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Salmonella,  the hidden danger for a planet with a future population of 9 billion.   Meeting the zero standard in pig meat...
Salmonella – Global health challenge <ul><li>Salmonella  infection from food is one of the major causes of human illness a...
How much human salmonellosis from pork? <ul><li>10-20% of human salmonellosis in EU from pigs and pig meat  </li></ul><ul>...
Salmonella , not tolerated by consumers <ul><li>Consumers are demanding food safety assurances, not only during slaughter,...
Who has the responsibility? <ul><li>a farm-to-fork approach.   </li></ul><ul><li>the responsibility for the production of ...
Strategies and lessons learnt from Europe <ul><li>Experience from Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>European Food Safety Risk Asse...
European Union study in slaughter pigs <ul><li>10.3 %  Salmonella -positive slaughter pigs. Varied from 0% to 29% between ...
EFSA-Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) <ul><li>Salmonella-free breeders, </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella-free fee...
Farm to consumption QMRA Transmission Cross-contamination Amplification Inactivation
QMRA-Hazard and risk characterization
Reduced  Salmonella  in pigs arriving at slaughter <ul><li>by ensuring breeder pigs are  Salmonella -free; </li></ul><ul><...
Breeder pigs <ul><li>Ensuring that breeder pigs are  Salmonella -free is the first step in high prevalence countries.  </l...
Slaughter pigs <ul><li>Control:  </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella -infected breeder pig herds, </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella -c...
Slaughter house procedures <ul><li>Slaughter house interventions are more likely to produce greater and more reliable redu...
Effect on human Salmonellosis cases <ul><li>a reduction of two logs (99%) of  Salmonella  numbers on contaminated carcasse...
Salmonella dynamics during slaughter of pigs <ul><li>Salmonella  increases during transport and lairage, where it reaches ...
Slaughter house hygienic measures <ul><li>a high temperature at singeing,  </li></ul><ul><li>enclosing the anus and rectum...
Hot water decontamination (HWD) <ul><li>pig carcasses are showered with 80  C (176  F) hot water for 14-16 seconds direc...
Hot water decontamination Photo from Danish Meat Research Institute
Denmark  Cost Benefit Analysis <ul><li>Identified the economical efficiency of a range of possible strategies.  </li></ul>...
How much contaminated feed is there really? <ul><li>15% of all protein-meal imported to Sweden is detected  Salmonella  co...
Salmonella  contamination in feed mills <ul><li>Contaminated raw products </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate heat treatment d...
Problem with sampling feed for  Salmonella <ul><li>Sampling of feed ingredients and finished feed is relatively insensitiv...
What feed intervention strategies are available? <ul><li>Heat treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Organic acids </li></ul><ul><li>...
Direct interaction <ul><li>Binding of pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with immune receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Inte...
Glycans  <ul><li>A number of carbohydrates (based on glucose, mannose, galactose, fucose) have been shown to have anti-inf...
Mannan-oligosaccharides <ul><li>Salmonella  contain mannose-specific lectins (Type 1 fimbriae) on the bacterial surface th...
<ul><li>Improve gut health  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal performance depends on good intestinal health </li></ul></ul><ul...
Where do we start? <ul><li>Education and information </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughter house hygienic measures </li></ul><ul><li...
 
Salmonella control-does it pay off? <ul><li>Consumers, retail, restaurants and catering will use food safety criteria as q...
Salmonella control on farm and at slaughter <ul><li>All biosecurity measures and hygienic measures to decrease Salmonella ...
Questions
Organic acids <ul><li>Formic, acetic, propionic & butyric acids  </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion rate based on feed buffering ...
Feed texture <ul><li>Less  Salmonella  in herds using home mixed wet feed than in those buying pelleted feed  (Denmark, Gr...
Competitive Exclusion (CE) <ul><li>a kind of probiotic culture that is only given at a single time to the animals.  </li><...
Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) <ul><li>caproic, caprylic, capric acids.  </li></ul><ul><li>MCFA decrease  Salmonella  in ...
Prebiotics <ul><li>Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), but can also be proteins, peptides and some types of lipids.  </li></...
Essential Oils <ul><li>A range of essential oils have been  shown to have bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal properties again...
Probiotics <ul><li>Currently 17 products approved in EU for pigs  ( Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Bacil...
