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Webcast2011
 

Webcast2011

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These are the slides for my webcast on December 2, 2011.

These are the slides for my webcast on December 2, 2011.

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  • A complete glossary of acronyms and definitions for language learners, diverse learners, and special education may be found as a free download on my website www.crosscultured.com
  • Culture is what people know, what they do, and what they make and use. Culture shapes the way we think (cognition), the way we interact (behavior), the way we communicate (language), and the way we transmit knowledge to the next generation (education). Everything we do is influenced by our culture. Culture pervades our ways of thinking, behaving, and believing. How we spend our time, how we teach and treat, how we test and measure, and what we do for fun are all affected by culture.Culture is always both (1) explicit – that which people can describe, such as foods, festivals, dress and (2) implicit - that which people know and do unconsciously and would have trouble describing.All cultural groups teach their children; however, how and what is taught (and why) varies considerably among cultures.
  • Yes or No?NO!
  • These questions will be covered in our presentation, however briefly. I have an online newsletter (free) and a page on our www.crosscultured.com website where I answer all questions submitted in an Ask Dr. Collier column. You may also write individually to me for answers or resources or links to materials.
  • How can IEP teachers support them? What we know is that most of the instructors in adult level IEP programs have little knowledge of learning disabilities, and even when they know they don't know, don't know what guidance or help is available. Most of what we have seen has been with what seemed to be dyslexia, and hearing and speech disorders.  The speech communication and disorders program at WWU has been very helpful and supportive.Most training is for k-12 teachers, we need more for teachers of adult IEP students trying to learn more about how to help the students.Even when I recognize the student has LD, I have difficulty getting DSS to assist him.Faculty in core courses are less accommodating.Many IEP students don’t know or won’t tell you they have an LD problem. Many feel uncomfortable telling faculty that they need accommodations.
  • True
  • True
  • In Spanish it means "to be in the middle."  Actually estar is a Spanish word, but Nepantla is a Nahuatal word. Arturo Morales
  • Pragmatics:The rules governing social interactions (e.g. turn taking, maintaining topic of conversation).Difference: Social responses to language are based on cultural background (e.g., comfort level in asking or responding to questions) Pauses between turns or overlaps in conversation are similar to those of peers with the same linguistic and cultural background.Disability: Social use of language or lack thereof is inappropriate (e.g., topic of lesson is rocks and the student continues to discuss events that occurred at home without saying how they relate to rocks).  Syntax:The rules governing the order, grammar, and form of phrases or sentences Difference: Grammatical errors due to native language influences (e.g., student may omit initial verb in a question—You like cake? (omission of Do)). Word order in L1 may differ from that of English (e.g., in Arabic sentences are ordered verb-subject-object while Urdu sentences are ordered subject-object-verb).Disability: Grammatical structures continue to be inappropriate in both languages even after extensive instruction (e.g., student cannot produce the past tense in either Spanish or English indicating difficulty with grammatical tenses). Semantics:The rules pertaining to both the underlying and the surface meaning of phrases and sentencesDifference: A student whose native language is Korean may have difficulty using pronouns, as they do notexist in his/her native language. A student may use words from L1 in productions in L2 because of his inability or unfamiliarity of the vocabulary in L2 (e.g., “The car is muyrapido.” In this case, the student knows the concept as well as the needed structure but cannot remember the vocabulary).Disability: Student is demonstrating limited phrasing and vocabulary in both languages (e.g., his/her sentences in both languages demonstrate limited or no use of adjectives and adverbs and both languages are marked by a short length of utterance). Morphology:The rules concerning the construction of words from meaningful unitsDifference: Native speakers of Russian may not use articles as they do no exist in that language. A student whose native language is Spanish may omit the possessive (‘s’) when producing an utterance in English (e.g., “Joe crayon broke” or he will say “the crayon of Joe broke,” applying a structure that is influence by the rules of his/her L1. He/she still demonstrates understanding of the morphologic structure for possession but is demonstrating errors in structure that are directly influenced by his/her L1.)Disability: Student’s productions in both languages demonstrate a lack of the possessive form indicating that he/she has not acquired this morphologic structure by the appropriate age. Again, both languages may be marked by a short length of utterance 
  • 2) This advice, although popular, is incorrect for several reasons. As discussed above, students will best acquire a second language if their first language is well-established. Second, asking parents who may not be able to provide an adequate language model in English to restrict the use of their more proficient language is absurd. Parents will neither be able to stimulate their child’s language development nor will they be able to communicate easily for social purposes with their child. Wong Fillmore (1991b, p. 343) makes the following poignant observation:When parents are unable to talk to their children, they cannot easily convey to them their values, beliefs, understandings, or wisdom about how to cope with their experiences. They cannot teach them about the meaning of work, or about personal responsibility, or what it means to be a moral or ethical person in a world with too many choices and too few guideposts to follow. What is lost are the bits of advice, the consejos parents should be able to offer children in their everyday interactions with them. Talk is a crucial link between parents and children: It is how parents impart their cultures to their children and enable them to become the kind of men and women they want them to be. When parents lose the means for socializing and influencing their children, rifts develop and families lose the intimacy that comes from shared beliefs and understandings.
