What School Administrators Should Know about Separating Difference & Disability

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This is the PowerPoint I will be using for my webinars addressing issues related to separating difference and disability in K-12 systems.

This is the PowerPoint I will be using for my webinars addressing issues related to separating difference and disability in K-12 systems.

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  • Cultural expectations and understanding underlie intervention focus and selection. Age and developmental appropriateness. The psychological adaptation of the learner in the school and the family and community context.
  • Douglas Fuchs, Lynn Fuchs, Donald Compton, “Smart RTI: A Next Generation Approach to Multilevel Prevention”; Exceptional Children, Vol 78, No. 3, Spring 2012
  • In Spanish it means "to be in the middle."  Actually estar is a Spanish word, but Nepantla is a Nahuatal word. Arturo Morales
  • There are further distinctions to grasp beyond BICS and CALP. The Three Tiers of Vocabulary divides CALP further. The first Tier is basically BICS. But Tier 2 is made up of high frequency words that are used across domains in academic use. Examples of Tier Two words would be: remain, allocate, merchant. Many literate people take these words for granted. They don’t realize that they actually aren’t daily-use words. For ELL learners, they need to be anticipated, pre-taught, and taught with diect instruction Tier Three words are content area specific words. Tier Three words would be: photosynthesis, igneous, y-intercept(Beck McKeown, and Kucan, 2002)
  • “Bricks and Mortar words” is another way to refine our understanding of words in the CALP category. Brick words are the content bearing words. In the above sentence, Scientists, global warming, glaciers, Himalayas and melting are “brick words”. Because of is a mortar word. It connects and established a relationship between the “brick words”. Mortar words include: • Connecting words: for example, however and whereas, although• Prepositions and prepositional phrases: on, in, under, behind, between, before, behind• Academic vocabulary typically found in content area objectives, testquestions and assignments: analyze, plan, compare, evaluate(Dutro, S., & Moran, C. (2003)
  • 1) The reality is that many CLD with disabilities must learn a second language. If a child with disabilities speaks a home language other than English, she must acquire a second language to participate in the school environment. Although research does suggest that some children may acquire a second language more slowly, especially if they exhibited language difficulties in their native language (Kessler, 1984), this should not dissuade educators from assisting their students’ second language acquisition as much as possible. Therefore, the real question becomes, should the language of instruction for CLD students with disabilities be the student’s first or second language. Studies suggest that, just as for students without disabilities, a second language is best acquired from a firm and well-developed first language foundation (Perozzi, 1985; Perozzi & Sanchez, 1992). This research suggests that grammatical forms are most quickly and accurately acquired in English when they have first been taught in the student’s native language. This supports a bilingual approach to special education with CLD students. 4) Educators may mistakenly identify students undergoing a “silent period” as demonstrating a lack of ability to communicate. Remember what a child has to know to be able to say even one word in his first language. Even those children who demonstrate little expressive language in the school environment bring with them a wealth of information about their native language.
  • 2) This advice, although popular, is incorrect for several reasons. As discussed above, students will best acquire a second language if their first language is well-established. Second, asking parents who may not be able to provide an adequate language model in English to restrict the use of their more proficient language is absurd. Parents will neither be able to stimulate their child’s language development nor will they be able to communicate easily for social purposes with their child. Wong Fillmore (1991b, p. 343) makes the following poignant observation:When parents are unable to talk to their children, they cannot easily convey to them their values, beliefs, understandings, or wisdom about how to cope with their experiences. They cannot teach them about the meaning of work, or about personal responsibility, or what it means to be a moral or ethical person in a world with too many choices and too few guideposts to follow. What is lost are the bits of advice, the consejos parents should be able to offer children in their everyday interactions with them. Talk is a crucial link between parents and children: It is how parents impart their cultures to their children and enable them to become the kind of men and women they want them to be. When parents lose the means for socializing and influencing their children, rifts develop and families lose the intimacy that comes from shared beliefs and understandings.
  • 3) Much research in language acquisition is relevant to this topic, including: Cummins’ additive Bilingualism enrichment principle, and Research on the cognitive benefits of Bilingualism.This research clearly suggests that Bilingualism is not a burden for students, and can, in fact, be a strength. Cummins’ additive bilingualism enrichment principle and the research on the cognitive benefits of bilingualism clearly suggest that bilingualism is not a burden for students. In fact, in many parts of the world, it is a common part of daily life. When fluently bilingual parents are encouraged to raise their children monolingually, as in the case of a 1995 child custody case in which Texas State District Judge, Samuel C. Kaiser equated raising the child of a bilingual mother in a Spanish-speaking home as tantamount to child abuse, beliefs about bilingualism as a cognitive deficit are reinforced. Regardless of the cognitive benefits, bilingualism is of social benefit in our global village and can only have positive outcomes when students leave school and seek employment.
  • Cummins identifies three forms of literacy. First, functional literacy, which he states is “a level of reading and writing that enables people to function in society…and is relative to changing societal demands” (Cummins, 2001, p. 267). The emphasis here is on skills. Most schools stop here when it comes to teaching literacy to ELL students. Next, Cummins identifies cultural literacy as the “need for shared experiences and points of reference within an interpretive community in order to adequately comprehend texts” (Cummins, 2001, p. 267). This means that ELL students need more background information to understand and interpret many texts. For example, to understand a story about American football, the student would need a point of reference about what football is, the rules involved, the traditions and roles people play. Finally, Cummins explains that critical literacy comes from Paulo Freire’s work, and “focuses on the potential of written language as a tool that encourages people to analyze the division of power and resources in their society and work to transform discriminatory structures” (Cummins, 2001, p. 267). Cummins’ point is that literacy is not culturally-neutral, nor does it operate outside the power structures of the dominant culture. In fact, even the nature of who gets to determine what level of functional literacy is adequate for ELL students is a matter of power. Those from the dominant culture get to decide to what degree someone should become literate based on the needs of the dominant society, and not necessarily on what is best for the CLD student.