A systematic review – feed and feeding management to reduce  Salmonella  in slaughter swine <ul><li>O’Connor, AM. Prev Vet...
Summary of responses to Bio-Mos ®  addition to sow diets <ul><li>Sow colostrum production (+ 11%) </li></ul><ul><li>Piglet...
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Alltech symposium2010berge

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  1. 1. Salmonella, the hidden danger for a planet with a future population of 9 billion. Meeting the zero standard in pig meat with strategies for controlling Salmonella . Catharina Berge, DVM, MPVM, PhD Berge Veterinary Consulting
  2. 2. Salmonella – Global health challenge <ul><li>Salmonella infection from food is one of the major causes of human illness and responsible for substantial economic losses worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Every year: Millions of people infected with Salmonella by food and thousands die from the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>US- annual costs of human Salmonella infections estimated at $ 2.3 billion. </li></ul>
  3. 3. How much human salmonellosis from pork? <ul><li>10-20% of human salmonellosis in EU from pigs and pig meat </li></ul><ul><li>6-9% of human foodborne salmonellosis in USA from pigs and pig meat </li></ul><ul><li>In Denmark, pork and pork products were reported to be responsible for 10-15% of the total Salmonella infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between countries due to; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Salmonella occurrence in pigs and pig meat, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consumption patterns & preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relative importance of other Salmonella sources. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Salmonella , not tolerated by consumers <ul><li>Consumers are demanding food safety assurances, not only during slaughter, processing, and preparation, but also at the farm level. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who has the responsibility? <ul><li>a farm-to-fork approach. </li></ul><ul><li>the responsibility for the production of safe food lies with the primary animal producer up through the food chain to the consumer </li></ul>
  6. 6. Strategies and lessons learnt from Europe <ul><li>Experience from Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>European Food Safety Risk Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Tools to fight Salmonella </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits in Salmonella control </li></ul>
  7. 7. European Union study in slaughter pigs <ul><li>10.3 % Salmonella -positive slaughter pigs. Varied from 0% to 29% between EU countries. </li></ul><ul><li>From 9 countries level the prevalence of slaughter pigs with antibodies against Salmonella ranged from 3.5% to 33.3%. </li></ul><ul><li>The top serotypes: Typhimurium, Derby, Rissen, S. 4,[5],12:i:- and Enteritidis. </li></ul>
  8. 8. EFSA-Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) <ul><li>Salmonella-free breeders, </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella-free feed, </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning and disinfection of holdings, </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding contamination at slaughter, </li></ul><ul><li>Decontamination of carcasses. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Farm to consumption QMRA Transmission Cross-contamination Amplification Inactivation
  10. 10. QMRA-Hazard and risk characterization
  11. 11. Reduced Salmonella in pigs arriving at slaughter <ul><li>by ensuring breeder pigs are Salmonella -free; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70-80% reduction in high prevalence areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10-20% in low prevalence areas can be foreseen; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>by feeding only Salmonella -free feedstuffs; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-20% reduction in high prevalence areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60-70% in low prevalence areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>by preventing infection from external sources of Salmonella (i.e. rodents and birds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-20% reduction in slaughter pig lymph node prevalence can be foreseen. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Breeder pigs <ul><li>Ensuring that breeder pigs are Salmonella -free is the first step in high prevalence countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Control measures proposed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) control in nucleus and multiplier herds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) incoming pigs ( Salmonella status) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) control of feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) biosecurity programs incl. Salmonella . </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Slaughter pigs <ul><li>Control: </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella -infected breeder pig herds, </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella -contaminated feed. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Slaughter house procedures <ul><li>Slaughter house interventions are more likely to produce greater and more reliable reductions in human illness, at least in a shorter time frame, than can be achieved at the farm in high prevalence countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Countries can achieve more effective reductions in human cases by targeting both farm and slaughter house. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Effect on human Salmonellosis cases <ul><li>a reduction of two logs (99%) of Salmonella numbers on contaminated carcasses would result in a 60-80% reduction of the number of human salmonellosis cases attributable to pig meat consumption. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Salmonella dynamics during slaughter of pigs <ul><li>Salmonella increases during transport and lairage, where it reaches its maximum at kill. </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella prevalence is reduced due to singeing, </li></ul><ul><li>Increases because of polishing, evisceration, and veterinary inspection. </li></ul>Alban, L., Stärk, K.D.C., Prev. Vet. Med. 2005:68: 63-79.
