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Culturally & Linguistically Responsive RTI

Culturally & Linguistically Responsive RTI



Here are slides for my concurrent session at NABE in Dallas "Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Response to Intervention".

Here are slides for my concurrent session at NABE in Dallas "Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Response to Intervention".



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  • Educators have become increasingly aware in recent years of the central role that culture plays in learning and teaching. Staff and students bring to the classroom values about education, work habits, interaction norms, and ways of knowing that were learned in the home and community.No one leaves their cultures at the school door. It is, therefore, imperative that education professionals gain greater awareness of how their culture affects their behaviors, and how the intersection of diverse cultures can impact classroom dynamics and outcomes.Culture is what people know, what they do, and what they make and use. Culture shapes the way we think (cognition), the way we interact (behavior), the way we communicate (language), and the way we transmit knowledge to the next generation (education). Everything we do is influenced by our culture. Culture pervades our ways of thinking, behaving, and believing. How we spend our time, how we teach and treat, how we test and measure, and what we do for fun are all affected by culture.Culture is always both (1) explicit – that which people can describe, such as foods, festivals, dress and (2) implicit - that which people know and do unconsciously and would have trouble describing.All cultural groups teach their children; however, how and what is taught (and why) varies considerably among cultures.
  • Research over the last several years shows a pattern of fewer limited English proficient students receiving services for their special needs in general due largely to changes in laws and litigation, but also to misunderstandings about what the law says and what is needed. At the same time, an increasing disproportionate number of diverse learners are being identified with disabilities in speech, language, and specific learning disabilities and placed in special education programs.
  • Here is an example from Washington state in the U.S. of what this looks like. In the table are shown data comparing ELL and nonELL student identification in Special Education categories. As you can see, there is disproportionate representation in specific areas while there is over placement in the specific learning disabilities category for ELL students. Additionally, the data for specific learning disabilities is shown in summary = 5.8% SLD among nonELL but 12.9% among ELL. This is disproportionate without some very outré justification like all of the ELL students were exposed to strange radiation prior to birth or some such.
  • Cultural expectations and understanding underlie intervention focus and selection. Age and developmental appropriateness. The psychological adaptation of the learner in the school and the family and community context.
  • Pragmatics:The rules governing social interactions (e.g. turn taking, maintaining topic of conversation).Difference: Social responses to language are based on cultural background (e.g., comfort level in asking or responding to questions) Pauses between turns or overlaps in conversation are similar to those of peers with the same linguistic and cultural background.Disability: Social use of language or lack thereof is inappropriate (e.g., topic of lesson is rocks and the student continues to discuss events that occurred at home without saying how they relate to rocks).  Syntax:The rules governing the order, grammar, and form of phrases or sentences Difference: Grammatical errors due to native language influences (e.g., student may omit initial verb in a question—You like cake? (omission of Do)). Word order in L1 may differ from that of English (e.g., in Arabic sentences are ordered verb-subject-object while Urdu sentences are ordered subject-object-verb).Disability: Grammatical structures continue to be inappropriate in both languages even after extensive instruction (e.g., student cannot produce the past tense in either Spanish or English indicating difficulty with grammatical tenses). Semantics:The rules pertaining to both the underlying and the surface meaning of phrases and sentencesDifference: A student whose native language is Korean may have difficulty using pronouns, as they do notexist in his/her native language. A student may use words from L1 in productions in L2 because of his inability or unfamiliarity of the vocabulary in L2 (e.g., “The car is muyrapido.” In this case, the student knows the concept as well as the needed structure but cannot remember the vocabulary).Disability: Student is demonstrating limited phrasing and vocabulary in both languages (e.g., his/her sentences in both languages demonstrate limited or no use of adjectives and adverbs and both languages are marked by a short length of utterance). Morphology:The rules concerning the construction of words from meaningful unitsDifference: Native speakers of Russian may not use articles as they do no exist in that language. A student whose native language is Spanish may omit the possessive (‘s’) when producing an utterance in English (e.g., “Joe crayon broke” or he will say “the crayon of Joe broke,” applying a structure that is influence by the rules of his/her L1. He/she still demonstrates understanding of the morphologic structure for possession but is demonstrating errors in structure that are directly influenced by his/her L1.)Disability: Student’s productions in both languages demonstrate a lack of the possessive form indicating that he/she has not acquired this morphologic structure by the appropriate age. Again, both languages may be marked by a short length of utterance 
  • A recent movement in schools is the implementation of multitiered models of service delivery. Known as response to intervention (RTI; Barnes& Harlacher, 2008; Jimerson, Burns, & VanDerHeyden, 2007; NASDSE, 2006), multitiered systems of support (MTSS, Kansas Multi-Tiered Systems of Support, n.d.), or instructional decision making (IDM; Ikeda et al., 2002), these models refer to a tiered framework of services in which researchbased instruction is matched to the “data-based needs of students” (Graden, Stollar,& Poth, 2007, p.295). This approach to education, which is referred to as RTI for the remainder of this article, has a philosophical background of prevention, early identification, collaboration, and use of research-based, effective practices (Brown-Chidsey,& Steege, 2005; NASDSE).Within the literature, there is slight variation on what are the key components of RTI. For example, the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE, 2006) and St. Croix Education River District (SCRED, n.d.) identified multiple tiers of intervention, a problem-solving orientation, and the use of an integrated data collection system as the three key components of RTI. Comparatively, Brown-Chidsey and Steege (2005) wrote that RTI’s core features are high-quality instruction, frequent assessment, and data-based decision making. Other sites have added to these features. For example, Colorado’s Department of Education (n.d.) lists six features of RTI: problem solving, curriculum and instruction, assessment, leadership, family and community partnering, and positive school climate (Colorado Department of Education, n.d.). Kansas’ State Department of Education has identified assessment, instruction, and problem solving as components of their RTI model, but also included leadership, professional development, and empowering culture as other components (Kansas MTSS, n.d.). Although some states and researchers may use different language or identify additional components, three common components comprise any RTI model: (a) a comprehensive assessment system; (b) a range of effective, research-based instruction (embodied in tiers or levels); and (c) use of the problem solving model (Shin, 2008).
  • Excerpt from the book “Seven Steps for Separating Difference and Disability” , 2010, Corwin Press