  • http://www.educ.utas.edu.au/users/ilwebb/research/scaffolding.htmUsing lots of cooperative learning strategies that involve learners and a more knowledgeable person (expert) will assist the learners in their ZPD. . This involves the expert modeling good problem solving methods, new approaches, and encouraging the learners to use their own skills. As this continues the learners will need the experts less and less, thus increasing the learners ZPD. 2. Continual encouragement by the teacher is necessary for learners to fully develop their ZPD, and when done correctly they will need much less attention and assistance with that subject. 3. Thus learners are finding out ways to make the material their own. 4. The model demonstrates this issues with a graphic. The peach color is the area in which learners can solve problems independently, and with the assistance of more capable others they can solve problems that are in the teal colored area. Yet, there are still problems outside the area of assistance which are beyond the current capablilities of the learner to solve; hence the phrase ‘one step at a time’. (Morris, 2008) (Webb)
  • These are some of important facts to remember with the ZPD and its implications for teachers. It is very important to be familiar with the concept and especially with the instructional strategies mentioned on the previous slide. When used correctly learners can really benefit from the concepts that Vygotsky mentions, especially the ZPD. (Bockarie, 2002)
  • Vygotsky believed that when a student is at the ZPD for a particular task, providing the appropriate assistance (scaffolding) will give the student enough of a "boost" to achieve the task.It is important to note that if supports are left too long learners can become dependent and will not move forward, and if removed too soon incomplete understandings can result. This is a good example of how scaffolding is used with the ZPD. Notice how along the bottom there is a clear progression from doing and watching to helping then back to watching, which allows for better understanding on the part of learners to take place. This chart shows a list of the many ways in which scaffolding can be used to help learners reach their ZPD. There is a division of activities between those which are completely student or teacher regulated, and those which are more joint activities. This is a very helpful visual representation of learning strategies to create scaffolding in the ZPD. (Wilhelm, 2001)
  • Excerpt from the book “Seven Steps for Separating Difference and Disability” , 2010, Corwin Press
  • Pragmatics:The rules governing social interactions (e.g. turn taking, maintaining topic of conversation).Difference: Social responses to language are based on cultural background (e.g., comfort level in asking or responding to questions) Pauses between turns or overlaps in conversation are similar to those of peers with the same linguistic and cultural background.Disability: Social use of language or lack thereof is inappropriate (e.g., topic of lesson is rocks and the student continues to discuss events that occurred at home without saying how they relate to rocks).  Syntax:The rules governing the order, grammar, and form of phrases or sentences Difference: Grammatical errors due to native language influences (e.g., student may omit initial verb in a question—You like cake? (omission of Do)). Word order in L1 may differ from that of English (e.g., in Arabic sentences are ordered verb-subject-object while Urdu sentences are ordered subject-object-verb).Disability: Grammatical structures continue to be inappropriate in both languages even after extensive instruction (e.g., student cannot produce the past tense in either Spanish or English indicating difficulty with grammatical tenses). Semantics:The rules pertaining to both the underlying and the surface meaning of phrases and sentencesDifference: A student whose native language is Korean may have difficulty using pronouns, as they do notexist in his/her native language. A student may use words from L1 in productions in L2 because of his inability or unfamiliarity of the vocabulary in L2 (e.g., “The car is muyrapido.” In this case, the student knows the concept as well as the needed structure but cannot remember the vocabulary).Disability: Student is demonstrating limited phrasing and vocabulary in both languages (e.g., his/her sentences in both languages demonstrate limited or no use of adjectives and adverbs and both languages are marked by a short length of utterance). Morphology:The rules concerning the construction of words from meaningful unitsDifference: Native speakers of Russian may not use articles as they do no exist in that language. A student whose native language is Spanish may omit the possessive (‘s’) when producing an utterance in English (e.g., “Joe crayon broke” or he will say “the crayon of Joe broke,” applying a structure that is influence by the rules of his/her L1. He/she still demonstrates understanding of the morphologic structure for possession but is demonstrating errors in structure that are directly influenced by his/her L1.)Disability: Student’s productions in both languages demonstrate a lack of the possessive form indicating that he/she has not acquired this morphologic structure by the appropriate age. Again, both languages may be marked by a short length of utterance 
  • From CREDECenter for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence at Univ of California at Santa Cruz
  • Douglas Fuchs, Lynn Fuchs, Donald Compton, “Smart RTI: A Next Generation Approach to Multilevel Prevention”; Exceptional Children, Vol 78, No. 3, Spring 2012
  • "There's a S.M.A.R.T. way to write management's goals and objectives." Management Review, Nov 1981, Volume 70 Issue 11.S---Specific,[Significant, Stretching, Simple] M--- Measurable, [Meaningful, Motivational, Manageable]A--- Attainable, [Appropriate, Achievable, Agreed, Assignable, Actionable, Action-oriented, Ambitious, Aligned] R--- Relevant [Realistic, Results/Results-focused/Results-oriented, Resourced, Rewarding]T--- Time-bound [Time-oriented, Time framed, Timed, Time-based, Timeboxed, Timely, Time-Specific, Timetabled, Time limited, Time-bound, Trackable, Tangible ]How about SMARTER goals ????E-- Evaluate [Ethical, Excitable, Enjoyable, Engaging] R-- Reevaluate [Rewarded, Reassess, Revisit, Recorded, Rewarding, Reaching]
  • This is an Individual Student Data Tracking Form. You can use this to collect and summarize individual student data. You will need to enter the goal amount and whether the goal is a percent or the total number of occurrences. The baseline data is entered on the top right side of the form by entering the date and the value for that day. Next, you will be able to enter data for the first phase of intervention on the right side of the document. Then, you can enter notes or descriptions for Phase 1. You can also enter a second phase of data and notes, if you revise the plan or change intervention. The form has embedded formulas to automatically create a graph to summarize your data. A blank copy is included in the supplemental resources.
  • Direct assessment is another tool that can be utilized to measure behaviors. This tool is a direct assessment of the frequency of the a behavior across settings and across time. So, looking at this data what can we tell about when Shamel has the most difficulty with negative comments to peers?
  • Another form of direct assessment is a duration recording. This allows you to document the length of incidents for behaviors that might not occur frequently but last for a considerable amount of time, such as tantrums.
  • RTI is a function of regular education that emphasizes preventinglearning difficulties before they start and eliminating the need for a student to fail beforeintervention is available.

