• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Separating Difference & Disability
 

Separating Difference & Disability

on

  • 2,816 views

Here is the slideshow for Seven Steps for Separating Difference & Disability for the institute in Nashville. This will be an all day workshop with application activities.

Here is the slideshow for Seven Steps for Separating Difference & Disability for the institute in Nashville. This will be an all day workshop with application activities.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,816
Views on SlideShare
2,800
Embed Views
16

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0

4 Embeds 16

http://askdrcollier.blogspot.com 12
https://twitter.com 2
http://www.docshut.com 1
https://aamu.blackboard.com 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Choose symbol, colors, name for your group, make a flag representative of your membersIntroduce your group
  • Educators have become increasingly aware in recent years of the central role that culture plays in learning and teaching. Staff and students bring to the classroom values about education, work habits, interaction norms, and ways of knowing that were learned in the home and community.No one leaves their cultures at the school door. It is, therefore, imperative that education professionals gain greater awareness of how their culture affects their behaviors, and how the intersection of diverse cultures can impact classroom dynamics and outcomes.Culture is what people know, what they do, and what they make and use. Culture shapes the way we think (cognition), the way we interact (behavior), the way we communicate (language), and the way we transmit knowledge to the next generation (education). Everything we do is influenced by our culture. Culture pervades our ways of thinking, behaving, and believing. How we spend our time, how we teach and treat, how we test and measure, and what we do for fun are all affected by culture.Culture is always both (1) explicit – that which people can describe, such as foods, festivals, dress and (2) implicit - that which people know and do unconsciously and would have trouble describing.All cultural groups teach their children; however, how and what is taught (and why) varies considerably among cultures.
  • Here is an example from Washington state in the U.S. of what this looks like. In the table are shown data comparing ELL and nonELL student identification in Special Education categories. As you can see, there is disproportionate representation in specific areas while there is over placement in the specific learning disabilities category for ELL students. Additionally, the data for specific learning disabilities is shown in summary = 5.8% SLD among nonELL but 12.9% among ELL. This is disproportionate without some very outré justification like all of the ELL students were exposed to strange radiation prior to birth or some such.
  • Cultural expectations and understanding underlie intervention focus and selection. Age and developmental appropriateness. The psychological adaptation of the learner in the school and the family and community context.
  • It means "to be in the middle."  Estar is a Spanish word, but Nepantla is a Nahuatal word. From Dr. Arturo Morales
  • Pragmatics:The rules governing social interactions (e.g. turn taking, maintaining topic of conversation).Difference: Social responses to language are based on cultural background (e.g., comfort level in asking or responding to questions) Pauses between turns or overlaps in conversation are similar to those of peers with the same linguistic and cultural background.Disability: Social use of language or lack thereof is inappropriate (e.g., topic of lesson is rocks and the student continues to discuss events that occurred at home without saying how they relate to rocks).  Syntax:The rules governing the order, grammar, and form of phrases or sentences Difference: Grammatical errors due to native language influences (e.g., student may omit initial verb in a question—You like cake? (omission of Do)). Word order in L1 may differ from that of English (e.g., in Arabic sentences are ordered verb-subject-object while Urdu sentences are ordered subject-object-verb).Disability: Grammatical structures continue to be inappropriate in both languages even after extensive instruction (e.g., student cannot produce the past tense in either Spanish or English indicating difficulty with grammatical tenses). Semantics:The rules pertaining to both the underlying and the surface meaning of phrases and sentencesDifference: A student whose native language is Korean may have difficulty using pronouns, as they do notexist in his/her native language. A student may use words from L1 in productions in L2 because of his inability or unfamiliarity of the vocabulary in L2 (e.g., “The car is muyrapido.” In this case, the student knows the concept as well as the needed structure but cannot remember the vocabulary).Disability: Student is demonstrating limited phrasing and vocabulary in both languages (e.g., his/her sentences in both languages demonstrate limited or no use of adjectives and adverbs and both languages are marked by a short length of utterance). Morphology:The rules concerning the construction of words from meaningful unitsDifference: Native speakers of Russian may not use articles as they do no exist in that language. A student whose native language is Spanish may omit the possessive (‘s’) when producing an utterance in English (e.g., “Joe crayon broke” or he will say “the crayon of Joe broke,” applying a structure that is influence by the rules of his/her L1. He/she still demonstrates understanding of the morphologic structure for possession but is demonstrating errors in structure that are directly influenced by his/her L1.)Disability: Student’s productions in both languages demonstrate a lack of the possessive form indicating that he/she has not acquired this morphologic structure by the appropriate age. Again, both languages may be marked by a short length of utterance 
  • Excerpt from the book “Seven Steps for Separating Difference and Disability” , 2010, Corwin Press
  • From CREDECenter for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence at Univ of California at Santa Cruz
  • If you see this lady turning clockwise you are using your right brain. If you see her turning counter-clockwise, you are using your left brain.
