Research Skills 2


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Research Skills 2

  1. 1. Research Skills: The Literature Review Information and how to find it
  2. 2. Research Skills <ul><li>Introduction to Library and using the Library catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>The Literature review and searching for information </li></ul><ul><li>  Writing up: Plagiarism, citing and referencing </li></ul>
  3. 3. A bit about me… <ul><li>MA (Hons) English Literature and History </li></ul><ul><li>MSc Information and Library Studies </li></ul><ul><li>MA Academic Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Desk Research at Scottish Enterprise supporting new businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian at business school </li></ul><ul><li>Librarian supporting Engineering and Maths </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research skills are skills in their own rights
  5. 5. What we’re going to cover… <ul><li>The literature review – what’s it all about? </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of information – the good, the less good and the terrible </li></ul><ul><li>Hands on – Searching for information </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is a literature review? <ul><li>Comprehensive and systematic review of published material on a particular topic or subject of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Contains data, ideas and evidence that are interpreted and evaluated to support your research proposal, aims and chosen methodologies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why bother? <ul><li>Demonstrate your understanding of the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Places your own work in context </li></ul><ul><li>Support your arguments and theories </li></ul>
  8. 8. What are the main questions and problems that have been addressed to date? What are the key theories, concepts and ideas? What are the origins and definitions of the topic? What are the major issues and debates about the topic? What are the key sources? Literature search and review on your topic Based on Hart, Chris (1998) Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination . London: Sage, Figure 1.2, p.14 Where is there still work/research to be done?
  9. 9. What is plagiarism? What is information?
  10. 10. RESEARCH Academic institutions Government Associations Professional bodies Companies Individuals Charities INFORMATION COMMUNICATED VIA… Conference papers Reports Press releases Journals Lectures Meetings Newsletters and newspapers Seminars Textbooks Theses FOUND IN… Abstracting databases Catalogues Encyclopaedias Indexes Dictionaries and directories Bibliographies ACCESSED… Hard copy Electronically Based on Hart, Chris (1998) Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination . London: Sage, Figure 1.1, p. 4
  11. 11. What is plagiarism? Where does information live?
  12. 12. Where does information live? <ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University research groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional bodies and organisations’ websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think tanks </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Where does information live? <ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Conference proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Poster sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Radio and television programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Webinars </li></ul><ul><li>Trade publications and magazines </li></ul>
  14. 14. Where does information live? <ul><li>PhD theses </li></ul><ul><li>Market research </li></ul><ul><li>Company annual reports and information </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Journal articles </li></ul>
  15. 15. ‘ Good’ information… <ul><li>Peer reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative </li></ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Well respected organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Government and academic websites </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul>
  16. 16. ‘ Bad’ information… <ul><li>Unsubstantiated </li></ul><ul><li>Not referenced properly </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t know who wrote it or when it was written </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>That guy that sits at the back of the class talking </li></ul><ul><li>The random powerpoint you found online </li></ul><ul><li>Anything you would not want your tutor to know you’ve used… </li></ul>
  17. 17. Planning your search <ul><li>Define your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the scope </li></ul><ul><li>What are your outcomes? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you keep a record of your findings? </li></ul><ul><li>Plan what sources you’re going to use </li></ul><ul><li>Start searching! </li></ul>
  18. 18. Be a detective… <ul><li>Look at references of other articles </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliographies in book chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Citation searches </li></ul><ul><li>Jot down any good key words or expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify who the key authors are </li></ul><ul><li>Have a look at the shelves – what else is there? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Search strategy <ul><li>Keywords, phrases, concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms </li></ul>
  20. 20. Where are you going to look? <ul><li>Look at references of other articles </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliographies in book chapters </li></ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul><ul><li>Internet? What are you going to use to search? What are you looking for? </li></ul><ul><li>Databases? Which ones? </li></ul><ul><li>How are you going to access the materials? </li></ul>