Transcript

  • 1. What Every Administrator Should Know about Separating Differences & Disabilities A Webinar for School Administrators January 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier catherine@crosscultured.com © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 2. Who’s it going to be? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 3. Our Agenda Basics for Decision Framing    Current statistics Current laws Current programs Asking the Right Questions for Decision Making     Behavior & Culture Adaptation & Acculturation Language Proficiency, English, & Home Language Achievement & Education Taking Action        Build & Sustain a Foundation for Learning Establish & Support Resiliency Differentiate Instruction & Intervention Monitor Instruction & Intervention Resolve or Refer Integrate Services & Crosscultural IEPs Maintain Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 4. Current Statistics © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 5. Growth in Native Born LEP First Generation Second Generation Third + Generation 20% 40% 40% © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 6. 2013 Indiana LEP Data 4 48% 1 16% 2 13% 3 23% © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 7. English Language by Generation 100 90 80 70 60 50 92 40 97 74 30 20 10 0 8 English Proficiency 1st Generation 2nd Generation 2 2nd Generation 1 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 3rd Generation
  • 8. National HS Completion Rates 2013 80% 70% 60% National Black Hispanic AmerIndian 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Completion four years after enrollment © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 9. Disproportionality for ELL  Underrepresented in special education overall  Overrepresented in specific categories: – Speech/language Impairments (SI) – Learning Disabilities (LD) – LD/SI combination © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 10. Disproportionality WA NonELL ELL 12.90% 5.80% 2.50% LD 4.40% EBD .6% .10% AS © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 11. Disproportionality MA 23.20% 18.40% 15.70% 7.30% 5.20% 1.80% Communication Intellectual EP Autism ELL © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 12. ELL Representation Patterns   Students in English immersion programs are referred at higher rates than those in bilingual programs. ELLs who are “parent waivers” are the most likely to be referred and placed.  Students in special education tend to have limited language skills in both L1 and L2 – Often this is pedagogically induced – Inadequate instruction results in: • Native language loss • Limited English proficiency © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 13. Current Laws © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 14. Policy Driving Practice • • • The evaluation team may not identify a student as disabled if the discrepancy is primarily the result of an environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Tests must be selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis; A child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if the determinant factor for such determination is-• lack of scientifically based instruction practices and programs that contain the essential components of reading instruction • lack of scientifically based instruction practices and programs that contain the essential components of instruction in math; or • limited English proficiency. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 15. Parent Participation “The public agency shall take whatever action is necessary to ensure that the parent understands the proceedings of the IEP meeting, including arranging for an interpreter for parents with deafness or whose native language is other than English.” © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 16. IEP Development for EL Students IEP must include:  Specific interventions which address special education needs,  Specific language acquisition interventions which address the EL student’s L2 goals within context of his/her special education needs,  Identification of service providers responsible for implementing and monitoring the integration of these services, and  The time limits and scheduled specific re-evaluation formats, dates, and meetings. 300.324(a)(2)(ii) © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 17. Current Programs © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 18. Problem Solving & Progress Monitoring   Problem solving with progress monitoring is a function of regular education that emphasizes preventing learning difficulties before they start and eliminating the need for a student to fail before intervention is available. At-risk students are assessed frequently on specific skills throughout the year to determine if the intervention being used is effective and if the student is responding as intended. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 19. Problem Solving with Progress Monitoring Identify Problem Analyze response patterns Measure the problem Is there a discrepancy between current & expected performance? Did it work? What do we do next? Monitor response to intervention Why & to what extent is there a problem? By how much should the student grow? How & when will the intervention strategy be implemented? Set goals By how much should the student grow? What will be done to resolve the problem? Brainstorm interventions Implement intervention Plan intervention setting © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 20. RTI Elements Early, high‐quality, scientific research‐based instruction & interventions. 2. Continuous monitoring of student performance and progress during instruction & interventions. 3. Use of response data to change the intensity or type of subsequent instruction & interventions. 4. Parents and families informed and involved in team decision making throughout the instruction & intervention process. 1. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 21. Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL Difficulties with policy guidelines. 2. Different stakeholder views about timing for referral of students who are English language learners. 3. Insufficient knowledge among personnel involved in identification. 4. Difficulties providing consistent, adequate services to students who are English language learners. 1. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 22. Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL Difficulty obtaining students‟ previous school records. 6. Lack of collaborative structures prior to referral. 7. Lack of access to assessments that differentiate between second language development and learning disabilities. 8. Lack of consistent monitoring for struggling students who are English language learners. 5. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 23. Lots of Models of RTI Tier 3 Tier 2 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 24. Indiana RTI Model © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 25. Is RTI the answer to disproportionate representation of ELL? Only if approaches are culturally and linguistically responsive and address both system and student issues. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 26. RTI is more than reading! © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 27. Print Is A Symbol Of A Symbol     Print is dependent upon Speech Print is supported by Speech Print is controlled by Speech Print is perfected by Speech © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 28. ¿Effective Response? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 29. Smarter RTI for CLD/EL  Prevention first  Multistage screening to identify risk & strategy selection for problem solving  Multistage assessment (progress monitoring) to determine appropriate levels of instruction – – – – – Specific goals Measurable goals & outcomes Attainable objectives Relevant content Time-bound © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 30. Based on progress monitoring and whether the student is achieving at an appropriate rate of progress in relation to his goals, the following factors may be changed or adjusted. 1. Research based materials. 2. Specific strategies. 3. Frequency of interventions. 4. Designated instructor. 5. Language of instruction. 6. Group size. 7. Duration of instruction. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 31. Reminder! A CLD/ELL student may have learning and behavior problems due to language and cultural differences and problems due to a possible disability. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 32. How to weigh yourself © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 33. PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Intervention & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success Step 7 Step 6 Step 5 Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Step 1 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 34. Asking the Right Questions for Decision Making Achievement Adaptation Behavior Culture Education English Home Language Language Proficiency © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 35. Know Your Students   Know the individual‟s qualities, interests, aspira tions, and areas for growth. Know the sociocultural contexts the student brings to learning, and how s/he reacts to the instructional contexts of the school and your classrooms. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 36. What we know  We need to know more than what works…..  