  • RTI is a function of regular education that emphasizes preventinglearning difficulties before they start and eliminating the need for a student to fail beforeintervention is available.
  • Excerpts from “When Is It Appropriate to Refer an ELL for Special Education?” by OSPI StaffMigrant and Bilingual EducationJanuary 23, 2009K20
  • The Selection Taxonomy for English Language Learner Accommodations, STELLA, has been developed over the last few years and is in final form (Kopriva and others, 2002, 2005, 2006). STELLA is intended to be used with K-12 students to assign accommodations to the range of ELLstudents for use on large-scale academic assessments.

Separating Difference & Disability Separating Difference & Disability Presentation Transcript

  • Seven Steps for SeparatingDifferences and Disabilities DR. CATHERINE COLLIER @ASKDRCOLLIER CATHERINE@CROSSCULTURED.COM WWW.CROSSCULTURED.COM
  • What‟s Up, Doc? Write down and pass forward @AskDrCollier catherine@crosscultured.com www.crosscultured.com Facebook: CrossCultural Developmental Education Services© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Who‟s it going to be?
  • The Bottom LineCLD/LEP must be able to participate effectively (at or near peer) in all programs and content areas. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Growth in Native Born LEPFirst Generation Second Generation Third + Generation 20% 40% 40% © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • DefinitionsCulture Learning Disability CognitionThe concept of Difficulty in perceiving The process by whichthings that and manipulating individualsparticular people patterns in the perceive, relate to, anduse as models of environment, whether interpret theirperceiving, relatin patterns of environment.g, and sounds, symbols, numbeinterpreting their rs, or behaviors.environment. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • INDIVIDUAL Unique experiences, Ways we are less insights, personal like other people. reflections. ACCULTURATION Perceptions, social & behavior patterns, Communicative, ADD/ADHD language, etc. learned from interaction with new group(s). Ways we are ENCULTURATION more like other Perceptions, social and behavior patterns, people. Behavioral, linguistic, cognitive, PDD language, values, etc. learned from caregivers. THE BASICS OF BEING HUMAN Sensory abilities, linguistic wiring, genetic and biologic Organic, physical, motor, sensory, neurological heritage, innate abilities, etc.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • National Disproportionality in Sped 2006 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hispanic Black Asian/PI American Indian Total Enrollment 18.51 14.91 4.2 0.97 Emotional Disturbance 15.9 28.79 1.12 1.56 Learning Disability 21.23 20.52 1.7 1.74 Intellectual Disability 16.27 20.6 2.19 1.53© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Disproportionality for ELL 2010 Underrepresented in special education overall Overrepresented in specific categories:  Speech/language Impairments (SI)  Learning Disabilities (LD)  LD/SI combination © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Disproportionality WA 2011 NonELL ELL 12.90%5.80% .6% 4.40% 2.50% .10% LD EBD AS © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • ELL Representation Patterns Students in English  ELLs who are “parent immersion programs are denials” are the most referred at higher rates likely to be referred and than those in bilingual placed. programs. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Policy Driving Practice• The evaluation team may not identify a student as disabled if the discrepancy is primarily the result of an environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.• Tests must be selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis;• A child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if the determinant factor for such determination is-- • lack of scientifically based instruction practices and programs that contain the essential components of reading instruction • lack of scientifically based instruction practices and programs that contain the essential components of instruction in math; or • limited English proficiency. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • RTI & RTII Tier 3 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 2 Tier 3 Tier 1© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Problem Solving with Progress Monitoring Identify Problem Analyze Measure response the patterns Is there a discrepancy problem between current & excepted performance? Did it work? What do we do next? Why & to what extent is there a problem? Monitor By how much should response to Set goals intervention the student grow? By how much should the student grow? How & when will the intervention strategy be implemented? What will be done to resolve the problem? Implement Brainstorm intervention interventions Plan intervention setting © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • RTI & RTII© 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier © 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved All Rights Reserved
  • PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Interventi on & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success Step 7 Step 6 Step 5 Literacy Readiness Skills Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Oral Proficiency L1Step 1 © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Is RTI the answer to disproportionate representation of ELL? Only if approaches are culturally and linguistically responsive and address both system and student issues.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • RTI is more than reading! © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL 1. Difficulties with policy guidelines. 2. Different stakeholder views about timing for referral of students who are English language learners. 3. Insufficient knowledge among personnel involved in identification. 4. Difficulties providing consistent, adequate services to students who are English language learners.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL 5. Difficulty obtaining students‟ previous school records. 6. Lack of collaborative structures during prereferral. 7. Lack of access to assessments that differentiate between second language development and learning disabilities. 8. Lack of consistent monitoring for struggling students who are English language learners.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Knowledge & Consistency© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Potential Sources of Cultural mismatchAll students do not share the  Experienceexperiences and background  Languageknowledge thatteachers, textbooks, and  Culturecurriculum standards may  Child-rearing historyassume.  ReligionChildren from culturally and  Socioeconomic statuslinguistically different  Urban‐rural contextbackgrounds have differentexperiences and knowledge  Risk factors (number/severity)than mainstream teachers andchildren. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Culture & Child Rearing Vertical vs horizontal Instruct vs allow Indulgent vs strict Adult vs peers Inward vs outward Nuclear vs communal
  • But avoid stereotyping!  Sometimes it is easier to understand culturally diverse families in terms of group attributes. But individual families are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Common Side-Effects Of the Acculturation Process Heightened Anxiety Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • The Intensity of Culture Shock is Cyclical Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase Phase Families as well as studentsHighlyEngagedLevelModeratelyEngagedLevelNormalIntensity ofEmotionsModeratelyDepressedLevelGreatlyDepressedLevel
  • Why do they do that?Error in EnglishPossessive forms Non English language No marker for possessive  Khmer, Vietnamese forms: “my friend‟s  A noun‟s owner comes after house” the object  “house my friend”  Navajo, Apache Avoid use of „s to describe  Only specific things can be “possessed” or “owned” possession: “my sister‟s children”  Hmong, Spanish, Tagalog  Use of a prepositional phrase  “the children of my sister” to express possession reflects a more common structure © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • The 7 Step PRISIM Process© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 7 Steps for Separating Difference & Disability Step 1 Building & Sustaining a Foundation for Learning Step 2 Establishing & Supporting Resiliency Step 3 Instructional Intervention & Differentiated Instruction Step 4 Intensive Intervention with Progress Monitoring Step 5 Resolution or Referral Step 6 Integrated Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Step 7 Maintaining Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • PRISIM Step 1: Building & Sustaining a Foundation for Learning Systems & policies promote and sustain: •Access to safety, food, clothing, & shelter •Quality preparation of effective education professionals & support staff •Adequacy of school facilities & resources •Consistent use of culturally & linguistically responsive, evidence-based practices •Supportive responsive relationships •Other effective practices & procedures© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • PRISIM Application Step 1Building & Sustaining a What will you have inFoundation for Learning your foundation? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes
  • PRISIM Step 2: Establishing & Supporting Resiliency Building Literacy foundation Facilitating Readiness Skills TPR Facilitating & Sustaining Readiness to Learn Bilingual Sustaining Oral Proficiency L1© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Five Standards for Effective Instruction Joint Productive Activity Language & Literacy Development Contextualize to Make Meaning Challenging Activities Instructional Conversation © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Look at the Home Language Survey on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • What Bilingual Type is José at this point in time? High L1 Low L1 High L2 Type 1 Type 3 Low L2 Type 2 Type 4© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Two questions you should be able to answer about acculturation at enrollment 1. What is the student‟s current level of acculturation? 2. What is the caregiver‟s current level of acculturation?© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Look at José‟s profile and his baseline AQS.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Look at the Resiliency Checklist on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Look at the 1st Classroom Language Interaction Checklist on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Strategy Fitness!© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • What We Recommend For Step 21. Identify student‟s home language proficiency & use to support academic interventions.2. Measure student‟s level of acculturation to school and use to implement appropriate instruction & intervention.3. Measure the student‟s „classroom language‟ in all communication modes & use to design appropriate instruction & intervention.4. Develop a resiliency & cognitive learning profile useful in implementing effective instruction & intervention.5. Implement strength based instruction & language support.6. Monitor effectiveness of instruction & intervention.
  • PRISIM Application Step 2Establishing & Supporting How will you facilitateResiliency resiliency in your students? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes
  • PRISIM Step 3: Instructional Intervention & Differentiated Instruction Self monitoring Literacy Readiness Skills Visualization Analogies Expanded TPR Transitional Bilingual Oral Proficiency L1© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Specific Needs = Specific Strategies_____________in Doesn’t get work = Self checklist_____________ to think Does not take time = “STOP” strategies_____________ Cannot organize tasks = Graphic organizers_____________ Makes noises to distract = Guided practice_____________do work Says it’s no use to = Self concept activities____________ work Does not initiate = Active processing_____________& Confuses English = Compare & contrast, Spanish phonemes rhymes, games © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Two questions you should be able to answer about acculturation when planning intervention. 1. What is the current level of acculturation? 2. Is the rate of acculturation normal?© 201 2 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Look at the 2 nd AQS on José.© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Calculating Rate of Acculturation _______ x _______ = __________ Years btwn AQS Minimum Gain Normal Gain Expected _______ Current Score - _______ = __________ Baseline Score Point Gain Achieved Normal is a ratio of 1 < Achieved divided by Expected > 1 = Normal Above 1 Below 1 5 / 8 = .625 10 / 8 = 1.24© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Five questions you should be able to answer about instructional needs 1. What are the student‟s instructional needs? 2. What interventions are needed? 3. In what order should the interventions be implemented? 4. For how long should the interventions be implemented? 5. How will I monitor their effectiveness?© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Look at the 1st Sociocultural Checklist on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Models of Progress Monitoring  RTI Standard Protocol  RTI Continuous  Response to Instruction and Intervention  Problem Solving with Progress Monitoring© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • What we recommend for Step 31. Implement specific strength & need based interventions that facilitate learning.2. Monitor effectiveness of instruction & intervention strategies. Modify based upon student‟s response to the strategy.3. Monitor effectiveness of instruction and intervention in relation to student‟s home language proficiency.4. Monitor student‟s level & rate of acculturation to school & the effectiveness of instruction & intervention to facilitate.5. Monitor the student‟s „classroom language‟ in all communication modes & the appropriateness of instruction & intervention to expand.6. Monitor resiliency & cognitive learning & effectiveness of instruction & intervention.