  21. 21. A suggested plan… <ul><li>Start off with the Library catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>Check out any references from previous reading </li></ul><ul><li>Search in selected databases for specific types of material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newspaper articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search online targeting particular types of information </li></ul>
  22. 22. After the break… <ul><li>Google vs Google Scholar vs Databases… </li></ul><ul><li>Databases: Hands on practise and tips </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compendex (Engineering abstracts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EBSCOHost (Full text articles, business and trade publications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nexis UK (Newspaper articles) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keeping your references together - RefWorks </li></ul>
  23. 23. What is plagiarism? Google vs Google Scholar vs Databases
  24. 24. Task <ul><li>Open up three windows </li></ul><ul><li>In one window, open up Google ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>In another, open up Google Scholar ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a keyword for your topic, and enter the same search in both Google and Google Scholar. </li></ul><ul><li>If you’re stuck, try searching for ‘concrete bridges’ </li></ul>
  25. 25. Hints and tips: Google <ul><li>Use Google Scholar for more academic type content </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, that you’re still searching the Internet – check the quality! Who, when, why… </li></ul><ul><li>Add Full text @ City University and RefWorks in the preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Use ‘quotation marks’ to search for a phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Do as many searches as you want </li></ul><ul><li>Use to discover references – and check in the Library catalogue to see if we have them </li></ul>
  26. 26. Databases or, the buried treasure <ul><li>Good quality </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive </li></ul>
  27. 27. What databases are best for me? <ul><li>Engineering - Compendex, IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, Science Direct, Emerald, BSI Eurocodes, Business Source Complete </li></ul><ul><li>Business/management – Business Source Complete, Emerald, Science Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Trade publications – Business Source Complete </li></ul><ul><li>News – Nexis UK </li></ul><ul><li>Company research – FAME, Nexis UK </li></ul><ul><li>Market Research - Business Source Complete, Global Insight, Business Insights </li></ul>This is not exhaustive!
  28. 28. Abstracts and full text <ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives you all the information you need to track down the reference – title, author, name of publication, date published and a paragraph explaining what the paper is about </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click through to the version of the article that you can read online </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Task <ul><li>In the third window, go to the Library catalogue ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Search for ‘Compendex’ </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the links through </li></ul><ul><li>Log in using the last 8 digits of your Library barcode and your PIN </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the same search on the database </li></ul>
  30. 30. Hints and tips: Compendex <ul><li>Use the tools on the right hand side to refine your search </li></ul><ul><li>Create a personal account to save your searches and alerts </li></ul><ul><li>Always go back to the Library catalogue to see if we have access to the material (in print or online) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Task <ul><li>Go to the Library catalogue ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Search for ‘EBSCOHost’ </li></ul><ul><li>Add the databases that you want to search </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the same search on the database </li></ul>
  32. 32. Hints and tips: EBSCOHost <ul><li>Can search multiple databases on EBSCO and can get full text </li></ul><ul><li>Refine your search using the left and right hand menus </li></ul><ul><li>Again, check the Library catalogue for material that we don’t have full text on the database for </li></ul><ul><li>You can personalise the search by creating your own log in. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Task <ul><li>Go to the Library catalogue ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Search for ‘Nexis UK’ </li></ul><ul><li>Enter a search for a news story you want to know more about </li></ul>
  34. 34. Hints and tips: Nexis UK <ul><li>Great for global trade and press news </li></ul><ul><li>You can email your results directly </li></ul><ul><li>You can only return 3,000 results – so check the date </li></ul><ul><li>Use ‘Major Work Publications’ </li></ul><ul><li>Use the help to make use of the more advanced search features </li></ul>
  35. 35. RefWorks <ul><li>A way of keeping all your references in one place </li></ul><ul><li>Works as a direct export from some of the databases </li></ul><ul><li>Works from Google Scholar and the Library catalogue too! </li></ul><ul><li>Saves all the necessary information you will need… </li></ul><ul><li>… and then formats the bibliography for you at the end. </li></ul>
  36. 36. For more information <ul><li>See ‘Upgrade’ available to you in CitySpace </li></ul><ul><li>Check out ( and see page on Online Guides and tutorials) for subject related handout you can print off </li></ul>
  37. 37. Next time… <ul><li>Putting it all together… </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>Citing and referencing </li></ul>
  38. 38. Thanks! <ul><li>Any questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine Davies </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>‘ Macro shot of computer circuit board’ by jcolman </li></ul><ul><li>‘ 189: Sleeping Satellite’ by practicalowl </li></ul><ul><li>‘ iPhone’ by William Hook </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Buried Treasure: Caching’ by SonnyandSandy </li></ul>