We need to know what works with WHOM © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 37. BEHAVIOR & CULTURE © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 38. INDIVIDUAL Unique experiences, insights, personal reflections. Ways we are less like other people. ACCULTURATION Perceptions, social & behavior patterns, Communicative, ADD/ADHD language, etc. learned from interaction with new group(s). ENCULTURATION Perceptions, social and behavior patterns, language, values, etc. learned cognitive, Behavioral, linguistic, from caregivers. PDD Ways we are more like other people. THE BASICS OF BEING HUMAN Sensory abilities, linguistic wiring, genetic and biologic heritage, innate abilities, etc. Organic, physical, motor, sensory, neurological © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 39. The role of culture Educators have become increasingly aware in recent years of the central role that culture plays in learning and teaching. Staff and students bring to the classroom values about education, work habits, interaction norms, and ways of knowing that were learned in the home and community. No one leaves their cultures at the school door. It is, therefore, imperative that education professionals gain greater awareness of how their culture affects their behaviors, and how the intersection of diverse cultures can impact classroom dynamics and outcomes. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 40. Definitions Culture Learning Disability The concept of things that particular people use as models of perceiving, relatin g, and interpreting their environment. Difficulty in perceiving and manipulating patterns in the environment, whe ther patterns of sounds, symbols, n umbers, or behaviors. Cognition The process by which individuals perceive, relate to, and interpret their environment. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 41. Culture & Child Rearing  Vertical vs horizontal  Instruct vs allow  Indulgent vs strict  Adult vs peers  Inward vs outward  Nuclear vs communal © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 42. But avoid stereotyping!  Sometimes it is easier to understand culturally diverse families in terms of group attributes. But individual families are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 43. Operating From Our Cultural Assumptions Can Lead to Culture Bumps A culture clash is the conflict or disagreement that results when two or more individuals from different backgrounds interact, each basing their behaviors on a different set of rules for what is expected and/or considered appropriate. T U © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 44. Human Universals  The ability to feel sadness, happiness, ange r, fear and disgust is universal.  Classification: kin, age, behavioral propensities, body parts, emotions, & more.  Logical notions: „not‟, „opposite‟, „same‟, „p art/whole‟, „and‟, „general/ particular‟, & „equivalent‟. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 45. ADAPTATION & ACCULTURATION © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 46. Common Side-Effects Of the Acculturation Process Culture Shock Heightened Anxiety Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 47. The Intensity of Culture Shock is Cyclical Anticipation Phase Highly Engaged Level Spectator Phase Increasing Participation Phase Shock Phase Adaptation Phase Anticipation Phase Spectator Phase Increasing Participation Phase Families as well as students Moderately Engaged Level Normal Intensity of Emotions Moderately Depressed Level Greatly Depressed Level © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Shock Phase Adaptation Phase
  • 48. Culture Shock Cycle It is at some point during this process, however, that culture shock frequently occurs. This is a kind of crisis of personality, or identity, a period when the individual feels balanced precariously between home and school. It is at this Shock Phase that learners‟ efforts can seem artificial and pointless to them. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 49. Culture Shock Cycle The disenchantment common at the end of the Observation Phase often leads to a sense of isolation during the Increasing Participation Phase. Some theorists refer to this as the Mental Isolation stage of acculturation. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 50. Culture Shock Cycle © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 51. Culture Shock Cycle Voluntary minorities such as Chinese immigrants to America generally consider education to be an important route to succeeding in society and are less concerned with prejudice and discrimination, as opposed to involuntary minorities such as African Americans. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 52. Assimilation C1/L1 replaced by C2/L2 Integration C1/L1 blended with C2/L2 Acculturation Grid Deculturation Neither C1/L1 nor C2/L2 Rejection Intentionally C1/L1 without C2/L2 or C2/L2 without C1/L1 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 53. Another way to see this – + + Assimilation: football replaces futbol Integration: football and futbol in context – Deculturation: gang turf instead of ball games Rejection: only football or futbol © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 54. Acculturation Measurements     Acculturation Quick Screen (AQS) Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA) Latino Youth Acculturation Scale (LYAS) Societal, Attitudinal, Famili al, & Environmental Acculturative Stress Scale (SAFE)      Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identity Acculturation Scale The African American Acculturation Scale II Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS) Behavioral Acculturation Scale © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 55. Acculturation measures typically include 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Length of time in country, geographic region, locale Language proficiency in home language Language proficiency in host country language Ethnic or religious self identity Proportion of target group represented in situation Proportion of target group in host locale Access to appropriate services © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 56. Estar Nepantla © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 57. LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY, HOME LANGUAGE, & ENGLISH © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 58. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 59. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 60. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 61. English (as an L2) Acquisition Pre-Production Early Production Speech Emergent Intermediate Fluency 0-6 months 6 months-1 year 1-2 years 2-3 years Depends on context Has minimal receptive vocabulary Comprehends key words only Points, draws, or gesture responses May not produce speech Adjusting to US culture 0-500 receptive word vocabulary Able to observe, locate, label, match, show, classify, sort. Depends heavily on context Produces words in isolation Verbalizes key words Responds with one/two word answer or short phrases Points, draws, or gesture responses Mispronunciation Grammar errors 500-1000 receptive word vocabulary Able to name, recall, draw, record, point out, underline, categorize, list. Short phrases Many mistakes in grammar Responds orally Hears smaller elements of speech Functions on social level Uses limited vocabulary Between 1000-6000 receptive vocabulary Able to share, retell, follow, associate, organize, compare, restate, role-play. Level 2 Beginning WIDA ACCESS Level 1 Entering Advanced Intermediate Fluency 3-5 years Advanced Fluency Simple sentences Produces whole sentences Makes some pronunciation & basic grammatical errors but is understood Responds orally and in written form Uses limited vocabulary Initiates conversation and questions Shows good comprehension Up to 7000 receptive word vocabulary Able to tell, describe, restate, contrast, question, map, dramatize, demonstrate, give instructions. Can communicate thoughts Engage in and produce connected narrative Shows good comprehension Uses expanded vocabulary Makes complex grammatical errors Functions somewhat on an academic level Up to 12,000 receptive & active word vocabulary Able to imagine, create, appraise, contrast, predict, express, report, estimate, evaluate, explain, model. Functions on academic level with peers Maintains two-way conversation Demonstrates decontextualized comprehension Uses enriched vocabulary Beyond 12,000 word vocabulary Able to relate, infer, hypothesize, outline, revise, suppose, verify, rewrite, justify, critique, summarize, illustrate, judge. Level 3 Developing Level 4 Expanding Level 5 Bridging © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 5-7 years