  • 1) The reality is that many CLD with disabilities must learn a second language. If a child with disabilities speaks a home language other than English, she must acquire a second language to participate in the school environment. Although research does suggest that some children may acquire a second language more slowly, especially if they exhibited language difficulties in their native language (Kessler, 1984), this should not dissuade educators from assisting their students’ second language acquisition as much as possible. Therefore, the real question becomes, should the language of instruction for CLD students with disabilities be the student’s first or second language. Studies suggest that, just as for students without disabilities, a second language is best acquired from a firm and well-developed first language foundation (Perozzi, 1985; Perozzi & Sanchez, 1992). This research suggests that grammatical forms are most quickly and accurately acquired in English when they have first been taught in the student’s native language. This supports a bilingual approach to special education with CLD students. 2)Educators may mistakenly identify students undergoing a “silent period” as demonstrating a lack of ability to communicate. Remember what a child has to know to be able to say even one word in his first language. Even those children who demonstrate little expressive language in the school environment bring with them a wealth of information about their native language.
  • 3) Much research in language acquisition is relevant to this topic, including: Cummins’ additive Bilingualism enrichment principle, and Research on the cognitive benefits of Bilingualism.This research clearly suggests that Bilingualism is not a burden for students, and can, in fact, be a strength. Cummins’ additive bilingualism enrichment principle and the research on the cognitive benefits of bilingualism clearly suggest that bilingualism is not a burden for students. In fact, in many parts of the world, it is a common part of daily life. When fluently bilingual parents are encouraged to raise their children monolingually, as in the case of a 1995 child custody case in which Texas State District Judge, Samuel C. Kaiser equated raising the child of a bilingual mother in a Spanish-speaking home as tantamount to child abuse, beliefs about bilingualism as a cognitive deficit are reinforced. Regardless of the cognitive benefits, bilingualism is of social benefit in our global village and can only have positive outcomes when students leave school and seek employment.
  • Excerpt from the book “Seven Steps for Separating Difference and Disability” 2010, Corwin Press
  • Sped referral is not justified 1. Learning and/or behavior problems are attributable to culture shock or language transition issues, such as silence, unresponsiveness, heightened anxiety, code switching, response fatigue, confusion in locus of control, etc.2. Below normal rate of acculturation when documentation that this delay is related to inadequate or inappropriate instruction or intervention.3. Leveling out or below normal rate of language acquisition when documentation that this sustained language ‘ceiling’ is related to inadequate or inappropriate levels of language instruction (e.g. less than 50 minutes a day in sheltered English or no content support in the primary language).4. Social responses to language are based on cultural background (e.g., comfort level in asking or responding to questions)5. Pauses between turns or overlaps in conversation are similar to those of peers with the same linguistic and cultural background.6. Grammatical errors due to native language influences (e.g., student may omit initial verb in a question—You like cake? (omission of Do)).7. Word order in L1 may differ from that of English (e.g., in Arabic, sentences are ordered verb-subject-object while Urdu sentences are ordered subject-object-verb).8. A student whose native language is Korean may have difficulty using pronouns, as they do not exist in her native language. A student may use words from L1 in productions in L2 because of his inability or unfamiliarity of the vocabulary in L2 (e.g., “The car is muyrapido.” In this case, the student knows the concept as well as the needed structure but cannot remember the vocabulary).9. Native speakers of Russian may not use articles as they do not exist in that language. A student whose native language is Spanish may omit the possessive (‘s’) when producing an utterance in English (e.g., “Joe crayon broke” or She will say “the crayon of Joe broke,” applying a structure that is influenced by the rules of her L1. She still demonstrates understanding of the morphologic structure for possession but is demonstrating errors in structure that are directly influenced by her L1.)10. Student’s response to specific structured interventions addressing his presenting problem is documented to be within 50% or closer to that of his ELL/CLD peers within individualized instructional intervention.11. Student’s response to specific structured interventions addressing her presenting problem is documented to be sustainable with continuing differentiated learning support with the instruction and instructional intervention program.12. Others as documented across at least 6 weeks of intensive instructional intervention when having reliable documentation that culture shock or language transition is the determining factor for the learning and behavior problems.Sped referral is justified 1. Poor communicative proficiency in the home as compared to siblings and age peers in bilingual environments, especially when this lack is noticed by the parents.2. English language development that appears to be significantly different than that of peers who are also learning English as a additional language.3. Documentation