  • PRISIM Application Step 3Instructional Intervention & How will you differentiateDifferentiated Instruction instruction & intervention? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes
  • PRISIM Step 4: Intensive Intervention with Progress Monitoring 3D pie charts Stepped proximics Literacy Readiness Skills Miscue analysis© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Strategy Fitness!© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Four questions you should be able to answer about language 1. What is the student‟s current social language proficiency in both languages? 2. What is the student‟s current academic language proficiency in both languages? 3. Is the rate of development & acquisition normal? 4. What are the most effective instructional strategies to use?© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Look at José‟s2nd language proficiency information.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Look at the 2 nd Sociocultural Checklist on José.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Order of Intervention Duration of Outcomes of Concern Selected Intervention Intervention Academic Area(s) Prioritization of RTI Order of Intervention Duration of Outcomes of Concern Selected Intervention Intervention Sociocultural Area Acculturation Cognitive Learning Culture & Language Experiential Background Sociolinguistic Development© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • • Preview, do, review Initiate • Stop if no response after 5 days, review strategy • Make minor revisions • Preview, do, review Modify strategy • Stop if no response after 3 days, review • Preview, do, review Start new • Stop if no response after 5 days, review. strategy • Measure and analyze Monitor • Identify what worked and what didn‟t process • Preview, do, review Initiate • Stop if no response after 5 days, review. strategy© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • What we recommend for Step 41. Determine if the rate & level of acculturation to school is normal & analyze pattern of response to intervention & instruction.2. Determine if language gains are normal & analyze pattern of language acquisition.3. Determine if student response to interventions & modification patterns resolve problems & are sustainable.4. Implement & monitor short cycle tightly focused “unanswered” needs based intervention.5. Monitor the response & effectiveness of intervention.
  • PRISIM Application Step 4Intensive Intervention & ProgressMonitoring How will you monitor student progress? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes
  • PRISIM Step 5: Resolution or Referral
  • First Things First  There is no such thing as a nonbiased test.  Assessment is more than testing.  Prevention is better than failure.  Measure progress, not „achievement.‟© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Prior to Formal Evaluation 1. Screen standardized instruments for cultural and linguistic bias. 2. Review administration options for accommodation of language and culture issues. 3. Document how you have accounted for linguistic and cultural differences, and in regard to procedures and instrument selection.© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Evaluation Procedures Each public agency must ensure that tests and other evaluation materials used to assess a child under Part B of IDEA:  are selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis; and  are provided and administered in the child’s native language or other mode of communication, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so.© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Clarifications from the Discussion Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:  In order to properly evaluate a child who may be limited English proficient, a public agency should assess the child’s proficiency in English as well as in his or her native language to distinguish language proficiency from disability needs; and  An accurate assessment of the child’s language proficiency should include objective assessment of reading, writing, speaking, and understanding.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Clarifications (cont.): In some situations, there may be no one on the staff of the public agency who is able to administer a test or other evaluation in the child’s native language, but an appropriate individual is available in the surrounding area. In that case, a public agency could identify an individual in the surrounding area who is able to administer a test or other evaluation in the child’s native language, including contacting neighboring school districts, local universities, and professional organizations.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • What we recommend for Step 5After a formal referral:1. Crosscultural evaluation based upon the outcomes of the instructional intervention2. Test Evaluation Checklist3. CrossCultural Administration of Standardized TestsIf the student is eligible for SE & ESL services:1. Integrated plan of services.2. Cross-cultural IEP.3. Continued language and acculturation support.If the student is not eligible for SE services:1. Integrated plan of services within the general education program.2. Continued language and acculturation support.