  • 62. Beyond BICS and CALP  Tier 1 - Everyday words  Tier 2 - High frequency  Tier 3 - Content specific © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 63. Bricks and Mortar “Some scientists believe that because of global warming, many glaciers in the Himalayas are melting.”  Bricks: The content specific words  Mortar: The words that link the content words together to form meaning. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 64. Cultural Perceptions: Discourse English Chinese Spanish Slovak Navajo Spiritual Mental Social Physical © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 65. Parent Participation & Language   Each public agency shall ensure that the parents of each child with a disability are members of any group that makes decisions on the educational placement of their child. The public agency shall make reasonable efforts to ensure that the parents understand, and are able to participate in, any group decisions relating to the educational placement of their child, including arranging for an interpreter for parents with deafness or whose native language is other than English. [§300.501(c)(5)] © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 66. Prior Notice in Understandable Language Written notice must be given to the parents of a child with a disability a reasonable time before the public agency proposes or refuses to initiate or change the identification, evaluation, or educational placement of the child, or the provision of FAPE to the child. This written notice must be provided in the native language of the parent or other mode of communication used by the parent, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 67. Prior Notice in Understandable Language (cont.) If the native language or other mode of communication of the parent is not a written language, the public agency must take steps to ensure...    that the notice is translated orally or by other means to the parent in his or her native language or other mode of communication; that the parent understands the content of the notice; and that there is written evidence that these two requirements have been met. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 68. Shared Characteristics of ELLs & Students with Disabilities         Articulation, pronunciation errors Poor comprehension Forgets easily Cannot follow directions Poor oral language skills Syntactical and grammatical errors Low vocabulary Reading below grade level          Poor spelling Short attention span frequently off-task Cannot work independently Does not complete tasks Anxious Poor motivation Distractible Low self-esteem Shy, withdrawn © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 69. Urban Legends about SpedLEP 1) Fallacy: Students with exceptionalities cannot learn two (or more) languages. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 70. Urban Legends about SpedLEP  Fallacy: Parents of CLD students, with and without exceptionalities, should speak with their children at home in English in order to increase the child‟s exposure to the second language. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 71. Urban Legends about SpedLEP  Fallacy: Acquiring more than one language is “difficult” and can lead to academic problems. For this reason, all energy should be spent on having CLD students focus on English, and further natal language development should be halted. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 72. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 73. ACHIEVEMENT & EDUCATION © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 74. Beyond Reading & Writing Functional Literacy = Development of the skills needed in reading and writing to function in society. Dependent on changes in society. Cultural Literacy = Focuses on particular content or knowledge that is basic to meaningful text interpretation in particular cultural contexts Critical Literacy = Encourages using reading and writing to identify the power structures in place and to work towards ending discriminatory practices. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 75. Teaching and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) With assistance learners can solve problems even outside their independent problem solving level. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 76. Revisiting the ZPD 1. Understand that all learners have levels of competence in their fields within a certain range. 2. An educator's understanding of the concept of ZPD will play a pivotal role in determining whether newcomers or learners are engaged or disengaged in the process of learning and development. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 77. Scaffolding and ZDP © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 77
  • 78. Krashen’s Critical Elements for SLA 1. 2. 3. 4. Provide Comprehensible Input in Second Language Lower Affective Filter Maintain Subject Matter Education Maintain and Develop Student‟s Home Language © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 79. Comprehensible Input    Second languages are acquired by receiving comprehensible input slightly ahead of the learner‟s current state of knowledge ( i + 1 ) Only input of i + 1 will activate LAD “If input is understood, and there is enough of it, the necessary grammar is automatically provided”. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 80. The Deadly Plateau  Texts are at i + 10, not i + 1  Growth in reading and academic achievement levels off  Motivation decreases © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 81. Implications for Instruction in SLA  Instruction helps when it is the primary source of comprehensible input  Examples of successful teaching methods which supply lots of comprehensible input – Total Physical Response – Natural Approach – Structured Immersion programs – Bilingual programs  Successful bilingual programs provide – Solid subject-matter teaching in L1 – Comprehensible input in the target language  Transfer of CALP developed in L1 subject teaching to L2 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 82. You never know where you’ll end up. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 83. What we covered Basics for Decision Framing    Current statistics Current laws Current programs Asking the Right Questions for Making Decisions  Behavior & Culture  Adaptation & Acculturation  Language Proficiency, English, & Home Language  Achievement & Education © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 84. What we will cover next Taking Action  Build & Sustain a Foundation for Learning  Establish & Support Resiliency  Differentiate Instruction & Intervention  Monitor Instruction & Intervention  Resolve or Refer  Integrate Services & Cross-cultural IEPs  Maintain Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 85. Contact Information  Catherine Collier, Ph.D.  360-380-7513 voice  360-483-5658 fax  Facebook.com/AskDrCollier  @AskDrCollier  www.crosscultured.com  catherine@crosscultured.com © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 86. Thank you! Come visit us at www.crosscultured.com      Over 45 years experience. Research on impact of acculturation on referral & placement of CLD students. Research on effectiveness of specific cognitive learning strategies for diverse learners. Classroom teacher, diagnostician, faculty, administrator. Social justice advocate, author & teacher educator. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 87. WHAT EVERY ADMINISTRATOR SHOULD KNOW ABOUT SEPARATING DIFFERENCES & DISABILITIES PART TWO © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 88. Taking Action Build & Sustain a Foundation for Learning Establish & Support Resiliency Differentiate Instruction & Intervention Monitor Instruction & Intervention Resolve or Refer Integrate Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Maintain Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 89. 7 Steps for Separating Difference & Disability Step 1 Build & Sustain a Foundation for Learning Step 2 Establish & Support Resiliency Step 3 Differentiate Instruction & Intervention Step 4 Monitor Instruction & Intervention Step 5 Resolve or Refer Step 6 Integrate Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Step 7 Maintain Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 90. PRISIM Step 1: Build & Sustain a Foundation for Learning Systems & policies promote and sustain: •Access to safety, food, clothing, & shelter •Quality preparation of effective education professionals & support staff •Adequacy of school facilities & resources •Consistent use of culturally & linguistically responsive, evidence-based practices •Supportive responsive relationships •Other effective practices & procedures © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 91. Example Strategies For the Foundation   For Students – Bilingual aides – Bilingual peers – Bilingual texts – Content Language materials  For Teachers – Training in context embedding – Training in demonstrations – Training in guided practice in classroom behavior expectations & survival strategies – Training in guided practice in constructive quality interactions For Families – Cross-cultural counseling for families – Cross-cultural counseling for families – Family-centered learning activity – Guided practice w/ service personnel from school/government agencies – Home activities – Survival strategies for parents/families – Videotapes & booklets about schools, communities, social service providers, laws © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 92. PRISIM Application 1 Build & Sustain a Foundation for Learning What happens when a student from a linguistically or culturally diverse background enrolls in your school district or in your school? 1. When the student and the adults accompanying him/her arrive at the school, who receives the student and parents? What occurs to put the family at ease? Who is responsible for this? 2. Who is responsible for deciding if the student comes from a diverse background? How is the student’s language and ethnicity or culture identified? 3. Who decides if an interpreter is needed or if translated materials are to be used? If translation is necessary: who provides this, when is it provided, and where is it provided? Who monitors the accuracy of the interpretation and translated materials? 4. What background information about the student is documented as part of the enrollment process? What data is collected concerning his or her language, acculturation, and other learning needs? How and when is this information collected? How is the information shared with instructional personnel? 5. What criteria are used to determine eligibility for bilingual or ESL services? Who is responsible to decide if the student is eligible for specific language services? How and when is the decision made? What are the criteria for specific lengths of © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier time for such services? Reserved All Rights