that student’s acquisition of English is within normal range for his peer group, age, culture/language population, length of time in ESL, etc. but there are specific learning and/or behavior problems unrelated to culture shock or language transition.4. Specific sensory, neurological, organic, motor, or other conditions that impact learning and behavior when having reliable documentation that culture shock or language transition contributes but is not the determining factor for the learning and behavior problems.5. Social use of language or lack thereof continues to be inappropriate (e.g., topic of lesson is rocks and the student continues to discuss events that occurred at home without saying how they relate to rocks).6. Grammatical structures continue to be inappropriate in both languages even after extensive instruction (e.g., student cannot produce the past tense in either Spanish or English indicating difficulty with grammatical tenses).7. Student is demonstrating limited phrasing and vocabulary in both languages (e.g., her sentences in both languages demonstrate limited or no use of adjectives and adverbs and both languages are marked by a short length of utterance).8. Student’s productions in both languages demonstrate a lack of the possessive form indicating that she has not acquired this morphologic structure by the appropriate age. Again, both languages may be marked by a short length of utterance9. Student’s response to specific structured interventions addressing his presenting problem is documented to be more than 40% below ELL/CLD peers within individualized instructional intervention.10. Student’s response to specific structured interventions addressing her presenting problem is documented to be unsustainable without substantial individualized specially designed instruction.11. Others as documented across at least 6 to 8 weeks of intensive instructional intervention when having reliable documentation that culture shock or language transition contributes but is not the determining factor for the learning and behavior problems.  

Webcast2011 Webcast2011 Presentation Transcript

  • Separating Differences& Disabilities: Special Needs among EAL/ELL Dr. Catherine Collier catherine@crosscultured.com A Webcast December 2011
  • Dr. Catherine CollierCrossCultural Developmental Education Services catherine@crosscultured.com www.crosscultured.com © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Alphabet Soup!ADD IDCLD IEPCLDE LEPEL LDELD NNEELL SELESL SLD © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • The Bottom Line CLD/LEP must be able to participate effectively (at or near peer) in all programs and content areas. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • DefinitionsCulture Learning Disability Cognition The concept of things Difficulty in perceiving The process by which that particular people and manipulating individuals perceive, use as models of patterns in the relate to, and interpret perceiving, relating, and environment, whether their environment. interpreting their patterns of sounds, environment. symbols, numbers, or behaviors. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • But avoid stereotyping! Sometimes it is easier to understand culturally diverse families in terms of group attributes. But individual families are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Stereotypes Racism & cultural bias • Lazy, slacker • Always trying to get out of work • Much smarter/capable than others Ableism • Holding up traffic • Taking attention away from others • Always trying to get out of work © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Stereotypes continued Language & dialect • Not as intelligent • Doesn‟t want to learn to read • If she can‟t speak, she doesn‟t understand what I am saying Expectations © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • ExpectationsCollegesK-12 schoolsResettlement Services © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Expectations Community Families © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Yes or No? Are These Disabilities? • Use of words with incorrect meaning. • Incorrect use of plural. • Lack of enunciation of apostrophes and “s” to indicate possession. • Use of incorrect referent-pronoun agreement. • Incorrect use of articles and incorrect agreement with noun. • Omission of preposition and use of “in” when “on” is needed, etc. • Incorrect word order or verb misplaced. So, what do you think? © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Disability - LegalityDisability cannot be measured solely onthe ability to do certain tasks.Disability depends also on the ease withwhich they perform activities that are ofcentral importance to most people‟s dailylives.The disability must also be permanent orlong-lasting. O‟Conner, U.S. Supreme Court (2002) © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • K-12 US ConcernsAre academic growth rates comparable between ELL andnon-ELL populations?Can they ever test out of ESL if they are Sped?How do you know the difference between a languagebarrier and a language disability? What are the signs ofeach and how are they different?Can ELL students receive help from both resource and ELLprograms? © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • K-12 Canada ConcernsHow does Student Services fit into the EAL/ESL world:roles, assessment, how to help, when it‟s more thanEAL/ESL?How can we improve our resources so that we can assesschildren in their first language?How do you identify low English language abilities studentswith suspected learning disabilities in a timely manner?How long do students need to be exposed to Englishbefore we would expect fluency? © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Adult & IEP Teacher ConcernsWhat‟s going on with this student?Where can he go for help?What can I do about it?Is there a way to prepare ahead?How can I prepare him for what he will face at ourcollege? © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Background Knowledge