  17. 17. Slaughter house hygienic measures <ul><li>a high temperature at singeing, </li></ul><ul><li>enclosing the anus and rectum in a plastic bag, </li></ul><ul><li>and improved disinfection of tools </li></ul>
  18. 18. Hot water decontamination (HWD) <ul><li>pig carcasses are showered with 80  C (176  F) hot water for 14-16 seconds directly after slaughter. </li></ul><ul><li>2-log (100-fold) reduction of E. coli and Salmonella . </li></ul><ul><li>New method: a combination of steam and ultrasound. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic analyses have shown that steam ultrasound is the most cost-effective intervention followed by HWD. </li></ul>Jensen, T. Christensen, H. Decontamination of pig carcasses with hot water. Proceedings 4th international symposium …(Safepork). 2001. Leipzig, Germany. Lawson L.G., et al . Int J Food Microbiol 2009:134: 126-132.
  19. 19. Hot water decontamination Photo from Danish Meat Research Institute
  20. 20. Denmark Cost Benefit Analysis <ul><li>Identified the economical efficiency of a range of possible strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>None of the pre-harvest initiatives investigated resulted in a substantial reduction of the prevalence. </li></ul><ul><li>Only hot water decontamination turned out to be economically efficient. </li></ul>Goldbach, S.G., Alban, L., Prev. Vet. Med. 2006: 77: 1-14.
  21. 21. How much contaminated feed is there really? <ul><li>15% of all protein-meal imported to Sweden is detected Salmonella contaminated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>soybean meal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rapeseed meal, corn gluten meal, fishmeal, meat meal </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Salmonella contamination in feed mills <ul><li>Contaminated raw products </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate heat treatment during pelleting, </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation of free water in coolers, transportation systems or storage bins of the feed mill due to insufficient cooling of the feed are important risk factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Recontamination of feed after heat treatment during storage and treatment- poor cleaning, foot traffic, rodents, accumulation of wet material </li></ul>
  23. 23. Problem with sampling feed for Salmonella <ul><li>Sampling of feed ingredients and finished feed is relatively insensitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large volume of feed to be sampled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in getting representative sample </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the actual occurrence of Salmonella is likely much higher than detected </li></ul>
  24. 24. What feed intervention strategies are available? <ul><li>Heat treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Organic acids </li></ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Probiotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive Exclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glycans </li></ul><ul><li>Medium chain fatty acids </li></ul><ul><li>Essential oils </li></ul><ul><li>Prebiotics </li></ul>
  25. 25. Direct interaction <ul><li>Binding of pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with immune receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with intestinal receptors regulating enzyme secretion </li></ul>Indirect interaction <ul><li>Changing intestinal environment – altering microbial balance </li></ul><ul><li>Antigen presentation to immune system – immune modulation </li></ul><ul><li>Improved protection – optimising mucin layer </li></ul>Mode of action of nutritional supplements
  26. 26. Glycans <ul><li>A number of carbohydrates (based on glucose, mannose, galactose, fucose) have been shown to have anti-infective properties </li></ul><ul><li>Mannose and its polymers are the most commonly used products as feed additives and have been shown to reduce Salmonella colonization in chickens. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Mannan-oligosaccharides <ul><li>Salmonella contain mannose-specific lectins (Type 1 fimbriae) on the bacterial surface that binds to glycoproteins (rich in mannose) on the intestinal surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Mannose sugars can thereby compete with the intestinal glycoproteins for attachment sites and prevent colonization. </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella binding has been demonstrated with mannan- oligosaccharide (Bio-Mos) at significantly lower concentrations than that required for purified mannose. (Spring 2000) </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Improve gut health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal performance depends on good intestinal health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Salmonella exclusion also depends on excellent gut health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Bio-Mos as part of a control plan to optimise gut health and reduce Salmonella </li></ul></ul>Bio-Mos & Actigen-Nutritional Tools to include in Salmonella Control Plans