  • 93. Indiana RTI Model © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 94. PRISIM Step 2: Establish & Support Resiliency Bilingual Instructional support Sustaining Oral Proficiency L1 Building Literacy foundation Facilitating Readiness Skills Sustaining Readiness to Learn TPR in all content areas Scaffolding in all content areas © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 95. Why do they do that? Error in English Possessive forms  No marker for possessive forms: “my friend‟s house” Non English language  – A noun‟s owner comes after the object  Avoid use of „s to describe possession: “my sister‟s children” – “the children of my sister” Navajo, Apache – Only specific things can be “possessed” or “owned” – “house my friend”  Khmer, Vietnamese  Hmong, Spanish, Tagalo g – Use of a prepositional phrase to express possession reflects a more common structure © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 96. Definition of “Consent” Included in the meaning of “consent” is that...the parent has been fully informed of all information relevant to the activity for which consent is sought, in his or her native language or other mode of communication... © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 97. Two questions you should be able to answer about acculturation at enrollment 1. What is the student‟s current level of acculturation? 2. What is the caregiver‟s current level of acculturation? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 98. Strategies Five Standards for Effective Instruction      Joint Productive Activity Language & Literacy Development Contextualize to Make Meaning Challenging Activities Instructional Center for Research on Education, Conversation Diversity & Excellence at Univ of California at Santa Cruz © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 99. Strategy Fitness! © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 100. Getting Strategy Fitness!      Identify top needs Write specific objectives to be achieved Look in RTI book for strategies that fit Plan duration and tweaks Plan progress monitoring & criteria for when to tweak or stop © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 101. Example Strategies For Building & Facilitating Resiliency  Resiliency – – – – – –  Active processing Advanced organizers Belonging activities Mediated stimuli Scaffolding Sorting Language Strengths – Home language • • • – Schooled language • – Bilingual peers Bilingual aide Language games Bilingual texts English • • Cognates vocabulary games Wordless picture books © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 102. PRISIM Application 2 Establish & Support Resiliency What is the comprehensive differentiated learning approach or plan in place to provide strength based instruction for all students? What happens to the culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) student? 1. How have teachers been trained in the ability to support and enhance the ability of CLD students to speak their home language outside the classroom and in appropriate learning situations? 2. How have teachers been trained in the ability to teach and sustain student use of effective, stronger, learning strategies for literacy? 3. How have teachers been trained in the ability to identify and individualize for diverse cognitive learning styles? How have teachers been trained in the ability to teach and sustain student use of effective cognitive learning strategies in content instruction? 4. Who monitors the effectiveness of learning support implementation with CLD students? How is the effectiveness monitored and how is the information shared with other people, organizations or communities? 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier © All Rights Reserved
  • 103. Indiana RTI Model © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 104. PRISIM Step 3: Differentiate Instruction & Intervention Transitional Bilingual Visualization Self monitoring Strengthen L1 base Literacy Readiness Skills Syntax issues Phonology transfers Analogies Expanded TPR Oral Proficiency L1 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 105. Strategy Fitness! © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 106. Smarter RTI for CLD/EL  Prevention first  Multistage screening to identify risk & strategy selection for problem solving  Multistage assessment (progress monitoring) to determine appropriate levels of instruction – – – – – Specific goals Measurable goals & outcomes Attainable objectives Relevant content Time-bound © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 107. Based on progress monitoring and whether the student is achieving at an appropriate rate of progress in relation to his goals, the following factors may be changed or adjusted. 1. Research based materials. 2. Specific strategies. 3. Frequency of interventions. 4. Designated instructor. 5. Language of instruction. 6. Group size. 7. Duration of instruction. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 108. Expansive Responsive Ala George T. Doran, 1981 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 109. Specific Needs Doesn’t get work  _____________ = in Does not take time  _____________ Specific Strategies = Self checklist to think = “STOP” strategies Mixes t/d/th sounds  _____________ = Froot loops strategy Makes noises to  _____________distract = Guided practice Misses beginning  _____________ sounds = Rehearsal activities Does not initiate  ____________ work = Active processing  Confuses English _____________ = Compare & contrast, rhymes, games & Spanish phonemes © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 110. Getting Strategy Fitness      Identify top needs Write specific objectives to be achieved Look in RTI book for strategies that fit Plan duration and tweaks Plan progress monitoring & criteria for when to tweak or stop  Check that you have considered how to implement these with the 5 Principles for Effective Instruction © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 111. Data Considerations: Objective Descriptors Subjective Objective Talking during seatwork Disobedient Seldom Repeatedly Passing notes Once or twice a week Hurrying through work Leaning back in chair Five times each day Bothering a neighbor Sometimes Every ten minutes Bizarre Twice each period Continuously Tapping pencil on desk © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 112. Data Considerations: Data to Collect How often does the behavior occur? Frequency How extreme is it? Intensity Duration How long does it last? Context Under what circumstances does it occur? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 113. Two questions you should be able to answer about acculturation when planning intervention. 1. What is the current level of acculturation? 2. Is the rate of acculturation normal? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 114. Five questions you should be able to answer about instructional needs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are the student‟s instructional needs? What interventions are needed? In what order should the interventions be implemented? For how long should the interventions be implemented? How will I monitor their effectiveness? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 115. Example Strategies For Level of Acculturation & Language  Phonological differences – – – –  “bitch” vs “beach” /θ/ vs /t/ and /d/ /l/, /r/, /ł/ Points of articulation Language Strengths – – – – Bilingual peers Bilingual aide Language games – Schooled language • – Level/Rate of Acculturation Home language • • • –  Bilingual texts – English • • Cognates vocabulary games Wordless picture books – AQS 8-14 = TPR, modeling, L1 support, demonstrations AQS 15-22 = context embedding, L1 scaffolding, guided practice AQS 23-29 = advanced organizers, role-playing, leveled readers AQS 30-36 = active processing, analogies, expansion s, TQLR AQS 37-43 = evaluation, rehearsal, selfmonitoring, choices AQS 44-48 = cognitive learning strategies, cross-cultural competence, bilingual strategies © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 116. Example Strategies For Families re: Level of Acculturation & Language – Cross-cultural counseling for families – Cross-cultural counseling for families – Family-centered learning activity – Guided practice w/ service personnel from school/government agencies – Home activities – Survival strategies for parents/families – Videotapes & booklets about schools, communities, social service providers, laws © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 117. PRISIM Application 3 How are the student’s diverse learning and behavior issues addressed within the instructional program? How does the system respond when someone is concerned that the CLD student has a learning or behavior problem? 1. Differentiate Instruction & Intervention 2. 3. 4. 5. How are the CLD student’s instructional needs addressed within the core curriculum? What range of supplemental or differentiated services are available within the core curriculum for all students including CLD and at risk students? What interventions are normally considered for language, acculturation, adaptive behavior, and other areas of concern? Who monitors the effectiveness of their implementation? What instruments or sources of information are used to identify appropriate interventions for the level of acculturation, language, adaptive behavior and other areas of concern? How are the interventions selected? Who decides which are the most appropriate, the length of time to implement them, and how these will be monitored? Who determines whether a student needs instructional intervention and how is this decision made? What happens after someone decides instructional intervention © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved is needed?