  • Disproportionality for EAL/ELL 2010 Underrepresented in special education overall Overrepresented in specific categories: • Speech/language Impairments (SI) • Learning Disabilities (LD) • LD/SI combination © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • All students testing Not ELL ELLPercent of Total No Disabilities 87% 82% Disability identified 13% 18%Students Identified Total Number of Students 565,368 39,651as SLDs Special Education Identified 01 Developmental Delays Not ELL 0% ELL 1% 02 Emotional-Behavioral 5% 1% 03 Orthopedic Impairment 0% 0% 12.9% 04 Health Impairment 23% 7% 05 Specific Learning Disability 44% 71% 06 Mental Retardation 4% 4% 07 Multiple Disabilities 2% 0% 5.8% 08 Deafness 0% 0% 09 Hearing Impairment 1% 1% 10 Visual Impairment 0% 0% 11 Deaf-Blindness 0% 0% 12 Communication Disorders 14% 13% Not ELL ELL 13 Autism 6% 1% 14 Traumatic Brain Injury 0% 0% Total 100% 100% Number Special Ed Students 75,102 7,243 source: 2010 MSP/HSPE Student W file © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • True or False? Students in English immersion programs are referred at higher rates than those in bilingual programs. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • True or False?ELLs whose parentshave opted out ofESOL are the mostlikely to be referredand placed in SpecialEducation. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • INDIVIDUAL Unique experiences, Ways we are less insights, personal like other people. reflections. ACCULTURATION Perceptions, social & behavior patterns, Communicative, ADD/ADHD language, etc. learned from interaction with new group(s). Ways we are ENCULTURATION more like other Perceptions, social and behavior patterns, people. Behavioral,values, etc. learnedcognitive,. PDD language, linguistic, from caregivers THE BASICS OF BEING HUMAN Sensory abilities, linguistic wiring, genetic and biologic heritage, innate abilities, etc.Organic, physical, motor, sensory, neurological © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Common Side-Effects Ofthe Acculturation Process Culture Shock Heightened Anxiety Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • The Intensity of CultureShock is Cyclical Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase PhaseHighlyEngagedLevelModeratelyEngagedLevelNormalIntensity ofEmotionsModeratelyDepressedLevelGreatlyDepressedLevel © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Estar Nepantla © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Why do they do that?ERROR IN ENGLISH NON ENGLISH LANGUAGEPOSSESSIVE FORMS No marker for Khmer, Vietnamese possessive forms: “my • A noun‟s owner comes after the object friend‟s house” Navajo, Apache • “house my friend” • Only specific things can be “possessed” or Avoid use of „s to “owned” describe possession: Hmong, Spanish, Tagalog Use of a prepositional “my sister‟s children” • phrase to express possession reflects a • “the children of my more common structure sister” © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • True or False? Parents of CLD students, with and without exceptionalities, should speak with their children at home in English in order to increase the child‟s exposure to the second language. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • True or False? Students with special needs cannot learn two (or more) languages. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • True or False? Acquiring more than one language is “difficult” and can lead to academic problems. For this reason, all energy should be spent on having CLD students focus on English, and further natal language development should be halted. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • You never know where you‟ll end up. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Recommended Process
  • Five Things that Work in Intervention for EL 1. Adequate Professional Knowledge 2. Effective Instruction 3. Valid Assessments & Interventions 4. Collaboration Between District Departments 5. Clear Policies © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 7 Steps for Separating Difference & Disability Step 1 Building & Sustaining a Foundation for Learning Step 2 Establishing & Supporting Resiliency Step 3 Instructional Intervention & Differentiated Instruction Step 4 Intensive Intervention & Progress Monitoring Step 5 Resolution or Referral Step 6 Integrated Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Step 7 Maintaining Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • PRISIM: Building the Foundation of the Pyramid Systems & policies promote and sustain: •Access to safety, food, clothing, & shelter •Quality preparation of effective education professionals & support staff •Adequacy of school facilities & resources •Consistent use of culturally & linguistically responsive, evidence-based practices •Supportive responsive relationships •Other effective practices & procedures © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • True or False? School districts are required to provide information to parents of ELL students in their home language even if they are not literate in that language. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • What we recommend at Step 1At enrollment & within a month in school:1. Have support structures and programs in place to facilitate learning2. Determine the current/baseline level of acculturation3. Find out the Home Language(s)4. Language Screening in both5. Plan for monitoring student progress © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • True or False? LEP students cannot be referred for special education services if they are limited English proficient.
