record keeping. Renovate clinic. Project Description Goal Purpose Outputs Activities
    16. 16. Test the ‘if’ logic… if ACTIVITIES are undertaken then OUTPUTS will be produced if OUTPUTS are produced then the PROJECT PURPOSE will be achieved if the PROJECT PURPOSE is achieved then the project will contribute towards the GOAL Start here
    17. 17. <ul><li>Start to write your own logframe! </li></ul>
    18. 18. Example of Goal, Purpose, Outputs and Activities Goal Purpose Outputs Activities Project Description Indicators Source of Verification Assumptions To contribute to improved health, particularly of under 5s and the general health of the river ecosystem. Improved quality of river water in Tabo Province, by end of 2013. 1.1 Reduced volume of toilet waste discharged into river 1.2 Reduced volume of household refuse directly dumped into the river system 1.1.1 Conduct baseline survey of households 1.1.2 Prepare and deliver public awareness campaign 1.1.3 Prepare engineering specifications for latrines and expanded sewage network. 1.2.1 Etc. 1.2.1 Etc.
    19. 19. In reality, it is never quite as simple as that. There are certain assumptions we are basing our project success on (4 th column) For example...
    20. 20. Test the ‘If and Then’ Logic
    21. 21. What do we mean by ‘assumptions’? <ul><li>These are external conditions/factors required for the success of the project, i.e. They are beyond the control of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about relevant and probable factors which could jeopardize the success of the project, at each level. </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions are worded positively, because they describe circumstances required to achieve certain objectives, e.g. Children have time to participate in programme, HIV/AIDS is recognised as a problem that people want to address, peaceful elections. </li></ul><ul><li>If an assumption is essential for the success of the project but is unlikely to come to pass, it is called a ‘killer assumption’ – either redesign the project or abandon the project! </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, if an assumption is almost certain, don’t include it. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the next diagram to help you... </li></ul>
    22. 22. The assessment of assumptions
    23. 23. Some examples of Assumptions <ul><ul><li>Example of Assumptions for the Goal and Purpose Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peaceful elections (e.g. Political) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable economy (e.g. Economic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of Assumptions for Output and Activity Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management will be able to recruit skilled staff (e.g. personnel issues). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government will sign contract in a timely manner (e.g. legal or administrative issues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation of stakeholders in maintaining the clinic (e.g. people issues!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainy season will finish by early May (e.g. seasonal factors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds and tools will be delivered on time (e.g. export/import factors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See example logframes for more assumptions. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Assumptions Goal Purpose Outputs Activities Project Description Indicators Source of Verification Assumptions To contribute to improved health, particularly of under 5s and the general health of the river ecosystem. Improved quality of river water in Tabo Province, by end of 2013. <ul><li>The Clean River legislation is introduced by the EPA and enforced </li></ul><ul><li>Up river water quality remains unchanged </li></ul>1.1 Reduced volume of toilet waste discharged into river 1.2 Reduced volume of household refuse directly dumped into the river system - Waste water treatment meets national standards - Fishing cooperatives meet obligations to establish waste collection systems 1.1.1 Conduct baseline survey of households 1.1.2 Prepare and deliver public awareness campaign 1.1.3 Prepare engineering specifications for latrines and expanded sewage network. 1.1.4 Etc. 1.2.1 Etc. - Government budgets for improvements to sewage systems remain unchanged.
    25. 25. <ul><li>Continue to work on your own logframe! </li></ul>
    26. 26. How are we going to measure the success of our project? Indicators (2 nd column)
    27. 27. Adding Indicators “ an instrument which gives you information” The English Language Dictionary “ A quantitative or qualitative factor or variable that provides a simple and reliable means to measure achievement, to reflect changes connected to an intervention, or to help assess the performance of a development actor” OECD/DAC (DAC Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation, May 2002) <ul><li>“ a variable, which purpose it is to measure change in a phenomena or process” USAID </li></ul><ul><li>“ a description of the project’s objectives in terms of quantity, quality, target group(s), time and place” OECD </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs). </li></ul>DEFINITIONS Project Description Indicators Source of Verification Assumptions Goal Purpose Outputs Activities
    28. 28. Example of a Good Indicator <ul><li>Goal : </li></ul><ul><li>“ Conservation of the Giant Panda endangered species” </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator : </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the fifth year (when) </li></ul><ul><li>the population sizes ( what ) </li></ul><ul><li>of the Giant Panda (which ) </li></ul><ul><li>within country x ( where ) </li></ul><ul><li>have increased to x number (target) </li></ul><ul><li>compared to x number at project-start level (baseline) </li></ul>
    29. 29. Tips on writing indicators <ul><li>Indicators can also be called OVIs (Objectively Verifiable Indicators) </li></ul><ul><li>Normally, indicators are completed at the level of the purpose, output and goal only (however, always check donor guidelines first). </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple! Write only 1-3 indicators for each output/purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators should show progress towards and achievement of the output (i.e. don’t just repeat the completed activities!) </li></ul><ul><li>Tip: Avoid reinventing the wheel – use indicators which exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory M and E – use indicators which can be collected by stakeholders and/or beneficiaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Tip: Try and relate indicators to baseline data if possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators should be SMART (see next page...) </li></ul>
    30. 30. SMART Indicators <ul><li>A good indicator should be SMART </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S pecific to the objective it is supposed to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M easurable (either quantitatively or qualitatively) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vailable at an acceptable cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R elevant to the information needs of managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T ime-bound so we know when we can expect the objective/target to be achieved </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Output-level Indicators Project Description Indicators Goal Purpose Outputs <ul><li>Output-level indicators allow the project to track what is to be delivered, when, and, most importantly, to what effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself; “What will life look like when the outputs have been achieved? “ </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>16 peer educators groups (with 10-12 people in each group) trained and active in 16 schools by month 7, working with 3 age groups. </li></ul><ul><li>240 posters produced (80 per age group) and distributed to 16 schools by end of Month 9 </li></ul>Activities
    32. 32. Purpose-level Indicators Project Description Indicators Goal Purpose <ul><li>Purpose-level indicators focus on demonstrable evidence of a </li></ul><ul><li>behavioural change, such as adoption or uptake.Think IMPACT. </li></ul><ul><li>Think CHANGE. Think WHAT PEOPLE WILL DO DIFFERENTLY. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself; “What will life look like when the purpose is met?” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>75% of school children in x town are able to name three transmission routes of HIV </li></ul><ul><li>75% of school children in x town have talked to a person with HIV/AIDS </li></ul>Outputs Activities
    33. 33. Goal-level Indicators Project Description Indicators Goal Many organisations/donors do not expect a Project to measure impact or change at the goal level. This is because the project usually only contributes to the achievement of the goal, rather than actually achieving the goal. However, performance indicator statements and associated data can usefully be drawn from appropriate, already-existing sources such as Amnesty International, FAO, Transparency International, World Bank, UN, national government reports, HDI Index, etc. Therefore, it is worth sourcing relevant data, to include as an indicator at goal-level, but the project shouldn’t specifically collect it. Purpose Outputs Activities
    34. 34. How are we going to collect the information to measure the indicators? Means of Verification
    35. 35. Means of Verification (MoV) Sometimes called ‘Sources of Verification’. MoV are tools or means to collect the information required by the indicators. <ul><li>If the information referred to in the indicator cannot be obtained, the indicator becomes useless and a new one should be formulated. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of MoVs include: </li></ul><ul><li>- Project documents </li></ul><ul><li>- Field surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Minutes of meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Records </li></ul><ul><li>Training reports </li></ul><ul><li>Annual surveys </li></ul>Project Description Indicators Means of Verification Assumptions Goal Purpose Outputs Activities
    36. 36. Means of verification (MoV) - 3 rd Column <ul><li>Questions to consider, when thinking of how to gather the data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do appropriate external sources already exist (e.g. reports, stats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are these sources specific enough? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they sources reliable and accessible ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the costs for obtaining the information reasonable ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should other sources be created? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Try to use existing sources as much as possible </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Continue to work on your own logframe! </li></ul>
    38. 38. The order for normally completing the boxes is shown below….
    39. 39. <ul><li>It’s time to put our learning into practice... </li></ul>
    40. 40. Session 4 <ul><li>Building a logframe from scratch..... </li></ul>
    41. 41. How do we start to write a LF? <ul><li>A typical process could look like this: </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out a Situational Analysis, then... </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out a Stakeholder Analysis, then... </li></ul><ul><li>Do a Problem Tree Analysis, then... </li></ul><ul><li>Do a Objective Tree Analysis, then... </li></ul><ul><li>Write the Logical Framework Matrix and then... </li></ul><ul><li>Execute the project and... </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out Monitoring and Evaluation </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>A document is created which describes the situation surrounding the problem. The source could be a feasibility study, a pre-appraisal report, or be a compilation done specifically for the project design workshop. Typically the document describes the potential problem situation in detail, identifies the stakeholders and describes the effects of the problems on them. </li></ul>Situational Analysis
    43. 43. <ul><li>A stakeholder is any individual, group or organisation with an interest in the outcome of a programme/project. </li></ul><ul><li>SA is an analysis of the people, groups, or organizations who may influence or be influenced by the problem or a potential solution to the problem. This is the first step to understanding the problem. Without people or interest groups there would be no problem. So to understand the problem, we must first understand the stakeholders. The objectives of this step are to reveal and discuss the interest and expectations of persons and groups that are important to the success of the project </li></ul><ul><li>(chicken and egg) </li></ul>Stakeholder Analysis
    44. 44. Problem Tree Approach <ul><li>Step One: Identify a “core” or central problem. Tip: State an existing negative situation (e.g. Poor health provision), not the absence to a problem (e.g. No health centre) </li></ul><ul><li>Step Two: Participants themselves list all problems that come to mind, i.e. those which relate to or stem from this core problem. List only actual problems (i.e. not future, imagined or possible problems). Use one card for each problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Tip: Divide into small groups of men, women, children, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>LET’S START TO BUILD OUR OWN PROBLEM TREE </li></ul><ul><li>Step Three: Come together and determine which problems are effects (branches) and which are causes (roots) of the core problem. Place on the ‘tree’ and group together similar cards. </li></ul><ul><li>Step Four: Identify the root causes and main effects, by asking ‘why’ or ‘what leads to...’ at least 5 times for each card, to understand fully the cause-effect heirarchy around the core problem. Ensure everyone agrees when moving cards. </li></ul>Methods and Tools
    45. 45. Problem Tree CAUSE EFFECT
    46. 46. Problem Tree Analysis <ul><li>Relies on : </li></ul><ul><li>Group-based inter-action eg. Workshop format </li></ul><ul><li>Participation of key stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving consensus on problems, causes and effects, with active involvement and participation. </li></ul>Methods and Tools
    47. 54. From Problems to Objectives <ul><li>Now we have the Problem Tree, we can do the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify a project purpose for our logframe (by converting the main problem into a specific purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the project activities and outputs (by substituting cause-effect problem tree statements with means-end objective tree statements) See over... </li></ul>Methods and Tools
    48. 55. Analysis of Objectives <ul><li>Transform the ‘problem tree’ into an ‘objective tree’ by restating the problems as objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem statement converts into a positive statement, e.g. ‘lack of sufficient water’ (problem) becomes ‘improve water supply’ (objective). Tip: Turn the card over and write on the back. </li></ul><ul><li>The top of the tree shows the end which is desired (i.e. convert effects to results/outputs). For example, ‘contaminated water’ to clean water’. </li></ul><ul><li>The roots show the means to achieving the end (i.e. convert the causes to activities). For example, ‘lack of technical people’ becomes ‘increase number of trained people’. </li></ul><ul><li>Tip: The ‘problem tree’ is probably never going to be the same for different groups and at different times, so see it more as a device to broaden thinking than as a definitive project determinant. For example, ‘lack of sufficient water’ could either be a ‘cause’ or an ‘effect,’ depending on the situation and participating group, and the project objectives and tasks would be different for each. </li></ul>
    49. 56. The relationship between the problems tree and the objective tree <ul><li>PROBLEM TREE OBJECTIVE TREE </li></ul><ul><li>Focal problem Project Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Effects Output </li></ul><ul><li>Causes Activities </li></ul>
    50. 57. PROBLEM TREE: BUS EXAMPLE Loss of confidence in bus company People are late Passengers hurt or killed Frequent bus accidents Effects Core problem Drivers not careful enough Bad conditions of vehicles Bad road conditions Vehicles too old No ongoing maintenance Causes
    51. 58. OBJECTIVES TREE: BUS EXAMPLE Customers have a better image of the bus company Passengers arrive at scheduled time Less passengers hurt Frequency of bus accidents considerably reduced Drivers drive carefully and responsibly Keep vehicles in good condition Improve road conditions Replace old vehicles Regularly maintain and check vehicles Outputs Activities Purpose
    52. 59. So, what do we include in our logframe? <ul><li>As this process can result in projects which are too ambitious, it is therefore important to help the group to focus on what can be achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory Ranking can help to prioritise and focus project activities. Tip: Use stones, bottle tops or sticky dots. Participants are asked to place 4 stones on their top priority, 3 on their 2nd priority, 2 on their 3nd priority, etc, etc. </li></ul>
    53. 64. What would you like to work on? <ul><li>A logframe/project design you have brought with you. </li></ul><ul><li>EU Boto Case Study: Read the one page summary of this fictional project (ag, health, water) and design a logframe. Example logframes will be given to you after the exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>EU Sierra Leone Case Study. Read the summary at the start of the proposal and design a logframe. The actual logframe submitted to the EU will be given to you after the exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Critique a logframe: Critique a fictional logframe and then read the IFAD critque on the next page. </li></ul><ul><li>DFID CSCF Niger Case Study: Read the one page summary at the start of the proposal and design a logframe. The actual logframe submitted to DFID will be given to you after the exercise. This proposal was successfully funded by DFID in 2004. </li></ul>
    54. 65. Session 6 <ul><li>Round up and final tips..... </li></ul>
    55. 66. Examples of Goal Statements
    56. 67. Feedback from DFID CSCF grant submissions (2010) <ul><li>Although the project is clear on its poverty reduction and livelihood security aims, how women will participate in community and household decision-making processes remains vague </li></ul>
    57. 68. Feedback from DFID CSCF grant submissions (2010) <ul><li>The problem analysis is too broad identifying a range of issues leading to the exclusion and marginalisation of target communities and of youth in particular. It is not entirely clear how this relates to the proposed work and how certain activities (e.g. setting up agri-business and agroforestry projects) will contribute to improving livelihoods. </li></ul>
    58. 69. Feedback from DFID CSCF grant submissions (2010) <ul><li>The project approach is described as a series of 16 largely unrelated activities some of which are not clearly explained (e.g. activity 4: &quot;awareness raising through different activities&quot; or 13: &quot;engagement of youth in extracurricular activities will promote positive energies&quot;). </li></ul>
    59. 70. Feedback from DFID CSCF grant submissions (2010) <ul><li>Budget includes £117,600 for national, regional and international advocacy but it is not clear from the narrative or the logframe as to what issues will be addressed or what policies or other frameworks will be targeted. </li></ul>
    60. 71. Feedback from donors... <ul><li>“ The art to developing a good logframe is to make it specific and clear, but not too long”. </li></ul><ul><li>IFAD, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>“ We look for </li></ul><ul><li>Clear hierarchy of and linking between goal, purpose, outputs and activities </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, concise and accessible statement of all key components of a project </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify on how the project is expected to work and what it will achieve” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DFID , 2010 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    61. 72. Logframes: Common problems from a donors perspective <ul><li>Confusion of goal and purpose </li></ul><ul><li>More than one purpose statement </li></ul><ul><li>No numbering </li></ul><ul><li>No logical hierarchy within the logframe (activities should be linked to outputs, outputs linked to the purpose and the purpose contributes to the goal) </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators which are not clear or SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bound)   </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators mix indicators and activities and have no target numbers or disaggregated data </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative and logframe don’t match up </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DFID , 2010 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    62. 73. Logframes: DFID Common Problems (continued) <ul><li>Scale of outputs makes reaching the purpose unlikely in timeframe provided </li></ul><ul><li>Comments at CN stage have not been taken into account </li></ul><ul><li>Not useful as an M&E tool </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion over indicators and means of verification: Often applicants think that the two are the same thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators for which verification would be extremely difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor analysis of risk and assumptions and the hierarchy in relation to the intervention logic: i.e. not discussing the assumptions and how they relate to the intervention logic which should be as follows: </li></ul>
    63. 74. Other donor feedback... <ul><li>Activities are relatively few and do not convincingly lead to the outputs. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose is 3 statements; outputs with indicators not well-defined </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators are a mix of indicators and activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building of partner is not addressed specifically. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no clear indicator for policy change. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators need to be SMART </li></ul><ul><li>No disaggregation by gender or other categories. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose statement does not reflect the analysis in the narrative. </li></ul>
    64. 75. Typical problems <ul><li>Beneficiaries not clearly identified </li></ul><ul><li>Problems identified as important are not those of the intended beneficiaries </li></ul><ul><li>Objective structure poorly developed </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple project purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions not developed </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators not developed </li></ul>
    65. 76. Practical hints <ul><li>Use reference numbers in the table </li></ul><ul><li>Write clear statements </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid just rephrasing statements at other levels </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the statements short and concise </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t complete the LF on your own </li></ul><ul><li>Use post-it’s or cards, to move around </li></ul><ul><li>Ask an outsider to test/review the logic on the final logframe (eg. Peer reviews). </li></ul>
    66. 77. Supplement the logframe with the use of other tools, e.g. Project Timeline
    67. 78. This presentation featured in the NIDOS training programme: www.nidos.org.uk Contact details: Jill Gentle Independent Consultant (specialising in project management, participatory tools, community development methodologies) [email_address] 07773 016356

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