  • 118. Reminder! A CLD/ELL student may have learning and behavior problems due to language and cultural differences and problems due to a possible disability. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 119. Indiana RTI Model © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 120. PRISIM Step 4: Monitor Instruction & Intervention Individualized dynamic analysis Stepped proximics Miscue analysis Visual math © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 121. Four questions you should be able to answer about language 1. 2. 3. 4. What is the student‟s current social language proficiency in both languages? What is the student‟s current academic language proficiency in both languages? Is the rate of development & acquisition normal? What are the most effective instructional strategies to use? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 122. Example Strategies For Intensified Intervention    Miscue analysis Dynamic Assessment* – Reading – Phonics – Math – Retention – Control Behavior – Planned ignoring • Test/Teach/Test – Proximics • In-situ Modifications – Self monitoring • Authentic © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 123. Academic Area(s) Order of Concern Intervention Selected Duration of Intervention Outcomes of Intervention Prioritization of RTI Sociocultural Area Order of Concern Intervention Selected Duration of Intervention Outcomes of Intervention Acculturation Cognitive Learning Culture & Language Experiential Background Sociolinguistic Development © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 124. Avg Classroom Academic Performance Level For ELL Students!!! Discrepancy 1: Skill Gap (Current Performance Level) Target ELL Student For ELL Students!!! Discrepancy 2: Gap in Rate of Learning (‘Slope of Improvement’) Ala ‘Dual-Discrepancy’: RTI Model of Learning Disability (Fuchs 2003) © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 125. Indiana RTI Model © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 126. Individual Student Data Tracking Goal Info Goal: 70 Goal Start Date: 25-Aug Goal End Date: 10-Dec Goal Unit: % opportunities 12th %tile BaseLine Date: Data: 25-Aug 26-Aug 27-Aug 40 20 50 Date: Data: 28-Aug 31-Aug 1-Sep 30 60 40 INT ERVENT ION Graph Date: He ather - Hand Raising Intervention Phase1 Intervention Phase2 Base Line Data 100 90 90 % opportunities 80 80 70 70 60 50 40 30 20 90 80 80 12th Percentile 70 60 50 40 50 Goal Line 50 40 Data: Phase1: 2-Sep 3-Sep 4-Sep 8-Sep 9-Sep 10-Sep 11-Sep 14-Sep 15-Sep 30 20 10 0 Dates Intervention Phase1 Notes: Group Contingency: If Heather meets 80% goal for three of 5 days/ week the entire class earns 5 minutes extra during recess. Intervention Phase2 Notes: © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Phase2: 50 70 80 90 70 50 80 80 90
  • 127. Direct Assessment – Frequency Counts Behavior Counting Name ____Shamel ____ Week of __Nov 5, 20xX______ Behavior to be counted ____Negative Comments to Peers: (Get out of my face. ) Mon. Tue. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Total Arrival IIII IIIII II II IIIII IIIII IIIII I I 40 Math I I Science II I III IIII I 11 Art IIII IIIII IIIII III IIIII IIII I 24 I II III Reading I 3 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 6
  • 128. Direct Assessment – Duration Recording Record the elapsed time, usually in minutes, from onset to conclusion of target behavior. Be sure to indicate the date, and the activity in which the student was engaged when the target behavior began to escalate. Student Name: ___Shamel __ Week of / Day : __Nov 15, 20xX____ Target Behavior: Tantrum (screams, lays on floor, throws items) #2 9:35-10:15, Tue, Nov 16 Went to an assembly in the gym #3 9:28-10:05, Fri, Nov 19 Oral vocabulary test © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Specific Subject Group was doing read aloud Specials 9:45-10:15, Mon, Nov 15 Library In Crowds Read Silently Read Aloud Individual Work Small Group #1 Large Group Briefly describe, making sure to note date, time, and any circumstances you think noteworthy. Transition Behavior Incident
  • 129. Context Checklist Social/Emotional  Response to demand/request  Transition between tasks/ setting  Interruption in routine  Change in home/family dynamics  Lack of social attention  Negative social interaction w/peers  Negative social interaction w/adults  Social skills deficits  Consequences imposed for negative behavior  Other (specify): ____________________________ Academic/Instructional  Specific subject: ____________________________  Grade level : on/above/below  Activities: too easy/ too difficult  Work completion: finishes quickly/ average / rarely finishes © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 130. Analysis of the Intervention Plan EVALUATE the DATA Progress monitoring is essential – Examine student performance in relation to peers – Evaluate the effectiveness of instruction in relation to peers © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 130
  • 131. Initiate strategy Modify strategy • Preview, do, review • Stop if no response after 5 days, review • Make minor revisions • Preview, do, review • Stop if no response after 3 days, review • Preview, do, review Start new • Stop if no response after 5 days, review. strategy Monitor process Initiate strategy • Measure and analyze • Identify what worked and what didn‟t • Preview, do, review • Stop if no response after 5 days, review. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 132. Five Things that Work in RTI for ELL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Adequate Professional Knowledge Effective Instruction Valid Assessments & Interventions Collaboration Between District Departments Clear Policies © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 133. PRISIM Application 4 Monitor Instruction & Intervention How is the response of the diverse background student monitored while receiving intensive intervention? What happens with unresolved learning or behavior problems? 1. Who makes the decision that the instructional intervention and differentiated instruction are not meeting all the CLD student’s needs? How is this determined? 2. Who initiates intensive individualized interventions? How is the need for intensive individualized interventions determined? What documentation is considered adequate or appropriate to modify instructional intervention or differentiated activities and who decides this? Who evaluates the sufficiency of the documentation? 3. Who monitors the individualized intensive intervention and determines if it is effective? 4. What process is used to assure that this particular student has received appropriate and adequate prior instruction to address his/her language and acculturation needs? What documentation is considered sufficient to determine the degree to which specific language and acculturation issues are contributing to the presenting learning or behavior problem? 5. What documentation is kept on file justifying a decision to terminate intensive individualized intervention and implement a full© 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier individualized evaluation? All Rights Reserved
  • 134. PROBLEM SOLVING CHART Yes Don’t mess with it! No Does the damn thing work? You Idiot! Did you mess with it? Yes No Hide it! No Yes Does anyone else know? Will you catch hell? No Yes Ignore it You poor slob! No Can you blame somebody else? Yes © NO PROBLEM2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 135. Indiana RTI Model © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 136. Indiana RTI Model © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 137. PRISIM Step 5: Resolve or Refer © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 138. First Things First There is no such thing as a nonbiased test.  Assessment is more than testing.  Prevention is better than failure.  Measure progress, not „achievement.‟  © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 139. Indicators that validate the need for SPED evaluation       Poor communicative proficiency in the home as compared to siblings and age peers in bilingual environments, especially when this lack is noticed by the parents. English language development that appears to be significantly different than that of peers who are also learning English as a additional language. Documentation that student‟s acquisition of English is within normal range for his peer group, age, culture/language population, length of time in ESL, etc. but there are specific learning and/or behavior problems unrelated to culture shock or language transition. Specific sensory, neurological, organic, motor, or other conditions that impact learning and behavior when having reliable documentation that culture shock or language transition contributes but is not the determining factor for the learning and behavior problems. Student is demonstrating limited phrasing and vocabulary in both languages indicating that she has not acquired morphologic structures by the appropriate age. Again, both languages may be marked by a short length of utterance Student‟s response to specific structured interventions addressing his presenting problem is documented to be more than 40% below ELL/CLD peers within individualized instructional intervention. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 140. Prior to Formal Evaluation 1. Screen standardized instruments for cultural and linguistic bias. 2. Review administration options for accommodation of language and culture issues. 3. Document how you have accounted for linguistic and cultural differences, and in regard to procedures and instrument selection. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 141. Your evaluation is based on what you do in the next 30 seconds. Go! © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 142. PRISIM Application 5 Resolve or Refer What happens if the learning and behavior problems of the diverse learner cannot be resolved within existing problem solving services? How does the system respond when a diverse background student is formally referred to a full and individualized evaluation for their unresolved learning or behavior problem? 1. Who decides that there are unresolved learning and behavior problems? How is this done and what happens when it is determined the presenting problems cannot be effectively addressed within the general curriculum even with instructional interventions? 2. What documentation is used to certify that this particular student has received appropriate and adequate prior instruction which addressed his/her language and acculturation needs? Who determines this and maintains the documentation? 3. How is “atypical” performance determined for CLD students? To whom is the CLD student being compared? What data is used for the peer comparison? 4. What documentation is used to certify that any identified disability is not due to the student’s culture, language, experience, or to his/her level of acculturation? 5. How are parents and family involved in the evaluation process? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved To what extent are parents involved?