  29. 29. Where do we start? <ul><li>Education and information </li></ul><ul><li>Slaughter house hygienic measures </li></ul><ul><li>Breeders </li></ul><ul><li>Salmonella-free feed </li></ul><ul><li>Biosecurity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal and External </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holistic approach </li></ul><ul><li>Improve gut health and immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More research needed </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Salmonella control-does it pay off? <ul><li>Consumers, retail, restaurants and catering will use food safety criteria as quality criteria to promote their products. </li></ul><ul><li>Once food quantity has been secured, food quality will be driving the market </li></ul>
  31. 32. Salmonella control on farm and at slaughter <ul><li>All biosecurity measures and hygienic measures to decrease Salmonella contamination will promote productivity and health </li></ul><ul><li>Measures to optimize pig gut health has direct return on investment </li></ul><ul><li>In processing, Salmonella control measures will improve food safety </li></ul>
  32. 33. Questions
  33. 34. Organic acids <ul><li>Formic, acetic, propionic & butyric acids </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion rate based on feed buffering capacity (0.5-3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Coated butyric acid decreased Salmonella levels in pig caecal content, whereas uncoated acids did not. (Boyen 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Good for animal health and performance, variable results for Salmonella reduction </li></ul>
  34. 35. Feed texture <ul><li>Less Salmonella in herds using home mixed wet feed than in those buying pelleted feed (Denmark, Greece) </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence that coarse ground meal can decrease Salmonella (Mikkelsen 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Feed is kept longer in stomach-- increases acidity of feed </li></ul><ul><li>Growth performance? </li></ul>
  35. 36. Competitive Exclusion (CE) <ul><li>a kind of probiotic culture that is only given at a single time to the animals. </li></ul><ul><li>It was initially used in poultry production, where newly hatched chicks can be protected from subsequent Salmonella infections by accelerating the establishment of a complex, protective microflora. (Nurmi, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>CE cultures to neonatal piglets have been shown to reduce Salmonella choleraesuis fecal shedding in pigs and contact pigs during preweaning and weaning period. ( Genovese, 2007) </li></ul>
  36. 37. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) <ul><li>caproic, caprylic, capric acids. </li></ul><ul><li>MCFA decrease Salmonella in vivo in birds (Van Immerseel, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>It was proposed that they reduce the invasive capacity of Salmonella by decreasing the expression of genes specifically involved in invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>In vitro laboratory study simulating the porcine cecum indicated that Salmonella could be inhibited by MCFA (Messens 2009) </li></ul>
  37. 38. Prebiotics <ul><li>Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), but can also be proteins, peptides and some types of lipids. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as non-digestible feed ingredients that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the colon and thus improves host health . (Gibson 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>These prebiotics feed probiotics or commensal enteric bacteria and could give them a competitive advantage over potential pathogens such as Salmonella . </li></ul><ul><li>Fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin rat studies indicates that there may be increased colonization with Salmonella using these products . (Ten Bruggencate, 2004) </li></ul>
  38. 39. Essential Oils <ul><li>A range of essential oils have been shown to have bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal properties against Salmonella in vitro. </li></ul><ul><li>There is lacking studies about the applicability in pig feed as a Salmonella intervention. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Probiotics <ul><li>Currently 17 products approved in EU for pigs ( Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus , Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bifidobacteria, Pediococcus Enterococcus, Saccharomyces </li></ul><ul><li>Stability during heat treatment is a challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid producing probiotics have been shown to decrease Salmonella infection in pigs. (Casey 2007) </li></ul>
  40. 41. A systematic review – feed and feeding management to reduce Salmonella in slaughter swine <ul><li>O’Connor, AM. Prev Vet Med. 2008 Nov 17;87(3-4):213-28. </li></ul><ul><li>Screened 248 studies, evaluated 15 </li></ul><ul><li>a low level of comfort among qualified scientists that the claimed association between non-pelleted feed and reduced Salmonella prevalence is scientifically valid. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no strong evidence regarding associations between Salmonella and feed withdrawal prior to slaughter, feed acidification, heat treatment of feed, pelletized feed versus mash, and wet versus dry feeds. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Summary of responses to Bio-Mos ® addition to sow diets <ul><li>Sow colostrum production (+ 11%) </li></ul><ul><li>Piglet weight gain first 24 h (+ 39%) </li></ul><ul><li>Colostrum consumption piglet (+ 12%) </li></ul><ul><li>Colostral immune quality (IgA, + 25%) </li></ul><ul><li>Immune status of piglets (IgA, + 17%) </li></ul><ul><li>Preweaning mortality (- 35%) </li></ul><ul><li>Litter weight at weaning (+ 8.5%) </li></ul>
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