  • PRISIM Application Step 5Resolution or Referral How will you decide? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes
  • PRISIM Step 6: Integrated Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Electronic eye piece Accessibility aids 504 Cochlear implant IEP Kurtzweil reader Literacy Readiness Skills Oral Proficiency L1© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • IEP Development The steps involved in IEP development for ELL students with special needs include the development of objectives related to: (a) native language development and English language acquisition, (b) the facilitation of acculturation, (c) special education, (d) the integration of specific culture/language interventions which address special education needs, (e) identification of service providers responsible for implementing and monitoring the integration of these services, and (f) the time limits and scheduled specific re-evaluation formats, dates, and meetings.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Including Diverse Issues on the IEP  A. Does the student have behavior, which impedes his/her learning or the learning of others? Yes No  If yes, consider, if appropriate, strategies including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address that behavior.  Check here if a behavior management plan is developed and attached.  B. Does the student have limited English proficiency? Yes No  If yes, consider the language needs as related to the IEP and describe below.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Integrated Services Intermediate PreProduction Early Speech Intermediate Advanced Advanced Production Emergence Fluency Fluency FluencyNeeds totalassistanceNeeds a great Pull out fordeal ofassistance targeted assistanceNeeds a lot ofassistance Pull out/Push in forHas amoderate targeted assistancelevel of needsHasmoderate butspecific Totalneeds Push in forHas specific José Inclusionneed to beaddressed targeted assistanceNeedsminimalassistance © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • PRISIM Application Step 6Integrated Services How will you integrate& Cross-cultural IEPs services? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes
  • PRISIM Step 7 : Maintaining Staff & Programs Serving CLDE & Families Literacy Readiness Skills Oral Proficiency L1© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • PRISIM Application Step 7Maintaining Staff & Programs How will you maintainServing CLDE personnel readiness? 1. Personnel 2. Families 3. Programs 4. Resources 5. Processes
  • PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Interventi on & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success Step 7 Step 6 Step 5 Literacy Readiness Skills Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Oral Proficiency L1Step 1© 2011 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • © 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Local Action Planning for Service Integration© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 10 Questions to Consider 1. How have I honored the referring teacher‟s concern? 2. Do we have a clear problem solving process in place? 3. Who is the gatekeeper within the ELL program who is contacted for every intervention cycle? 4. To what extent does everyone understand language development? 5. Is the ELL exhibiting atypical performance? 6. To whom is the ELL being compared? 7. What data should I look at for the peer comparison? 8. What role does Response-To-Intervention (RTI) play in the problem solving process? 9. To what extent are parents involved? 10. To what extent are district ELL/Special Ed trends being scrutinized? OSPI, Migrant, and Bilingual Staff 2009© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 1. How have I honored the referringteacher‟s concern? Do‟s Don‟t  Respect that the teacher  Dismiss the teacher‟s wants the child to succeed. concerns as unimportant or  Respect that the teacher is foolish (this leads to stealth probably doing the best she referrals and a competition can with what she knows. to qualify an ELL just out of  Respect the teacher‟s spite). understanding of pedagogy.  Make the teacher feel  Offer immediate assistance ignorant because she doesn‟t – observations, co- have a background in ELL planning, modifications. issues.  Promise something that you can‟t/won‟t deliver on.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 2. Do we have a clear problem solvingprocess in place?  Create a process with a multi-disciplinary team: Special Ed “best friend”, content and/or grade- level teacher, administrator, ELL staff.  Get approval for the process and communicate it often to all staff.  Avoid an overwhelmingly complex process if the majority of referrals are based on simple misinformation.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 3. Who is the gatekeeper within ELL who iscontacted for every intervention cycle?  No one has all the knowledge about ELL/Special Ed referrals, but …  When a Special Ed or ELL staff person suggests that “Yes, this kid probably is Special Ed” before knowing all the facts, it is difficult to bring any contradictory information to the table.  Many ELLs are referred because they were referred at an earlier grade.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 4. To what extent does everyoneunderstand language development? Avoid these common fallacies:  No English = No intelligence/learning  Social, oral language (BICS) = academic language (CALPs)  Judging GLEs without ELD standards  Ignoring time as a crucial factor in language development  Ignoring the role of dominant language© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 5. Is the ELL exhibiting atypicalperformance?  Franklin Bender “Difference vs. Disability: The Continuum of Working with English Language Learners” from National CEU. www.NationalCEU.com  Catherine Collier “Separating Difference from Disability” www.crosscultured.com  Evaluation and Assessment in Early Childhood Special Education: Children Who Are Culturally and Linguistically Diverse www.k12.wa.us/SpecialEd/pubdocs/CLD.doc© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 6. To whom is the ELL student beingcompared?  A peer analysis is critical in determining if the student‟s performance is atypical.  The ideal peer group are ELLs, same language background, same time in program, same grade of entry in school.  Scour district longitudinal data and find as large a peer group as possible© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 7. What data should I look at for thepeer comparison?  Years in program  Entry grade  Language proficiency levels  State benchmark test scores  Mobility  Parent input  There is always more to find out…© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 8. What role does Response-To-Intervention(RTI) play in the problem solving process? There is great promise […] in using an RTI approach for many reasons. First, the universal screening and progress monitoring called for in the RTI process allow for comparison of students to other similar or “true” peers in their local cohort rather than to national norms. Second, an effective RTI model requires collaboration among all educators (e.g. speech and language therapists, school psychologists, counselors, English as a second language/Bilingual specialist) thereby providing increased opportunities for professional dialogue, peer coaching, and the creation of instructional models integrating best practices of the various fields of education and related services. Source: “A Cultural, Linguistic, and Ecological Framework for Response to Intervention with English Language Learners” Julie Esparza Brown, Portland State University, 2008.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 9. To what extent are parents involved?  Parents need to be contacted early in a language they understand regarding the teacher‟s concerns.  Parents need to be educated about language development and differences between siblings, the role of 1st language literacy, etc.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • 10. To what extent are districtELL/Special Ed trends being scrutinized? Sometimes individual schools and staff are unable to notice trends in referrals across the district.© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • What Works© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Five Things that Work in RTI for ELL 1. Adequate Professional Knowledge 2. Effective Instruction 3. Valid Assessments & Interventions 4. Collaboration Between District Departments 5. Clear Policies© 2012 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Indicators that validate the need for SPED evaluation Poor communicative proficiency in the home as compared to siblings and age peers in bilingual environments, especially when this lack is noticed by the parents. English language development that appears to be significantly different than that of peers who are also learning English as a additional language. Documentation that student‟s acquisition of English is within normal range for his peer group, age, culture/language population, length of time in ESL, etc. but there are specific learning and/or behavior problems unrelated to culture shock or language transition. Specific sensory, neurological, organic, motor, or other conditions that impact learning and behavior when having reliable documentation that culture shock or language transition contributes but is not the determining factor for the learning and behavior problems. Student is demonstrating limited phrasing and vocabulary in both languages indicating that she has not acquired morphologic structures by the appropriate age. Again, both languages may be marked by a short length of utterance Student‟s response to specific structured interventions addressing his presenting problem is documented to be more than 40% below ELL/CLD peers within individualized instructional intervention. © 2011 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Recommendations Achievement Progress Monitoring 1. Modify format 1. Clear begin/end criteria  Selection Taxonomy for ELL 2. Peer appropriate Accommodations (STELLA) performance outcomes  Bilingual dictionaries  Expand time 3. Local norms &  Open book benchmarks 2. Administer in 4. Discrete steps dual/multiple languages 5. Strategy fitness 3. Task analysis 6. Consistent & regular 4. Local norms & monitoring benchmarks 7. Short cycles© 2012Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Best Practice Educators 1.Remain informed 2. Use differentiation 3. Facilitate resiliencyBe Prepared for anything and keep a Initiateof humor! 4. sense communication 5. Monitor adaptation & response 6. Facilitate interaction!
  • Contact Information Catherine Collier, Ph.D. @AskDrCollier (Twitter) catherine@crosscultured.com 360-483-5658 fax Facebook: CrossCultural Developmental Education Services www.crosscultured.com
  • Thank you! Come visit us at www.crosscultured.com  Over 45 years experience.  Research on impact of acculturation on referral & placement of CLD students.  Research on effectiveness of specific cognitive learning strategies for diverse learners.  Classroom teacher, diagnostician, faculty, admi nistrator.  Social justice advocate, author & teacher educator.