  • 143. PRISIM Step 6: Integrate Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Electronic eye piece Accessibility aids 504 IEP Bilingual Kurtzweil reader Cochlear implant ASL ESL/Braille © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 144. IEP Development for EL Students      With respect to a child with limited English proficiency, the IEP team shall consider the language needs of the child as those needs IEP must include: relate to the child’s IEP, when: Specific interventions which – the team develops the child’s IEP, and address special education needs, – the team conducts a meeting to review Specific language acquisition and, if appropriate, revise the child’s interventions which address the IEP. EL student’s L2 goals within  In considering the child’s language needs (as context of his/her special education needs, they relate to the child’s IEP), if the IEP Identification of service providers team determines that the child needs a responsible for implementing and particular device or service … the IEP team monitoring the integration of must include a statement to that effect in the these services, and child’s IEP. The time limits and scheduled  For a LEP child with a disability, the IEP specific re-evaluation must address whether the special education formats, dates, and meetings. and related services that the child needs will 300.324(a)(2)(ii) be provided in a language other than © 2014 English. Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 145. IEP Development for EL Students Team members must include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Parents Regular Educ teacher of student Special Educ teacher of student Agency representative w/ specific qualifications A person who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results At discretion of parent/agency, individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the student From the Director of OSEP/OSERS “Certainly, it would be a best practice to include the participation of an ELL teacher ELL teacher in the development of the IEP of a child who is LEP…” © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 146. IEP Development The steps involved in IEP development for ELL students with special needs include the development of objectives related to: (a) native language development and English language acquisition, (b) the facilitation of acculturation, (c) special education, (d) the integration of specific culture/language interventions which address special education needs, (e) identification of service providers responsible for implementing and monitoring the integration of these services, and (f) the time limits and scheduled specific re-evaluation formats, dates, and meetings. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 147. Including Diverse Issues on the IEP      A. Does the student have behavior, which impedes his/her learning or the learning of others? Yes No If yes, consider, if appropriate, strategies including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address that behavior. Check here if a behavior management plan is developed and attached. B. Does the student have limited English proficiency? Yes No If yes, consider the language needs as related to the IEP and describe below. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 148. Integrated Services PreProduction Early Production Speech Emergence Intermediate Fluency Intermediate Advanced Fluency Advanced Fluency Needs total assistance Needs a great deal of assistance Pull out for targeted assistance Needs a lot of assistance Has a moderate level of needs Has moderate but specific needs Has specific need to be addressed Needs minimal assistance Pull out/Push in for targeted assistance Push in for targeted assistance Total Inclusion © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier
  • 149. Parent Centered Barriers Lack of time on part of parents 87%  Lack of parent education to help with school work 38%  Cultural or socio-economic differences between parents and staff 23%  Parent attitudes about school 23%  Language differences between parents and students 12%  © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 150. Staff/school Centered Barriers Lack of staff time 56%  Lack of staff training in working with parents 48%  Staff attitudes regarding parents 18%  Concerns about safety in the school area after school hours 9%  © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 151. We create a barrier when… We define what we want done – rather than encouraging involvement on the families‟ terms.  We define what role we want them to fill – rather than letting „them‟ identify what role they want to play.  We expect „them‟ to attend meetings when we‟ve set the agenda and then want their input on our issues – rather than asking what they want to discuss.  © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 152. We reduce barriers when…     We create opportunities for families by realizing their own leadership potential – developing and building on their own unique strengths. We help people understand their rights and responsibilities as leaders to make choices and how, where, and why they need to be involved. We increase opportunities for families to access a wide variety of information and resources so their choices are fully informed. We respect the choices and continued involvement of families. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 153. Family Support Practices         Promote long term relationships Incorporate a variety of educational experiences Meet parents where they are Build on families‟ strengths Acknowledge and address the context in which families exist Work with parents as partners Respond to the practical needs of parents Incorporate outreach efforts Source: Parent Trust of Washington © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 154. PRISIM Application 6 Integrate Services & Cross-cultural IEPs When a diverse background student is identified as eligible for an individualized education plan or specially designed individualized instruction, how does the system respond to their constellation of needs? What is the system response when a referred and evaluated student from a diverse background is not eligible for special education? How are their diverse learning and behavior needs addressed? 1. What documentation is used to delineate a comprehensive service plan for all the student’s learning needs? Does the individualized education plan have sections for each of the student’s instructional needs, i.e. accommodations for specific disability, language acquisition assistance, facilitation with acculturation, etc.? 2. Who is involved in developing the individualized education plan for CLD students? Who is present that is certificated in working with culturally and linguistically diverse learners? 3. What criteria are used to identify that the team developing the individualized education plan are “highly qualified” in the instruction of limited English students with special needs? 4. What process is used to identify appropriate language and acculturation interventions for a CLD student in the context of the services they will receive for their disability condition? 5. What documentation is used to monitor the effectiveness of the language and acculturation interventions used for students with disabilities? 6. What are the criteria used to establish that the CLD student with disabilities (CLDE) is making appropriate and sufficient progress toward his/her language learning goals? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 155. You never know where you’ll end up. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 156. PRISIM Step 7 : Maintain Staff & Programs Serving CLDE & Families Literacy Readiness Skills Oral Proficiency L1 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 157. Transdisciplinary Framework Bilingual Education/English as a Second Language Intercultural Communication Multicultural Education General Education Culturally & Linguistically Responsive Special Education Practice Special Education © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 158. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 159. PRISIM Application 7 Maintaining Staff & Programs Serving CLDE Is the system effectively addressing proportionality and equity of service issues? What is in place for continued professional development and action? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What documentation is used to monitor the effectiveness of the language and acculturation interventions used for culturally and linguistically diverse students with learning and behavior problems? To what extent do all education professionals and school staff understand language development and what to expect while CLD students experience language transition and acculturation? How are educators prepared, reinforced and sustained in their ability to work effectively with CLD students? To what extent do the parents of CLD students understand language development and what to expect while CLD students experience language transition and acculturation? How are parents informed and supported in their and their children’s transition and acculturation? To what extent do educators have access to resource personnel, peer coaches or master teachers with special skill and knowledge about working effectively with CLD and CLDE students with learning and behavior problems? How is this access monitored and maintained? What is your current process for addressing proportionality and equity issues in CLD services and special education services? © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 160. PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Intervention & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success Step 7 Step 6 Step 5 Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Step 1 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 161. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 162. Things Could Be Worse! © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 163. Best Practice Administrators 1. Remain informed 2. Use differentiation 3. Facilitate resiliency 4. Initiate communication 5. Monitor adaptation & response 6. Facilitate interaction! © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 164. Contact Information  Catherine Collier, Ph.D.  360-380-7513 voice  360-483-5658 fax  Facebook.com/AskDrCollier  @AskDrCollier  www.crosscultured.com  catherine@crosscultured.com © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 165. Thank you! Come visit us at www.crosscultured.com      Over 45 years experience. Research on impact of acculturation on referral & placement of CLD students. Research on effectiveness of specific cognitive learning strategies for diverse learners. Classroom teacher, diagnostician, faculty, administrator. Social justice advocate, author & teacher educator. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved