Making RTI Culturally &Linguistically Responsive to          Families           Dr. Catherine Collier       catherine@cros...
RTI Progress MonitoringRTI is a function of regular education thatemphasizes preventing learning difficulties beforethey s...
What is RTI?                    Response to Intervention (RTI) is aTypical Model       multi-step approach to providing   ...
Disproportionality WA                     NonELL      ELL            12.90%    5.80%                                   .6%...
ELL Representation PatternsStudents in English        ELLs who are “parentimmersion programs are     denials” are the most...
Is RTI the answer to disproportionaterepresentation of ELL? Only if approaches are culturally and linguistically responsiv...
DefinitionsCulture                      Learning Disability Cognition The concept of things         Difficulty in perceivi...
Culture & Child RearingVertical vs horizontalInstruct vs allowIndulgent vs strictAdult vs peersInward vs outwardNuclear vs...
But avoid stereotyping!                Sometimes it is easier to                understand culturally diverse             ...
Expectations                  © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier               © 2012 Dr. CatherineReserved                     ...
RTI is more than reading!                            © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier                                    All R...
INDIVIDUAL                 Unique experiences,                 Ways we are less                  insights, personal       ...
Common Side-Effects Ofthe Acculturation Process              Heightened Anxiety              Confusion in Locus of        ...
The Intensity of CultureShock is Cyclical               Anticipation   Spectator   Increasing      Shock   Adaptation   An...
7 Steps for Separating Difference & Disability Step 1 Building & Sustaining a Foundation for Learning Step 2 Establishing ...
PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction,  Strategies, Intervention & Monitoring          Learning created with building...
IDEA Evaluation ProceduresEach public agency must ensure that tests and otherevaluation materials used to assess a child u...
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964In order to properly evaluate a child who may be limitedEnglish proficient, a publ...
IDEA Evaluation Procedures If the native language or other mode of    communication of the parent is not a written    lang...
Family support practices  Promote long term relationships  Incorporate a variety of educational experiences  Meet parents ...
Thank you! Come visit us at  www.crosscultured.comOver 45 years experience.Research on impact of acculturation onreferral ...
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Making RTI Responsive for ELL Families

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This is my presentation for the Special Education Special Interest Group at the National Association for Bilingual Education.

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  • Here is an example from Washington state in the U.S. of what this looks like. In the table are shown data comparing ELL and nonELL student identification in Special Education categories. As you can see, there is disproportionate representation in specific areas while there is over placement in the specific learning disabilities category for ELL students. Additionally, the data for specific learning disabilities is shown in summary = 5.8% SLD among nonELL but 12.9% among ELL. This is disproportionate without some very outré justification like all of the ELL students were exposed to strange radiation prior to birth or some such.
  • Educators have become increasingly aware in recent years of the central role that culture plays in learning and teaching. Staff and students bring to the classroom values about education, work habits, interaction norms, and ways of knowing that were learned in the home and community.No one leaves their cultures at the school door. It is, therefore, imperative that education professionals gain greater awareness of how their culture affects their behaviors, and how the intersection of diverse cultures can impact classroom dynamics and outcomes.Culture is what people know, what they do, and what they make and use. Culture shapes the way we think (cognition), the way we interact (behavior), the way we communicate (language), and the way we transmit knowledge to the next generation (education). Everything we do is influenced by our culture. Culture pervades our ways of thinking, behaving, and believing. How we spend our time, how we teach and treat, how we test and measure, and what we do for fun are all affected by culture.Culture is always both (1) explicit – that which people can describe, such as foods, festivals, dress and (2) implicit - that which people know and do unconsciously and would have trouble describing.All cultural groups teach their children; however, how and what is taught (and why) varies considerably among cultures.
  • Cultural expectations and understanding underlie intervention focus and selection. Age and developmental appropriateness. The psychological adaptation of the learner in the school and the family and community context.
  • Excerpt from the book “Seven Steps for Separating Difference and Disability” , 2010, Corwin Press
  • Making RTI Responsive for ELL Families