  • What we recommend for Step 21. Identify student‟s home language proficiency & use to support academic interventions.2. Measure student‟s level of acculturation to school and use to implement appropriate instruction & intervention.3. Measure the student‟s „classroom language‟ in all communication modes & use to design appropriate instruction & intervention.4. Develop a resiliency & cognitive learning profile useful in implementing effective instruction & intervention.5. Implement strength based instruction & language support.6. Monitor effectiveness of instruction & intervention. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Specific Needs = Specific Strategies Doesn’t get_____________ work in = Self checklist_____________ take Does not time to think = “STOP” strategies_____________ Cannot organize tasks = Graphic organizers_____________ Makes noises to distract = Guided practice Says it’s no_____________ use to do work = Self concept activities = Active processing____________initiate work Does not_____________English Confuses & = Compare & Spanish phonemes contrast, rhymes, games © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • What we recommend for Step 31. Implement specific strength & need based interventions that facilitate learning.2. Monitor effectiveness of instruction & intervention strategies. Modify based upon student‟s response to the strategy.3. Monitor effectiveness of instruction and intervention in relation to student‟s home language proficiency.4. Monitor student‟s level & rate of acculturation to school & the effectiveness of instruction & intervention to facilitate.5. Monitor the student‟s „classroom language‟ in all communication modes & the appropriateness of instruction & intervention to expand.6. Monitor resiliency & cognitive learning & effectiveness of instruction & intervention. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • What we recommend for Step 41. Determine if the rate & level of acculturation to school is normal & analyze pattern of response to intervention & instruction.2. Determine if language gains are normal & analyze pattern of language acquisition.3. Determine if student response to interventions & modification patterns resolve problems & are sustainable.4. Implement & monitor short cycle tightly focused “unanswered” needs based intervention.5. Monitor the response & effectiveness of intervention. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • What we recommend for Step 5After a formal referral:1. Crosscultural evaluation based upon the outcomes of the instructional intervention2. Test Evaluation Checklist3. CrossCultural Administration of Standardized TestsIf the student is eligible for SE & ESL services:1. Integrated plan of services.2. Cross-cultural IEP.3. Continued language and acculturation support.If the student is not eligible for SE services:1. Integrated plan of services within the general education program.2. Continued language and acculturation support. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Indicators that validate the need for SPEDevaluationPoor communicative proficiency in the home as compared to siblings and agepeers in bilingual environments, especially when this lack is noticed by theparents.English language development that appears to be significantly different thanthat of peers who are also learning English as a additional language.Documentation that student‟s acquisition of English is within normal range forhis peer group, age, culture/language population, length of time in ESL, etc. butthere are specific learning and/or behavior problems unrelated to culture shockor language transition.Specific sensory, neurological, organic, motor, or other conditions that impactlearning and behavior when having reliable documentation that cultureshock or language transition contributes but is not the determining factor forthe learning and behavior problems.Student is demonstrating limited phrasing and vocabulary in both languagesindicating that she has not acquired morphologic structures by the appropriateage. Again, both languages may be marked by a short length of utterance © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • True or False? Districts should ensure that a teacher with credentials to provide instruction to EL students participate in every IEP proceeding involving these students. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • What we recommend for Step 6 Intermediate PreProduction Early Speech Intermediate Advanced Advanced Production Emergence Fluency Fluency FluencyNeeds totalassistanceNeeds a great Pull out fordeal ofassistance targeted assistanceNeeds a lot ofassistance Push in for targetedHas amoderate assistancelevel of needsHasmoderate butspecific Totalneeds Integrate forHas specific José Inclusionneed to beaddressed targeted assistanceNeedsminimalassistance © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Things Could Be Worse! © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Accommodations for adult learners Time Note takers Recorder Location Others © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Best Practice Educators • Be informed • Model correct interactions • Use varied responses Facilitate Be Prepared • accommodations Families • Information • Communication © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Contact Information CatherineCollier, Ph.D. 360-380-7513 voice 360-650-4673 campus 360-483-5658 fax catherine@crosscultured.com © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Big shoes to fill…….and remember… © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Les still isn‟tone with hishorse. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Thank you! Come visit us at www.crosscultured.comOver 45 years experience.Research on impact of acculturation onreferral & placement of CLD students.Research on effectiveness of specificcognitive learning strategies for diverselearners.Classroomteacher, diagnostician, faculty, administrator.Social justice advocate, author & teachereducator. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved