“ History will be kind to me, for I intend to write it.” Winston Churchill
“ We should build an aristocracy of achievement based on a democracy of opportunity” Possibly Thomas Jefferson
Timeline <ul><li>Ancient China </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Greece, Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Galton through Terman </li></ul><ul><li>The “mother” of gifted education </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>1978 + </li></ul>
Ancient China Thousands of Students taking the civil service examinations. Intelligence equals high test scores
Ancient Greece What was valued? How was excellence rewarded? How were “gifted” trained?
Plato <ul><li>As far as choosing the rulers of the future, Plato asserted that the preference of a higher education, namely, the studies of geometry, astronomy and other disciplines of the highest order be assigned to the surest and the bravest and those with natural gifts which would surely facilitate their education. He noted that the mind more often faints from the severity of study than from the severity of gymnastics. A good memory and a love of labor in any line would be essential requirements. (Plato, Book vii, p. 576) </li></ul>
Sir Francis Galton Born 1822, died 1911 Important Works : Hereditary Genius , 1969, London: MacMillan Ltd. English men of science, their nature and nurture, 1974, London: MacMillan and Co. Natural Inheritance, 1889, London: MacMillan and Co. Fingerprints, 1892 Contributions: First to measure intelligence First to devise system using fingerprints for identification Father of phrenology Family Tree Testing Fingerprinting
Phrenology Fingerprints: “ In 1892 he published Fingerprints, the first book on the subject. In it he stated his belief that fingerprints were unique and unchanging, making them ideal for identification. He warned however, that they would not provide heredity or racial clues His basic method of classification is still in use.” http://kyky.essortment.com/fingerprinthist_rmmv.htm
Alfred Binet Major Works: Binet, A., & Simon, T. (1896). La phychologie individuelle, Annee Psychologie, 1896, 2, 411-465 Major Contributions: Test for educability of children (goal was to identify less able school children in order to aid them with the needed care required) First to utilize teacher expertise (Average ability at age)
Lewis Terman 1877 – 1956 Major Works : The Measurement of Intelligence (1916) The Use of Intelligence Tests (1916) Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale (1916) The Stanford Achievement Test (1923) Genetic Studies of Genius (1925, 1947, 1959) Autobiography of Lewis Terman (1930) Major Contributions: IQ tests to classify children and put them on the appropriate job-track. IQ = mental age/chronological age times 100 Long-term studies of gifted children that are still in progress today
Spearman : General Intelligence (g) Thurstone : Specific Abilities Vernon : Structure of Human Abilities (Major, minor, and Specific Factors) Guilford : Structure of the Intellect (Operations, Products, Contents) Gardner : Multiple Intelligences Sternberg : Triarchic Intelligence
Five Turning Points in the 50’s <ul><li>1950: Guilford’s APA address: importance of educating gifted </li></ul><ul><li>1952: Witty’s famous definition: any child whose performance in a worthwhile type of human endeavor is consistently or repeatedly remarkable </li></ul><ul><li>1956: Virgil Ward’s definition of Differentiated Education for the gifted </li></ul><ul><li>1957: Sputnik </li></ul><ul><li>1958: Torrance Test of Creative Thinking </li></ul>
1978 + <ul><li>1978 - Joseph Renzulli : What Makes Giftedness? </li></ul><ul><li>1983 – Schoolwide Ernichment Model </li></ul>
Howard Gardner <ul><li>1985: Frames of Mind </li></ul><ul><li>1989: To Open Minds </li></ul><ul><li>1991: The Unschooled Mind </li></ul><ul><li>1993: Creating Minds </li></ul><ul><li>1993: Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>1995: Leading Minds </li></ul><ul><li>1997: Extraordinary Minds </li></ul><ul><li>1999: Intelligence Reframed </li></ul><ul><li>2000: The Disciplined Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Etc, etc </li></ul>
Robert Sternberg <ul><li>1986: Triarchic Theory of Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>1986: Editor – Conceptions of Giftedness </li></ul><ul><li>2006: Editor – 2 nd edition Conceptions of Giftedness </li></ul>
Francois Gagne <ul><li>Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent </li></ul>
Paul Torrance Torrance Test of Creative Thinking Future Problem Solving Incubation Model of Teaching 2000: Film Manifesto for Children (Georgia Public Television) Don't be afraid to fall in love with something and pursue it with intensity. Know, understand, take pride in, practice, develop, exploit and enjoy your greatest strengths. Learn to free yourself from the expectations of others and to walk away from the games they impose on you. Free yourself to play your own game. Find a great teacher or mentor who will help you. Learn the skills of interdependence. Don't waste energy trying to be well rounded. Do what you love and can do well.
Authors of Interest James Borland Nancy Robinson Bonnie Cramond Tracy Cross Joyce VanTassel Baska Susan Baum
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