    1. 1. Making RTI Culturally &Linguistically Responsive to Families Dr. Catherine Collier catherine@crosscultured.com
    2. 2. RTI Progress MonitoringRTI is a function of regular education thatemphasizes preventing learning difficulties beforethey start and eliminating the need for a student tofail before intervention is available.At-risk students are assessed frequently on specificskills throughout the year to determine if theintervention being used is effective and if thestudent is responding as intended. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    3. 3. What is RTI? Response to Intervention (RTI) is aTypical Model multi-step approach to providing services to struggling students. Tier 3 Teachers provide instruction and interventions to them at increasing levels of intensity. They also monitor the progress students make Tier 2 at each intervention level and use the assessment results to decide whether the students need Tier 1 additional instruction or intervention in general education or referral to special education. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    4. 4. Disproportionality WA NonELL ELL 12.90% 5.80% .6% 4.40% 2.50% .10% LD EBD AS © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    5. 5. ELL Representation PatternsStudents in English ELLs who are “parentimmersion programs are denials” are the mostreferred at higher rates likely to be referred andthan those in bilingual placed.programs. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    6. 6. Is RTI the answer to disproportionaterepresentation of ELL? Only if approaches are culturally and linguistically responsive and address both system and student issues. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    7. 7. DefinitionsCulture Learning Disability Cognition The concept of things Difficulty in perceiving The process by which that particular people and manipulating individuals use as models of patterns in the perceive, relate to, and perceiving, relating, and environment, whether interpret their interpreting their patterns of environment. environment. sounds, symbols, numbe rs, or behaviors. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    8. 8. Culture & Child RearingVertical vs horizontalInstruct vs allowIndulgent vs strictAdult vs peersInward vs outwardNuclear vs communal © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    9. 9. But avoid stereotyping! Sometimes it is easier to understand culturally diverse families in terms of group attributes. But individual families are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    10. 10. Expectations © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier © 2012 Dr. CatherineReserved All Rights Collier All Rights Reserved
    11. 11. RTI is more than reading! © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    12. 12. INDIVIDUAL Unique experiences, Ways we are less insights, personal like other people. reflections. ACCULTURATION Perceptions, social & behavior patterns, language, etc. learned from interaction with new group(s). Ways we are ENCULTURATION more like other Perceptions, social and behavior patterns, people. language, values, etc. learned from caregivers. THE BASICS OF BEING HUMANSensory abilities, linguistic wiring, genetic and biologic heritage, innate abilities, etc. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    13. 13. Common Side-Effects Ofthe Acculturation Process Heightened Anxiety Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    14. 14. The Intensity of CultureShock is Cyclical Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase PhaseHighlyEngagedLevelModeratelyEngagedLevelNormalIntensity ofEmotionsModeratelyDepressedLevelGreatlyDepressedLevel © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    15. 15. 7 Steps for Separating Difference & Disability Step 1 Building & Sustaining a Foundation for Learning Step 2 Establishing & Supporting Resiliency Step 3 Instructional Intervention & Differentiated Instruction Step 4 Intensive Intervention with Progress Monitoring Step 5 Resolution or Referral Step 6 Integrated Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Step 7 Maintaining Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    16. 16. PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Intervention & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success 3D pie charts Stepped proximics Self monitoring Literacy Readiness Miscue analysis Skills Visualization Arithmetic Readiness Skills Analogies TPR TPR for NNE Bilingual Oral Proficiency L1 © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    17. 17. IDEA Evaluation ProceduresEach public agency must ensure that tests and otherevaluation materials used to assess a child underPart B of IDEA:are selected and administered so as not to bediscriminatory on a racial or cultural basis; andare provided and administered in the child’s nativelanguage or other mode of communication, unless it isclearly not feasible to do so. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    18. 18. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964In order to properly evaluate a child who may be limitedEnglish proficient, a public agency should assess thechild’s proficiency in English as well as in his or hernative language to distinguish language proficiencyfrom disability needs; andAn accurate assessment of the child’s languageproficiency should include objective assessment ofreading, writing, speaking, and understanding. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    19. 19. IDEA Evaluation Procedures If the native language or other mode of communication of the parent is not a written language, the public agency must take steps to ensure... • that the notice is translated orally or by other means to the parent in his or her native language or other mode of communication; • that the parent understands the content of the notice; and • that there is written evidence that these two requirements have been met. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    20. 20. Family support practices Promote long term relationships Incorporate a variety of educational experiences Meet parents where they are Build on families’ strengths Acknowledge and address the context in which families exist Work with parents as partners Respond to the practical needs of parents Incorporate outreach efforts Source: Parent Trust of Washington © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    21. 21. Thank you! Come visit us at www.crosscultured.comOver 45 years experience.Research on impact of acculturation onreferral & placement of CLD students.Research on effectiveness of specificcognitive learning strategies for diverselearners.Classroomteacher, diagnostician, faculty, administrator.Social justice advocate, author & teachereducator. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
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