Culturally & Linguistically Responsive RTI Culturally & Linguistically Responsive RTI Presentation Transcript

  • Culturally & LinguisticallyResponsive Response to Intervention Dr. Catherine Collier catherine@crosscultured.com
  • The Bottom Line CLD/LEP must be able to participate effectively (at or near peer) in all programs and content areas. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • DefinitionsCulture Learning Disability CognitionThe concept of Difficulty in perceiving The process by whichthings that and manipulating individualsparticular people patterns in the perceive, relate to, anduse as models of environment, whether interpret theirperceiving, relatin patterns of environment.g, and sounds, symbols, numbeinterpreting their rs, or behaviors.environment. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • But avoid stereotyping!  Sometimes it is easier to understand culturally diverse families in terms of group attributes. But individual families are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Expectations © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Disproportionality for EAL/ELL/SEL  Underrepresented in special education overall  Overrepresented in specific categories: – Speech/language Impairments (SI) – Learning Disabilities (LD) © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Disproportionality WA NonELL ELL 12.90% 5.80% .6% 4.40% 2.50% .10% LD EBD AS © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Disability - Legality Disability cannot be measured solely on the ability to do certain tasks. Disability depends also on the ease with which they perform activities that are of central importance to most people‟s daily lives. The disability must also be permanent or long- lasting. O‟Conner, U.S. Supreme Court (2002) © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • RTI is more than reading! © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • INDIVIDUAL Unique experiences, Ways we are less insights, personal like other people. reflections. ACCULTURATION Perceptions, social & behavior patterns, language, etc. learned from interaction with new group(s). Ways we are ENCULTURATION more like other Perceptions, social and behavior patterns, people. language, values, etc. learned from caregivers. THE BASICS OF BEING HUMANSensory abilities, linguistic wiring, genetic and biologic heritage, innate abilities, etc. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Heightened AnxietyConfusion in Locus of ControlWithdrawalSilence/unresponsivenessResponse FatigueCode-switchingDistractibilityResistance to ChangeDisorientationStress Related Behaviors © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • The Intensity of Culture Shock is Cyclical Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase PhaseHighlyEngagedLevelModeratelyEngagedLevelNormalIntensity ofEmotionsModeratelyDepressedLevelGreatlyDepressedLevel © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Why do they do that? Error in English Non English language Possessive forms  Khmer, Vietnamese No marker for possessive – A noun‟s owner comes forms: “my friend‟s after the object house”  Navajo, Apache – “house my friend” – Only specific things can be “possessed” or “owned” Avoid use of „s to  Hmong, Spanish, Tagalo describe possession: “my g sister‟s children” – Use of a prepositional – “the children of my sister” phrase to express possession reflects a more common structure © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • Five Things that Work in Intervention for EL1. Adequate Professional Knowledge2. Effective Instruction3. Valid Assessments & Interventions4. Collaboration Between District Departments5. Clear Policies © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • 7 Steps for Separating Difference & Disability Step 1 Building & Sustaining a Foundation for Learning Step 2 Establishing & Supporting Resiliency Step 3 Instructional Intervention & Differentiated Instruction Step 4 Intensive Intervention with Progress Monitoring Step 5 Resolution or Referral Step 6 Integrated Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Step 7 Maintaining Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  • PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Interventio n & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success 3D pie charts Stepped proximics Self monitoring Literacy Readiness SkillsMiscue analysis Visualization Arithmetic Readiness Skills Analogies TPR TPR for NNE Bilingual Oral Proficiency L1
  • Evaluation Procedures Each public agency must ensure that tests and other evaluation materials used to assess a child under Part B of IDEA:  are selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis; and  are provided and administered in the child’s native language or other mode of communication, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so.© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Clarifications from the Discussion Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:  In order to properly evaluate a child who may be limited English proficient, a public agency should assess the child’s proficiency in English as well as in his or her native language to distinguish language proficiency from disability needs; and  An accurate assessment of the child’s language proficiency should include objective assessment of reading, writing, speaking, and understanding.© 2010 Dr. Catherine CollierAll Rights Reserved
  • Thank you! Come visit us atwww.crosscultured.com Over 45 years experience. Research on impact of acculturation on referral & placement of CLD students. Research on effectiveness of specific cognitive learning strategies for diverse learners. Classroom teacher, diagnostician, faculty, administrator. Social justice advocate, author & teacher educator. © 2012 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved