Dream Day: RTI for ELL
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Dream Day: RTI for ELL

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TESOL 2011 Dream Day presentation by Dr. Collier on RTI and ELL students.

TESOL 2011 Dream Day presentation by Dr. Collier on RTI and ELL students.

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Dream Day: RTI for ELL Dream Day: RTI for ELL Document Transcript

  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 Separating Differences & Disabilities Dr. Catherine Collier CrossCultural Developmental Education Services catherine@crosscultured.com www.crosscultured.com Growth in Native Born LEP First Generation Second Generation Third + Generation 20% 40% 40%© 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier © 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved All Rights Reserved English Language by Generation 100 90 80 70 60 50 97 92 40 74 30 20 10 8 0 English Proficiency 1st Generation 2nd Generation 2 2nd Generation 1 3rd Generation© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 1
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 National HS Completion Rates 2005 80% 70% 60% National 50% Black 40% Hispanic 30% AmerIndian 20% 10% 0% Completion four years after enrollment© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved National Disproportionality in Sped 2006 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hispanic Black Asian/PI American Indian Total Enrollment 18.51 14.91 4.2 0.97 Emotional Disturbance 15.9 28.79 1.12 1.56 Learning Disability 21.23 20.52 1.7 1.74 Intellectual Disability 16.27 20.6 2.19 1.53 © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Disproportionality for ELL 2010 Underrepresented in special education overall Overrepresented in specific categories: • Speech/language Impairments (SI) • Learning Disabilities (LD) • LD/SI combination © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 2
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 ELL Representation Patterns Students in English Students in special immersion programs are education tend to have referred at higher rates than limited language skills in those in bilingual programs. both L1 and L2 ELLs who are “parent • Often this is waivers” are the most likely pedagogically induced to be referred and placed. • Inadequate instruction results in: • Native language loss • Limited English proficiency © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Policy Driving Practice A student must not be determined to be eligible for special education services if the determinant factor is: 1. Lack of appropriate instruction in reading, based upon the states grade level standards; 2. Lack of appropriate instruction in math; or 3. Limited English proficiency. In interpreting evaluation data for the purpose of determining eligibility for special education services, each school district must draw upon information from a variety of sources, including aptitude and achievement tests, parent input, and teacher recommendations, as well as information about the students physical condition, social or cultural background, and adaptive behavior. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved INDIVIDUAL Unique experiences, Ways we are less insights, personal like other people. reflections. ACCULTURATION Perceptions, social & behavior patterns, language, etc. learned from interaction with new group(s). Ways we are ENCULTURATION more like other Perceptions, social and behavior patterns, people. language, values, etc. learned from caregivers. THE BASICS OF BEING HUMAN Sensory abilities, linguistic wiring, genetic and biologic heritage, innate abilities, etc. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 3
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 The role of culture  Educators have become increasingly aware in recent years of the central role that culture plays in learning and teaching. Staff and students bring to the classroom values about education, work habits, interaction norms, and ways of knowing that were learned in the home and community.  No one leaves their cultures at the school door. It is, therefore, imperative that education professionals gain greater awareness of how their culture affects their behaviors, and how the intersection of diverse cultures can impact classroom dynamics and outcomes. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved A definition of culture  Culture is what people know, what they do, and what they make and use. Culture shapes the way we think (cognition), the way we interact (behavior), the way we communicate (language), and the way we transmit knowledge to the next generation (education).  All cultural groups teach their children; however, how and what is taught (and why) varies considerably among cultures. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Culture as Negotiated Interactions Culture would be better conceived as an imagined community of social action and interactions. Culture is understood as the intersection in which people appropriate the different interaction tools available to them at a particular time and place, thus inevitably also resulting in building their own social identity. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 4
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 Potential Sources of Cultural mismatch All students do not share the Language experiences and background Culture knowledge that teachers, History textbooks, and curriculum standards may assume. Religion Children from culturally and Socioeconomic status linguistically different backgrounds have different Urban-rural context experiences and knowledge than Risk factors (number/severity) mainstream teachers and children. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Become aware of the contexts shaping CLD student learning Knowing your students involves becoming familiar with the sociocultural contexts that help shape students’ ways of learning. It also involves understanding the dynamic relationship between group culture and individual difference. Individualizing curriculum and instruction for culturally & linguistically diverse (CLD) students is a critical component of the adaptation process. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Be aware of cultural productions Sometimes it is easier to understand students in terms of group attributes. But individuals are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 5
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 Why is cultural adaptation so important? Culturally inappropriate mainstream ideas that have become institutionalized have harmed and disempowered minority groups. Culturally relevant interventions generally have a higher level of “buy-in” from participants. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved What we know We need to know more than what works….. We need to know what works with WHOM © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Cognition & Culture The concept of things that particular people use as models of perceiving, relating, and interpreting their environment. The process by which individuals perceive, relate to, and interpret their environment. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 6
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 Cultural Perceptions: Colors Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple Rojo Naranja Amarillo Verde Azul Morado Rouge Orange Jaune Vert Bleu Pourpre Rot Orange Gelb Grün Blau Purpurn Ruber Luteus Flavus Viridius Caeruleus Viola Łi’chíí Łi’tso Dootł’izh Kaverliq Esirliq Cungagliq Qiuliq © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Universal Cultural Perceptions: Colors Blanco Weiss Tungulria The only Łizhin universal Łiba color words are black & white. Schwarz Qatellria Negro © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights ReservedHuman Universals The ability to feel sadness, happiness, anger, fear and disgust is universal. Classification: kin, age, behavioral propensities, body parts, emotions, & more. Logical notions: ‘not’, ‘opposite’, ‘same’, ‘part/whole’, ‘and’, ‘general/particular’, & ‘equivalent’. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 7
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 Cultural Perceptions: Discourse English Spanish Slovak Chinese Navajo Spiritual Mental Social Physical © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Heightened Anxiety Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights ReservedThe Intensity of CultureShock is Cyclical Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase PhaseHighlyEngagedLevelModeratelyEngagedLevelNormalIntensity ofEmotionsModeratelyDepressedLevelGreatlyDepressedLevel © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 8
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 Assimilation Integration Home/heritage replaced by Home/heritage blended with School/new culture and language School/new culture and language Usually takes three generations Develops, but can start in first generation Deculturation/Marginalization Rejection Loss of Home/heritage without Intentional rejection of transition to Home/heritage OR of School/new culture and language School/new culture and language Psychologically/socially Usually temporary at certain age- destructive related growth stages © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Another way to see this – + + Assimilation: football replaces futbol Integration: football and futbol in context – Deculturation: gang turf instead of ball games Rejection: only football or futbol © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Acculturation Measurements Acculturation Quick Screen Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identity (AQS) Acculturation Scale Acculturation Rating Scale for The African American Mexican Americans (ARSMA) Acculturation Scale II Latino Youth Acculturation Short Acculturation Scale for Scale (LYAS) Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) Societal, Attitudinal, Familial, Orthogonal Cultural & Environmental Acculturative Identification Scale (OCIS) Stress Scale (SAFE) Behavioral Acculturation Scale © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 9
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 Sam Ortiz’ Grid High L1 Low L1 CALP + BICS BICS only High L2 Type 1 Type 3 Equal proficiency Atypical ELL CALP +  “true bilingual” “acceptable bilingual” BICS Low L2 Type 2 Type 4 Typical ELL At‐risk ELL BICS only “high potential” “difference vs disorder” issues © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Why do they do that? ERROR IN ENGLISH POSSESSIVE FORMS NON ENGLISH LANGUAGE No marker for possessive forms: Khmer, Vietnamese “my friend’s house” • A noun’s owner comes • “house my friend” after the object Avoid use of ‘s to describe Navajo, Apache possession: “my sister’s children” • Only specific things can be • “the children of my sister” “possessed” or “owned” Hmong, Spanish, Tagalog • Use of a prepositional phrase to express possession reflects a more common structure © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Teacher’s Resource Guide of Language Transfer Issues for English Language Learners This booklet is part of the On Our Way Spanish to English series published by Rigby. It Vietnamese is an excellent stand-alone resource for ELL and K-12 teachers working with Hmong speakers of the following languages: Haitian Creole The booklet contains background Cantonese information about the populations speaking these languages as well as Korean specific grammar and phonics transfer Khmer issues. Russian ISBN 978-0757869662 Arabic www.rigby.com Tagalog © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 10
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 rêve Translation Issues sans fin dream dream  ni trêve on without end and on nor rest à rien dream on a nothing dream dream dream without end without cease without break nor truce mend or treaty asleep anyseem of peace or awake © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Shared Characteristics of ELLs & Students with Disabilities Articulation, Poor spelling pronunciation errors Short attention span Poor comprehension frequently off-task Forgets easily Cannot work Cannot follow directions independently Poor oral language skills Does not complete tasks Syntactical and Anxious grammatical errors Poor motivation Low vocabulary Distractible Reading below grade level Low self-esteem Shy, withdrawn © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Reminder! A CLD/ELL student may have learning and behavior problems due to language and cultural differences and problems due to a possible disability. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 11
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 What we recommend prior to beginning problem solving 1. Have support structures and programs in place to facilitate learning 2. Determine the current/baseline level of acculturation 3. Find out the Home Language(s) 4. Language Screening 5. Plan for monitoring student progress © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights ReservedTwo questions you should be able toanswer about acculturation whenplanning intervention. 1. What is the current level of acculturation? 2. Is the rate of acculturation normal? © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Four questions you should be able to answer about language 1. What is the student’s current social language proficiency in both languages? 2. What is the student’s current academic language proficiency in both languages? 3. Is the rate of development & acquisition normal? 4. What are the most effective instructional strategies to use? © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 12
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 What we recommend for developing effective instruction & intervention 1. Measure the student’s ‘classroom language’ in all communication modes 2. Use acculturation, resiliency & cognitive screening to create a learning profile 3. Develop strength based instruction & language support appropriate for the level of acculturation & language acquisition. 4. Monitor effectiveness of instruction & specific strategies. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved First Things First There is no such thing as a nonbiased test. Assessment is more than testing. Prevention is better than failure. Measure progress, not ‘achievement.’ © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Prior to Formal Evaluation 1. Screen standardized instruments for cultural and linguistic bias. 2. Review administration options for accommodation of language and culture issues. 3. Document how you have accounted for linguistic and cultural differences, and in regard to procedures and instrument selection. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 13
  • CrossCultural Developmental Education Services 2/18/2011 3 Questions to Consider 1. Is the ELL student exhibiting atypical performance? 1. Acculturation & adaptation? 2. Language development? 3. Language acquisition? 2. To whom is the ELL being compared & what data should I look at for the peer comparison? 1. Same age, culture, home language, ethnicity, etc. 2. Same length of time in program & services. 3. Prior literacy & instruction. 4. Other issues and data. 3. To what extent are district ELL/Special Ed trends being scrutinized? © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights ReservedIndicators that validate the needfor SPED evaluation Poor communicative proficiency in the home as compared to siblings and age peers in bilingual environments, especially when this lack is noticed by the parents. English language development that appears to be significantly different than that of peers who are also learning English as a Second Language. Noted developmental delays or other at-risk conditions when compared to other family members or age peers. © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved Contact Information Catherine Collier, Ph.D. 360-380-7513 voice 360-650-4673 campus catherine@crosscultured.com Catherine.Collier@wwu.edu Curriculum Integration for Responsive Crosscultural Language Education (CIRCLE) Western Washington University © 2010 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved 14